Ques 1: Why was the operation Desert Stormy fought against Iraq?
Ans: The Gulf war known as desert storm was fought against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. The result of operation was the overthrow and Trial of Saddam Hussain and the seizure and control of Iraq.
Ques 2: What is the full form of SAARC?
Ans: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.
Ques 3: State any one important objective of United Nations.
Ans: The main objective of United Nations is to maintain international peace and security by establishing friendly relation among nations.
Ques 4: What is meant by 'disarmament'?
Ans: Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons of mass destruction.
Ques 5: Mention the main recommendation of the States Reorganization Commission of 1953.
Ans: The Commission in its report recommended the reorganisation of state boundaries.
Ques 6: Who was the founder of Bharatiya Jana Sangh?
Ans: Shyama Prasad Mukharjee.
Ques 7: Which two political parties were the major partners in the rulings alliance after the 1971 General Elections to the Lok Sabha?
Ans: BJP and Congress.
Ques 8: Name the political party which came to power at the Centre in 1977.
Ques 9: Mention the two main demands of the Bharatiya Kisan Union in 1980s.
Ans: (i) Protection of the interest of farmers, and (ii) food security.
Ques 10: Name the two alliances/fronts that formed the Government at the Centre in 1989 and 1996 respectively.
Ans: UPA and NDA.
Ques 11: Name any two foreign leaders, along with the countries they belong to, who are recognized as the founders of Non-aligned Movement.
Ans: G.A. Naseer - Egypt and J.B. Tito - Yugoslavia.
Ques 12: What is meant of Shock therapy?
Ans: After the disintegration of Soviet Union. The model of transition in Russia, Central Asia and Europe that was influenced by the World Bank and the IMF is came to be known as the Shock Therapy.
Ques 13: Trace the evolution process of European Union.
Ans: European integration after 1945 was aided by the cold war by USA under Marshall Plan but the collapse of Soviet bloc put European on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of the European Union in 1992.
Ques 14: Mention any two functions of World Bank?
Ans: (i) It works for human development, agricultural and rural development enforcing infrastructure and governance.
(ii) Provides loan to developing countries.
Ques 15: Highlight any two threats to country's security as per the traditional notion of security.
Ans: (i) Terrorism and (ii) Poverty.
Ques 16: Identify any two consequences of the partition of India in 1947.
Ans: Consequences of partition:
(i) The year 1947 witnessed largest and most unplanned tragic transfer of population. In the name of religion people were transferred from each region and there were brutal killings on both sides of boarder. People in minority fled their home and secured temporary shelter in refugee camps.
(ii) Apart from political and financial division, assets like - tablets, chairs, typewriters, paper-clips, books and musical instruments of police band, also got divided. The government employees and railways also divided.
Ques 17: Differentiate between the capitalist and the socialist models of development.
Ans: Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are controlled by private owners with the goal of making profits. Central characteristics of capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets and wage labor. In a capitalist economy, the parties to a transaction typically determine the prices at which assets, goods, and services are exchanged.
A socialist economic system is based on some form of social ownership of the means of production, which may mean autonomous cooperatives or direct public ownership; wherein production is carried out directly for the people. Profit is not the goal, the ultimate goal is to work for the welfare of the people. Non-market forms of socialism usually include a system of accounting based on calculation-in-kind or a direct measure of labour-time as a means to value resource and goods.
Ques 18: Highlight the contribution made by Jawaharlal Nehru to the foreign policy of India.
Ans: Nehru, vented to pursue a foreign policy which should be advantageous tor the country. It should be based on peace and should aim at establishing friendly relation with other countries or me world. This relation will be beneficial for die country.
The three major objectives of Nehru's foreign policy were to preserve the hard-earned sovereignty, secondly, to protect rapid economic development and to protect territorial integrity. According to Nehru the twin challenge that India must achieve is welfare and democracy.
Ques 19: What does the special status given to Jammu & Kashmir under Article 370 mean?
Ans: Article 370 of the Indian Constitution is a law that grants special autonomous status to Jammu and Kashmir. The Article is drafted in Part XXI of the Constitution; which relates to Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions. Under this the state has its own constitution. Ail provisions of the Indian Constitution are not applicable to the state. Laws passed by the parliament apply to J&K only if state agree.
Ques 20: How does party-based movement differ from non-party movement?
Ans: Non-party movement is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic elections take place without, reference to political parties.
A non-party system differs from a single-party system in that the governing faction in a single-party system identifies itself as a party, where membership might provide benefits not available to non-members.
A single-party government often requires government officials to be members of the party, features a complex party hierarchy as a key institution of government, forces citizens to agree to a partisan ideology, and may enforce its control over the government by making all other parties illegal.
Members of a non-partisan government may not share any ideologies (though in voluntary organizations, they of course may). Various communist nations such as China or Cuba are single-party nations although the Members of Parliament are not elected as Party candidates.
Ques 21: Why did the superpowers need smaller states as their allies? Explain any four reasons.
Ans: The superpowers made alliance with weaker states because these states were:
(1) Vital resources of oil and minerals.
(2) It gave the superpowers territory to launch their weapons and troops.
(3) Location from where superpowers could spy on each other.
(4) Economic support, in that many small allies together could help to pay for military expenses.
Ques 22: Explain the hegemony of United States of America as a structural power.
Ans: There are three types which together constitute the US hegemony in the world politics:
1. US Hegemony as hard power: As we have already stated the word hegemony 7 means "the domination or control by the country or state over the groups of others". As the military strength, the US is the only nation which has worldwide presence today. With more than 700 military installations outside its territory a team of US force takes quick action to reach any part of the world.
On the other hand, the figures of US defence spending are surprising indeed. In 2000 US defence spending was 300 billion dollars, that all of European nations who belonged to NATO was 160 billion dollars and Russia 60 billion. In 2014 US expenditure on defence is 640 billion.
2. US Hegemony as structural power or in the economic realm: United States has the status of being the largest economy of the world, her geographical expanse, her minerals wealth (coal, iron, manganese, platinum etc.) added to her structural influence. American economy can be judged from the following few factors.
(i) Provision of the global public goods as the US assumed responsibility for keeping the sea routes secure.
(ii) US accounts for nearly 15.5 percent of the world exports. United States has the position of being the largest trading partner of most of the nations. Most of the multinational companies are owned by Americans.
(iii) An important key to American hegemony is her increasing domination of the world financial bodies like the World Bank IMF and WTO.
(iv) Window software and internet techniques: In 1990 the internet facility was opened to commercial users and service providers but today internet is being used in every field, like mass communication or security, education environmental and industrial development.
(v) Many business management institutes were established in America.
3. Hegemony as a soft power: Hegemony as a soft power means the victory of American's ideals of liberalism, democracy and economic freedom. We may also call it American's cultural presence in all part oi the world.
Ques 23: Explain any four causes of ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka.
Ans: The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka has many root causes and consequences that are closely interlinked. However, given its complexities, it should not be assumed that these causes are part of linear historical processes where one event led to another. Often many of the issues that may be regarded as root causes arose within a single but extended context and equally as often, simultaneously.
It is primarily within the context of ethnic politics that language and education policy can be located. However, for discussion purposes it is necessary to separate these issues as clearly identifiable themes that would emerge in any analysis of the Sri Lankan conflict. In general, these themes can be broadly identified as:
(a) Ethnic politics and the interpretation of the past;
(b) Politics of language
(c) Politics of education
(d) Other factors, including employment and land.
Ques 24: Explain any four components of India's security strategy.
Ans: (1) Military capability: The first component was strengthening its military capability. India first tested a nuclear device in 1974.
(2) To strengthen international norms: For this India must cooperate with international institutions to protect its security interest. For this India took initiatives to bring about a universal and non-discriminatory non-proliferation policy. India has also argued for an equitable new international economic order.
(3) Challenges within the country: This component is towards the challenges within the country. Several militant groups from areas such as the Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab and others have raised time to time and India has tried to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system.
(4) To develop economy: Finally, there has been an attempt in India to develop its economy m a way that the vast mass of citizens are lifted out of poverty and misery and huge economic inequalities are not allowed to exist.
Ques 25: What is globalization? Highlight any three causes, of globalization.
Ans: Globalization means linking the economy of the country with the economics of other countries by means of trade and free mobility of capital labour etc. In the process of Globalization, countries become interdependent and the distance between people gets shortened.
Causes of globalization:
(i) Some countries have been unable to take advantage of Globalization and their standards of living and dropping further behind the richest countries.
(ii) Increased trade and travel have facilitated the spread of human animal and plant diseases like PIIV/AIDS, SARCs and bird flu, across borders.
(iii) The increasing interdependence of countries in a globalized world makes them more vulnerable to economic problems.
Ques 26: Describe the organization of the Congress Party as a social and ideological coalition.
Ans: In every Indian state and union territory or pradesh, there is a Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC), which is the state-level unit of the party, responsible for directing political campaigns at local and state levels and assisting the campaigns for Parliamentary constituencies. Each VCC has a Working Committee of 10-15 key members, and the state president is the leader of the state unit. The Congressmen elected as members of the state's legislative assemblies form the Congress Legislature Parties in the various state assemblies, and their chairperson is usually the party's nominee for Chief Minister Ship.
The All India Congress Committee (AICC) is formed of delegates sent from the PCCs around the country. The delegates elect various Congress committees, including the Congress Working Committee, which consists of senior party leaders and office bearers, and takes all important executive and political decisions.
The President of the Indian National Congress is in effect the party's national leader, head of the organization, head of the Working Committee and all Chief Congress Committees, Chief Spokesman and the Congress choice to become the Prime Minister of India.
Social policy of the INC is officially based upon the Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya (upliftment of all sections of the society). In particular INC emphasizes upon policies to improve the lives of the economically underprivileged and socially unprivileged sections of society. This includes publicising employment generation efforts for the rural population (through schemes such as National Rural Employment Generation. Scheme) etc. The party supports the somewhat controversial concept of family planning with birth control.
Ques 27: Explain Indians nuclear policy.
Ans: India has a declared nuclear no-first-use policy and is in the process of developing a nuclear doctrine based on credible minimum deterrence. When India conducted its first nuclear rest in May 1998, it was termed as peaceful explosion. India argued that it was committed 10 the policy of using nuclear power only for peaceful purpose.
India also concluded that this demonstration was to show India's power to use nuclear energy for military purpose. In August 1999, die Indian government released a draft of the doctrine which asserts that nuclear weapons are solely for deterrence and that India will pursue a policy of retaliation, only.
The document also maintains that India "will not be the first to initiate a nuclear first strike, but will respond with punitive retaliation should deterrence fail and that decisions to authorise the use of nuclear weapons would be made by the Prime Minister or his designated successor(s). According to die NRDQ despite the escalation of tensions between India and Pakistan, in 2001-2002, India remains committed to its nuclear no-first-use policy.
Ques 28: Evaluate the consequences of declaration of emergency in 1975.
Ans: In May 1977, the Janata Party government appointed a Commission of Inquiry headed by justice J.C. Shah, retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India., to inquire into several aspects of allegations of abuse of authority, excesses and malpractices committed and action taken in the wake of the Emergency proclaimed on the 25th June, 1975. The Commission examined various kinds of evidence and called scores of witnesses to give testimonies.
Following were the findings of Shah Commission.
(i) The govt. made extensive use of Preventive Detention. Around One Lakh eleven thousand people were arrested under this law. The arrested political workers were not allowed to challenge their arrest through Habeas Corpus.
(ii) Newspapers were asked to get prior approval for all material to be published. This is known as press censorship. In other words severe restriction were imposed on press sometimes without legal sanctions.
(iii) General Manager of Delhi Power Supply Corporation was given verbal orders to cut electricity to all newspapers and pressses from 2:00 a.m. on 26th June, 1975. Electricity was restored 2 to 3 days later after censorship apparatus was set-up.
Ques 29: In the given political map of India, four places are marked as A, B, C, D. Identify them with the help of information given below and write their correct names in the answer book along with their serial numbers and the alphabets concerned.
(i) The state related to Chipko Movement.
(ii) The state where a special opinion poll was held asking people to decide if they wanted to merge with Maharashtra or remain separate.
(iii) The state out of which the states of Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh were created.
(iv) The state related to Narmada Sagar Project
Ans: (i) Uttarakhand (B),
(ii) Goa (A),
(iii) Assam (D)
(iv) Gujrat (C).
Ques 30: Examine any six consequences of the disintegration of USSR.
'Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) has become irrelevant today.' Do you agree with the statement? Support your answer with any three suitable arguments.
Ans: The disintegration of the second world of the Soviet Union and the socialist systems in Eastern Europe had unfathomable consequences for world politics. These consequences are:
(i) Disintegration of the Soviet Union meant the end of Cold War confrontations. The ideological controversy over whether the socialist system would drub the capitalist system was not a purport any more. The engagement of army and arms race is ended now.
(ii) The US became the sole superpower. Backed by the power and prestige of the US, the capitalist economy was now the dominant economic system now. Organizations like World Bank and IMF became powerful advisors to all these countries since they gave them loans for their transition to capitalism.
(iii) Disintegration of the Soviet Union led the foundation for me emergence of many new countries. All these countries had their own independent aspirations and choices. Some of them, especially the Baltic and east European states, wanted to join the European Union and become part of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
(iv) Disintegration of the Soviet Union ended the bipolar system and led the foundation of unipolar system.
(v) Privatization of state assets and corporate ownership patterns were to be immediately brought in. Collective farms were to be replaced by private farming and capitalism.
(vi) Disintegration of the Soviet Union resulted a breakup of the existing trade alliances among the countries of the Soviet bloc. Each state from this bloc was now linked directly to the West and not to each other in the region. These states were thus to be gradually absorbed into the Western economic system.
Non-alignment, as the name suggests, means a decision of not associating oneself with any of the groups. This policy was of great relevance till the cold war. But then the cold war ended and with the collapse of Soviet Union the world order started to change. The world since the cold war has had wide-ranging impact on global politics. With the disappearance of Bi-polar system followed by uni-polarity and now with changing nature of power and power relations, with the rise of India, China and other powers; the world is moving towards multi-polarity.
Thus, it has posed a new fundamental question of Non-alignment against whom Today, in the era of liberalization and globalization the world has become a unified society where all nations depend on each other for trade and commerce. The world has become cosmopolitan and a country cannot survive if it follows the policy of isolation or policy of non-interference. In such a scenario, relevance of NAM is often questioned. Even though the goals of NAM have changed since its formation, it cannot be said to occupy the same position in the international society as it enjoyed earlier.
Today it's more focused on economic issues, issues like terrorism, health. Moreover there is practically nothing innovative or fruitful regarding its meetings and conferences. NAM summits are merely a repetition of the resolutions of the UN and its agencies. Thus, the scheduling of regular summit meetings and increasing membership of NAM cannot be considered any evidence of its relevance.
Ques 31: Analyze India's stand on any three environmental issues.
Assess any three basis on which globalization is being resisted in India.
Ans: India has been criticized for its apparent lack of commitment to addressing global climate change. But- these aims are not mutually exclusive. National measures can and are benefiting India's development while helping mitigate climate change. The problem is that India hasn't marketed these initiatives in the right way.
(1) A defensive stance: India?s international negotiating position relies heavily on the principles of historical responsibility, as enshrined in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This acknowledges that developed countries are responsible for most historical and current greenhouse emissions, and emphasizes that economic and social development are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country parties.
(2) India is taking real action: In fact, the Indian government is already participating in global efforts through a number of programmes. For example, India's National Auto-fuel Policy mandates cleaner fuels for vehicles. The Energy Conservation Act, passed in 2001, outlines initiatives to improve energy efficiency. Similarly, the Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy. Recent trends in importing natural gas and encouraging the adoption of clean coal technologies show India is making real efforts.
(3) 14th BASIC Ministerial Meeting on Climate Change: At the recent 14th BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) Ministerial Meeting on climate change, held in Chennai in February 2013, India's Minister of State for Environment and Forests, H.E. Mrs. Jayanthi Natarajan, welcomed the decision on operationalization of the 2nd commitment period and the consequent amendments to the Kyoto Protocol as a key element of the Doha Climate Gateway.
(1) The worldwide movement toward economic, financial, trade, and communications integration is Globalization. In fact it is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of life. It is not always positive; it can have negative consequences for the people. Indeed, there are many who believe that globalization has more negative consequences than positive. Globalization need not be only about the economic issues, nor is the direction of influence always from the rich to the poor countries.
(2) At the most simple level, globalization results in an erosion of state capacity, that is, the ability of government to do what they do. All over the world, the old welfare state is now giving way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as the maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens. However, it withdraws from many of its earlier welfare functions directed at economic and social well-being. In place of the welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinants of economic and social priorities.
(3) Economic globalization usually involves greater economic flows among different countries of the world. Some of this is voluntary and some forced by international institutions and powerful countries. As we saw in the examples at the beginning of this chapter, this flow or exchange can take various terms; commodities, capital, people and ideas. Globalization has involved greater trade m commodities across the globe.
That is why the concept of globalization is nor accepted worldwide and it is resisted in many countries.
Ques 32: Explain any three reasons for the dominance of Congress Party in the first three general elections in India.
How did the Reorganization of States place in India after its Independence? Explain.
Ans: (1) From 1951 until his death in 1964, Jawaharlal Nehru dominated the Congress Party, which won overwhelming victories in the elections of 1951-52, 1957, and 1962. The party united in 1964 to elect Lal Bahadur Shastri and in 1966 Indira Gandhi to the posts of party leader and thus Prime Minister.
(2) One feature of the political parties? m India is chat the parties are generally woven around their leaders, the leaders actively playing a dominant role, the role of leadership can be transferred and tends to take dynastic route. Such parties include both national and regional parties such as Indian National Congress (INC) has been led by Nehru-Gandhi dynasty since independence, starting from Jawaharlal Nehru who dominated the INC and led it to victory in three consecutive elections, then after a brief period his daughter Indira Gandhi became Prime Minister, after the split in INC in 1969 she formed her own party Indian National Congress (requisition) and remained the leader of the party until her death in 1984, when her son Rajiv Gandhi took the reigns and after his death his widow Sonia Gandhi, the current leader of INC took command. As a result of such dominance, the leaders of political parties of the country tend to take an autocratic tone.
(3) One other major feature of the political parties is that, except the communist parties, most of the political parties of India lack an ideological basis. Instead political parties in India are formed on the basis of race, religion, language, caste etc. factors, thus the high number of political parties.
The States Reorganization Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India?s states and territories, organizing them along linguistic lines.
Although additional changes to India's state boundaries have been made since 1956, the States Reorganization Act of 1956 remains the single most extensive change in state boundaries since the independence of India in 1947.
Between 1947 and about 1950, the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organized into new provinces, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The Government of India Act 1935 remained the constitutional law of India pending adoption of a new Constitution.
Demand of states on linguistic basis was developed even before independence of India under British rule. Though that time Indian administrative regions were identified as different provinces. Odisha was the first Indian state formed on linguistic basis in the year 1936 due to the efforts of Madhusudhan Das and became Orissa Province. In Odisha linguistic movement started in the year 1895 and intensified later years with the demand of separate province from Bihar and Orissa Province.
In December 1953, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru appointed the States Reorganisation Commission to recognize the Indian states known as the Fazal Alt Commission. The Commission created a report on September 30, 1955 recommending the reorganization of India's states. The parliament debated on the report. Finally, a bill making changes in the constitution and reorganizing states was passed and was implemented from November 1, 1956.
Ques 33: Examine any six reasons for the imposition of emergency in India in 1975.
Examine the major issues which led to the split of Congress Party in 1969.
Ans: (i) From the early 1970s onwards, wide-spread discontent shook India: large sections of the population came out in demonstrations against rising prices, fall in the supply of essential commodities, unemployment, and more importantly, corruption in government administration.
(ii) These protests reached a crescendo in two states - Gujarat and Bihar - in 1974, with students leading the agitations and giving them an organized shape. The Gujarat state government ruled by Indira Gandhi?s Congress Party was forced to resign that year. In fresh elections to the Gujarat legislature in early June, 1975.
(iii) The Congress was trounced and the opposition parties formed the new government in that state. Indira realized that she was losing her grip, and was threatened by a political crisis.
(iv) The threat became imminent when on June 12, 1975 the Allahabad High Court of the state of Uttar Pradesh (from where Indira Gandhi won in the parliamentary election in 1971), declared her election invalid on two corruption charges in the conduct of her poll campaign at that time.
(v) She was accused of violating the Indian law by first, using an officer of her government to make campaign arrangements, and secondly, by using other state officers to put up speaker's stands in her constituency and supply electricity to her amplifying equipment.
(vi) This political instability was responsible for the emergency.
The major issue which led to the split of the Congress party in 1969 was the presidential elections held in 1969. Although the rivalry between Indira Gandhi and the syndicate in the Congress party was going on for some time, yet it came our into tile open at me time of the Presidential election. Due to President Zakir Hussain's death, the office of the President fell vacant.
Despite Mrs. Gandhi reservations the syndicate managed to nominate her longtime opponent N. Sanjeeva Reddy as the official congress candidate. On the other hand Indira Gandhi encouraged the then vice President VV Giri to file his nomination as an independent.
The then Congress President S. Nijalingappa issued a whip asking all the Congress MPs and MLAs to vote for Reddy. Supporters of Indira Gandhi requisitioned a special meeting of All India Congress Committee, but this was refused. After Prime Minister Indira Gandhi called for a "conscience vote" which meant MPs and MLAs were free to vote the way wanted. The election resulted in the victory of VV Giri and the defeat of the official candidate Reddy.
The defeat of N. Sanjeeva Reddy formalized the split in the Congress. The Congress President expelled the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi from the party. Thus the Congress Party was split into Congress (R) and Congress (0).
Ques 34: Study the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
Sardar Sarovar Project is a multipurpose mega-scale dam. It required relocation of around two and half lakh people from the villages. Issues of the relocation and proper rehabilitations of the project-affected people were first raised by the local activist groups. It was around 1988-89 that the issues crystallized under the banner of the NBA-a loose collective of local voluntary organizations.
(i) Why is the Sardar Sarovar Project mentioned as multipurpose mega-scale dam?
(ii) Why was it opposed by the villagers?
(iii) Name the organizations which led the movement against this project.
(iv) What was the main demand of the local activist group?
India adopted a democratic approach to the question of diversity. Democracy allows the political expression of regional aspirations and does not look upon them as anti-national. Besides, democratic politics allows parties and groups to address the people on the basis of their regional identity aspirations and their regional problems.
(i) Which type of diversity exists in India?
(ii) Name any two political parties that represent regional identity.
(iii) Mention any one movement that expressed regional aspirations.
(iv) How does democracy treat the regional issues and problems.
Ans: (i) The Sardar Sarovar Dam is great dam on the Narmada River near Navagam, Gujarat m India, It is the largest dam and part of the Narmada Valley Project, a large hydraulic engineering project involving the construction of a series of large irrigation and hydroelectric multi-purpose dams on the Narmada River. So it is ailed a mega-scale dam.
(ii) The relocation for villagers because of the construction of the dam would result in submerged of 245 villages and this made them to oppose the project.
(iii) Green Organization in US.
(iv) The main demand of the local activist group was just rehabilitation of all those who were directly of indirect affect by the project.
(i) Diversity in cultures, religion, communities and language
(ii) Congress and BJP.
(iii) Narmada Bachao Andolan
(iv) It allows everyone to express their ideas and treats regional issues with utmost interest.