Ques 1: Who controls the north-eastern part of Sri Lanka?
Ans: The Tamil administration controls the north-eastern part of Sri Lanka.
Ques 2: Mention any two Human Rights in the political field.
Ans: (i) freedom of speech and (ii) freedom of assembly
Ques 3: During the first three general elections, Congress won more seats than any other party. Which party stood at number two during these elections?
Ans: Swatantra Party.
Ques 4: Why was the Congress Party defeated during the elections of 1977?
Ans: Congress lacks strong representative for their party and all opposition parties come together at one platform to defeat Indira Gandhi.
Ques 5: Which organization came into existence in April 1949?
Ans: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Ques 6: What was 'Operation Enduring Freedom'?
Ans: On 11 September 2001, nineteen hijackers hailing from Arab countries took control of four American Commercial aircrafts and flew them into important buildings in U.S. President George W Bush launched, operation enduring freedom against Afghanistan to curb terrorism and crush the terrorist organizations.
Ques 7: In spite of token representation in Indian legislature during the fifties, what role did opposition parties play?
Ans: All the opposition parties during fifties succeeded in gaining only a token representation in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies during this period. Yet their presence played a crucial role in maintaining the democratic character of the system. These parties offered a sustained and often principled criticism of the policies and practices of the Congress Party. This kept the ruling party under check and often changed the balance of power within the Congress.
Ques 8: Highlight any two characteristics of the Dravidian Movement.
Ans: 1. This movement originated in the form or the self-respect movement to raise the non-Brahmins from their unworthy conditions.
2. Demanded the establishment of an independent: state called Dravidasthan 5 movement had started.
Ques 9: Explain the hegemony of the Unites States as a hard power.
Ans: The most important factor for the overwhelming superiority of US power is its superiority of its military power. American military dominance is both absolute and relative. In absoute terms, the US has military capabilities that can reach any point on the planet accurately, lethally and in real time. While is its own forces are sheltered to the maximum extent possible from the dangers of war.
Ques 10: Explain the meaning of 'Global Commons' and give any four examples of 'Global Commons'.
Ans: Global Commons are areas of regions of the world which are located outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any one state and therefore require common governance by the international community. They include earth's atmosphere Antarctica, the ocean floor and outer space.
(i) Cooperation over global commons.
(ii) Common but differentiated responsibility.
Ques 11: Highlight any six consequences of the emergency of 1975.
Analyse any three factors which enhanced the popularity of Indira Gandhi in the early 1970s.
Ans: 1. Emergency brought the agitation to an abrupt stop; strikes were banned many opposition leaders were put in jail; the political situation become very quiet though tense.
2. Government uses its special powers under emergency provisions and suspended the freedom of the press newspapers were asked to get prior approval for all material to be published.
3. Apprehending social and communal disharmony, the government banned Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and Jamait-e-Islami. Protests and strikes and public agitations were also disallowed.
4. Most importantly, the various Fundamental Rights of citizens stood suspended, including the right of citizens to move the Court for restoring their Fundamental Rights.
5. The government made extensive use of preventive detention. Under this provision, people are arrested and detained not because they have committed any offence, but on the apprehension that they may commit an offence.
6. The government made large scale arrests during the Emergency. Arrested political workers could not challenge their arrest through habeas corpus petitions. Many cases were filed in the High Courts and the Supreme Court by and on behalf of arrested persons, but the government claimed that it was not even necessary to inform the arrested persons of the reasons and grounds of their arrest.
1. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of popular ex-Prime Minister J. L. Nehru.
2. She had become Congress President in 1958.
3. She had been Union Minister for Information in Shashtri's Cabinet from 1964 - 66.
4. She had given a positive famous slogan Garibi Hatao.
5. She had focused on the growth of the public sector.
6. She had imposed the ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property to remove disparities in income and opportunity.
7. She had abolished the princely privileges to prevail the principles of equality and social and economic justice.
8. Decisive victory in the 1971's India-Pakistan war soared Indira Gandhi's popularity.
9. First nuclear explosion in 1974 also increased her popularity. India termed it a peaceful explosion.