Ques 1: Name the group that led the non-violent movement for democracy in Nepal.
Ans: The non-violent movement was led by the Seven Party Alliance (SPA). The maoists and social activists.
Ques 2: Define cooperative security.
Ans: Cooperative security can be described as a strategic principal that seeks to accomplish its purpose through institutionalization consent rather than through military participation.
Ques 3: What inspired the formation of communist groups in 1920s in different parts of India?
Ans: In the early 1920s communist groups emerged in different parts of India taking inspiration from the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and advocating socialism as the solution to problems affecting the country.
Ques 4: Why did mid-term elections take place in 1980?
Ans: Janata party assumed office in March 1977. The party was expected to solve almost all the problems that the Congress rule created or could not solve. But Janata party failed to solve political, social and economic problems of the people. The Janata Party government could do nothing for the common man. Within 28 months in office, the Janata Party government could give no practicable scheme for bringing an end to unemployment.
Ques 5: What is meant by 'Arenas of Cold War'?
Ans: The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, systems in the Bloc that were supposed to crush anti-communist resistance for a merger of western German ares into a federal governmental system.
Ques 6: What was Band wagon in strategy?
Ans: Some people thing that it is strategically more prudent to take advantage of the opportunities provided by the hegemon. For instance, raising economic growth rates requires increased trade, technological transfers, and investment, which are best acquired by working with rather than against the hegemon. Thus instead of engaging in activities opposed to the hegemonic power, it may be advisable to extract benefits by operating within the hegemonic power. This is called band wagon strategy.
Ques 7: What is meant by decentralized planning?
Ans: Decentralization planning means transfer of power and responsibilities considering implementation and formulation of development programmes, from the highest institutions at national level of medium-level state institutions to the sub-state level institutions like Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), Zila Patishads, etc.
Ques 8: Highlight any two effects of the elections in 1989 on the politics of India.
Ans: (i) The defeat of Congress party in 1989 marked the end of Congress dominance over the Indian party system. It did not However, mean the emergence of any other single party to fill in its place.
(ii) It began an era of multi-party system. To be sure, a large number of political parties always contested elections in our country. This is how alliance politics came into existence in India.
Ques 9: Explain the Hegemony of the United States as a Soft power.
Ans: The third sense of hegemony is about the capacity to manufacture consent. Here, hegemony implies class ascendancy in the social, political and particularly ideological spheres. Hegemony arises when the dominant class or country can win the consent of dominated classes by persuading the dominant classes in a manner favourable to the ascendancy of the dominant class. This notion of hegemony suggests that a dominant power deploys not only military power out, also ideological resources to shape the behaviour of competing and lesser powers.
The predominance of the US in the World today is based not only on its military and economic powers but also on its cultural presence. All ideas of the good life and personal success, most of the dreams of individuals and societies across the globe are dreams churned out by practices prevailing in 20th Century America. America is the, most appealing and in this sense most powerful culture on earth. This attribute is called Soft Power, that is, the ability to persuade rather than forcing.
Ques 10: Explain any two positive and any two negative effects of globalization.
Ans: Positive Effects:
(i) Countries which have had faster economic growth have been able to improve living standards and reduce poverty. India has cut its poverty rate in half in the past two decades.
(ii) Improved wealth through the economic gains of globalization has led to improved access to health care and clean water which has increased life expectancy.
(i) Some countries have been unable to take advantage of Globalization and their standards of living and dropping further behind the richest countries.
(ii) Increased trade and travel have facilitated the spread of human, animal and plant diseases like HIV/AIDS, SARCs and bird flu, across borders.
Ques 11: Assess any three challenges that the Congress Party had to face during the period 1964 to 1971.
Assess any three happenings which, were responsible for the downfall of the Congress Party in die 1977 elections.
Ans: (i) In the election of 1971, Indira Gandhi succeeded in bringing victories both at the Central as well as at the State level. This certainly was a step towords restoring dominant position of the Congress Party The Congress Party further strengthened its position after defeating Pakistan in 1971 war. Congress (R) became the real Congress in power.
(ii) Indira Government made conscious attempts to project its socialist credentials by implementing the existing land reforms and undertaking further land ceiling legislation.
(iii) Indira Gandhi focussed on the growth of the public sector and renewal of disparities in income and opportunities as well as abolition of princely purses. Any other relevant arguement.
(i) The election came after the end of the Emergency that Prime Minister Gandhi had imposed in 1975; it effectively suspended democracy, suppressed the opposition, and took control of the media with authoritarian measures. The opposition called for a restoration of democracy and Indians saw the election results as a repudiation of the Emergency.
(ii) Gandhi had become extremely unpopular for her decision and paid for it during the elections. Mrs, Gandhi, on 23 January, called for fresh elections and released all political prisoners.
(iii) Four Opposition parties, the Congress (Organization), the Jan Sangh, the Bharatiya Lok Dal and the Socialist Party, decided to fight the elections under a single banner called the Janata alliance.
The alliance used the symbol allocated to Bharatiya Lok Dal as their symbol on the ballot papers. The Janata alliance reminded voters of the excesses and human rights violations during the Emergency, like compulsory sterilization and imprisonment of political leaders.