Ques 1: Why was the Warsaw Pact also called the eastern Alliance?
Ans: Most countries of the Eastern Europe had joined the alliance led by USSR i.e. the Warsaw pact- hence it is also known Eastern Alliance.
Ques 2: What was 'Operation Enduring Freedom'?
Ans: Operation enduring freedom was launched by the US against all those suspected to be behind the attack on World Trade Tower.
Ques 3: Describe any two major objectives of Nehru's foreign policy.
Ans: Objectives of Nehru's foreign Policy.
(i) To preserve the hard earned sovereignty of India.
(ii) To protect territorial integrity.
Ques 4: Describe the era of multi-party system in India after 1989.
Ans: In India after 1989, almost all the governments were coalition governments which represented inclusion of multiparties in the government.
In 1989 - National Front supported by BJP and Left Front.
In 1990 - Section of NF led by Samajwadi Janta Party supported by Congress
In 1991 - Congress was supported by AIADMK and some regional parties.
In 1996 - BJP formed a government with the help of many regional parties.
In 1996 - United Front emerged and formed the government with the support of Congress party.
In 1998 - 99 - NDA was formed which was a combination of about 25 political parties. This coalition formed the NDA government.
In 2004 - UPA was another alliance of various National and regional parties.
The above process shows that multiparty system of India changed its character and started to polarize around two major National parties i.e. Indian National Congress and Bhartiya Janta Party.
Ques 5: Explain the economic and military influence of the European Union.
Ans: Economic Influence:
(i) EU is the world's biggest economy with a GDP of more than 12,000 billion in 2005, slightly larger than that of the USA.
(ii) Its currency Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar.
(iii) Its share of world trade is three times larger than that or the US.
(i) The EU's combined armed forces are the second largest in the world.
(ii) Its total spending on defence is second after that of the US.
(iii) Two members of the EU have large arsenal of nuclear warheads.
(iv) It is the world's second most important source of space and communications technology.
Ques 6: Which two models of modern development were there before India on the eve of independence? Which model did India decide to choose and why?
Ans: At the time of independence, there were two models of modern development before India
(i) Liberal-Capitalist model which was prevalent in Europe and the US.
(ii) Socialist model which was prevalent in the USSR. The socialist Model of development was chosen because many in India were deeply impressed by this model. These included not only the leaders of Communist parties but also of socialist leaders and the Congress Party. This model was considered to be most useful for the welfare and upliftment of all the categories of people in India.
Ques 7: Describe any three reasons for the superpower to have military alliances with smaller countries during the Cold War Period.
Describe the role of Gorbachev to reform the Soviet System and the effects of these reforms on the U.S.S.R.
Ans: Reasons for the super powers to have military alliances with smaller countries during the Cold War period.
(i) For the procurement of vital resources such as oil and mineral.
(ii) Availability of territory from where the superpowers could launch their weapons and troops.
(iii) To use location from where they could spy on each other.
(iv) Economic support which many small allies together could help pay for military expenses.
They were also important for ideological reasons. The loyalty of allies suggested that the super-powers were winning the war of ideas as well, that liberal democracy and capitalism were better than socialism and communism or vice.
Role of Gorbachev to reform the Soviet system.
(i) The policies of economic and political reforms - Perestroika (restructuring)
(iii) To stop the arms race with the US
(iv) The withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan and Eastern Europe.
Effects of the Reforms on the USSR:
(i) Gorbachev promised to reform the economy -catch-up with the West-yet Soviet Union collapsed.
(ii) The communist party members felt that their power and privileges were eroding.
(iii) His reforms gave rise to nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including (Russia and Baltic Republics - Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania)
(iv) Even the ordinary people felt alienated from the central Asians and from each other and felt they were paying too high a price to stay within the Soviet Union.
Ques 8: Define the 'Indigenous People' and highlight any two threats to their survival.
Explain the positive impacts of globalization on the present day world.
Ans: Indigenous People bring the issues of environment, resources and politics together.
The UN defined indigenous populations comprising of the descendants of people who inhabited the present territory of a country at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world and overcome them.
Threats to their Survival:
(i) The indigenous people in the world demand to be treated as equal. They appeal to governments to come to terms with the continuing existence of indigenous nations as enduring communities with an identity of their own.
(ii) Although they enjoy a constitutional protection in political representation, they have not got much of the benefits of development in the country.
They have paid a huge cost for development, since they are the single largest group among the people displaced by various developmental projects since independence.
1. More efficient markets: Efficient markets should be what every economy strives for. Essentially, the sign of an efficient market is where there is an equilibrium between what buyers are willing to pay for a good or service and what sellers are willing to sell for a good or service.
If you can improve the way you produce a good or service by doing things such as outsourcing certain processes or buying from an overseas supplier that offers discounts, you can then afford to lower your selling price which results in increased demand and affordability.
2. Increased competition: Anytime that you have multiple producers competing for a hold of the economy, that's a good sign for consumers, as the quality of goods and services often goes up as a result. When businesses started to venture across international borders, what they often did was introduce a new standard into the global marketplace.
Consumers then had more options to choose from. With more competitors to fight over market share, each company has to constantly look to improve their goods or services or create more value for their customers. This means better products and sometimes lower prices, which is always a good thing for buyers.
3. Stabilized security: When your economy depends largely on another country's economy, it is hard to imagine either one of the countries attacking the other. In a weird sort of way, globalization helped heighten world security.
4. More wealth equality throughout the world: Although many Americans contend that their standard of living has gone down because of globalization, the flip side to this is that hundreds of thousands of people around the world now have jobs, have started their own businesses and can provide comfort for their families.