Ques 1: Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization also called Western Alliance?
Ans: Most countries of Western Europe sided with the US which got formalised into and an organization - the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Hence it was also called Western Alliance.
Ques 2: What is meant by Hegemony?
Ans: Hegemony means becoming powerful or doing something for power. It is the form of military predomination, economic power, political clout and cultural superiority.
Ques 3: Which major factor was responsible for the dramatic victory of Indira Gandhi in 1971 elections?
Ans: (i) The positive slogan of Garibi Hatao (remove poverty)
(ii) Indira Gandhi focused on growth of public sector
(iii) Abolition of princely privileges.
Ques 4: Name the three social and political regions of the Northern most State of India.
Ans: Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.
Ques 5: Why were the seven small states created in North-East India?
Ans: (i) The seven sister states also called Paradised Unexplored are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripua.
(ii) They were created for economic development of the region.
(iii) Due to social-cultural issues.
Ques 6: What is meant by the Cuba Missile Crisis?
Ans: Crisis between USA and USSR in 1962 when Khrushchev decided to convert Cuba into a Russian base and laced nuclear missiles there. The crisis also illustrated the limitations of international law, as the United States relied on military actions and threats to accomplish its goal.
Ques 7: Suggest any two steps to be taken by the government to check pollution and save environment.
Ans: Clean production and pollution prevention:
Clean production involves changes to production systems or products that reduce pollution at the source in the production process of product development stage.
Ecosystem management: Biodiversity issues are suited to the precautionary principle because their complexity and geographic scope increase scientific incertainty and because the results of errors can be devastating. Risk assessment and other tools have been unable to predict and prevent such disasters as the devastion of marine ecosystems and the collapse of fisheries.
Ques 8: 'Welfare State is getting replaced by market.' Analyse the reason for this change.
Ans: The Welfare State is a society in which an assured minimum standard living and opportunity becomes the possession of every citizen. (G.D.H.)
The Welfare State is a system wherein government agrees to underwrite main levels of employment, income, education, medical aid, social security, housing for all its citizens. Welfare state is being replaced by increasing trend of globalization.
(i) Globalization results in erosion of state capacity.
(ii) Concept of state sovereignty is getting affected.
(iii) It withdraws many welfare functions from the government.
Ques 9: How did the Sino-Indian conflict affect the opposition also?
Ans: The Sino-Indian conflict created in 1962 was responsible for the growing differences within the Communist Party of India which was in opposition. It got divided into Communist Party of India (Marxist) which was Pro-China and CPI which was Pro-Russia.
Ques 10: How did the dominance of Congress Party in the first three general elections help in establishing a democratic set-up in India?
Ans: (i) Dominance of Congress Party in India was different from the dominance of one party in countries like Cuba, China & Mexico.
(ii) Even being a dominant party, free, fair and regular elections were held and voice of the opposition was heard with respect.
(iii) Even in the first general elections there was government of CPI in Kerala which was not destabilized by the Congress Party in power at the Centre.
Ques 11: Why did Indian distance itself form the two camps led by the U.S. and the Soviet Union? Explain.
Ans: India distanced itself from both the camps led by the US and USSR. : The foreign policy of independent India vigorously pursued the dream of a peaceful world by advocating the policy of non-alignment, by reducing Cold War tensions and by contributing human resources to the UN peacekeeping operations. You might ask why India did not join either of the two camps during the Cold War era.
India wanted to keep away from the military alliances led by US and Soviet Union against each other. As you read in the book, Contemporary World Politics, during the Cold War, the US-led North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact came into existence. India advocated non-alignment as the ideal foreign policy approach. This was a difficult balancing act and sometimes the balance did not appear perfect.
In 1956 when Britain attacked Egypt over the Suez Canal issue, India led the world protest against this neo-colonial invasion. But in the same year when the USSR invaded Hungary, India did not join its public condemnation. Despite such a situation, by and large India did take an independent stand on various international issues and could get aid and assistance from members of both the blocs.
While India was trying to convince the other developing countries about the policy of non-alignment, Pakistan joined the US-led military alliances. The US was not happy about India's independent initiatives and the policy of non-alignment. Therefore, there was a considerable unease in Indo-US relations during the 1950s. The US also resented India?s growing partnership with the Soviet Union.
The strategy of planned economic development was adopted by India. This policy emphasised import-substitution. The emphasis on developing a resource base also meant that export oriented growth was limited. This development strategy limited India's economic interaction with the outside world.
Ques 12: Describe any four major developments in the Indian politics since 1989.
Ans: Political Developments since 1989
(i) Defeat of the Congress party in the elections held in 1989. The party that had won as many as 415 seats in the Lok Sabha in 1984 was reduced to only 197 in this election.
(ii) Rise of Reservation issue in national politics as the National Front Govt. decided to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission.
(iii) The economic policy of India went under drastic changes and economic reforms were introduced.
(iv) Demolition of the disputed structure of Babri masjid in December 1992. This event symbolised and triggered various changes in the politics of the country and intensified debates about the nature of Indian nationalism and secularism.
Ques 13: How was the European Union evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one?
Ans: (i) The formation of European Union was aided by the cold war. It became a forum for the Western European States to co-operate on trade and economic issues.
(ii) It also laid stress on a common foreign and security policy, co-operation on justice and home affairs and the creation of a common currency.
(iii) It has also started to act more as a nation state.
(iv) While the attempts to have a Constitution for the EU have failed still it has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency. It also has some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with other nations. It shows that Europian Union evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one.
Ques 14: Explain any two merits and two demerits each of the Green Revolution.
(i) It increased the availability of food in the country due to rise in wheat and rice production.
(ii) Regions like Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh became agriculturally prosperous.
(iii) The farmers of medium size holdings who benefits from the changes and they emerged politically influential in. many parts of the country.
(i) It led to polarization between classes and regions.
(ii) Only me states like Punjab, Haryana and Western U. P. Became prosperous while others remained backward.
(iii) The poor farmers remained neglected and the beneficiaries were die rich farmers.
Ques 15: Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the U.N.
Ans: Following are the difficulties in implementing the reforms to reconstruct the U.N.:
(i) There is no demarcation as to how big an economic or military power did a state have to be to qualify for Security Council membership.
(ii) Level of budget contribution that would enable a state to buy its way into the Council is not mentioned.
(iii) Regarding population it is undecided whether a big population would be an asset or a liability for a country trying to play a bigger role in the world.
(iv) If respect for democracy and human rights was the criteria, countries with excellent records would be in line to be members, but it not necessary that they will also be effective as Council members.
The most important reason why the reforms cannot be done is the Veto power of the permanent, member. There has been a move to abolish Veto power system, there is also a realization that the permanent members are unlikely to agree to such a reform. Also, the world may not be ready for such a radical step even though the Cold War is over.
Without the Veto, there is the danger as in 1945 that the great powers would lose interest in the world body, that they would do what they pleased outside it, and that without their support and involvement the body would be ineffective.
Ques 16: Assess any two positive aspects of the Chipko Movement.
Ans: 1. The movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand when the forest department refused permission to the villagers to fell ash trees for making agricultural tools. However, the forest department allotted the same patch of land to a sports manufacturer for commercial use. This enraged the villagers and they protested against the move of the government.
The struggle soon spread across many parts of the Uttarakhand region. Larger issues of ecological and economic exploitation of the region were raised. The villagers demanded that no forest-exploiting contracts should be given to outsiders and local communities should have effective control over natural resources like land, water and forests.
2. Women's active participation in the Chipko agitation was a very novel aspect of the movement. The forest contractors of the region usually doubled up as suppliers of alcohol to men. Women held sustained agitations against the habit of alcoholism and broadened the agenda of the movement to cover other social issues.
Ques 17: Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
The interim government took a firm stance against the possible division of India into smaller principalities of different sizes. The Muslim League opposed the Indian National Congress and took the view that the States should be free to adopt any course they liked. Sardar Patel, India's Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Minister during the crucial period, immediately after Independence, played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of Princely States in bringing most of them into the Indian Union.
(i) Which government has been referred to as the interim government?
(ii) Why did Muslim League oppose the Indian National Congress?
(iii) What makes the role of Sardar Patel a historic one? Explain.
Ans: (i) The government of free India working before the General elections has been termed as the Interim Government.
(ii) The Muslim League opposed the Indian National Congress because the interim government took a firm stance against a possible division of India in to smaller principalities of different size. The leange wished that the state should be free to adopt any course they liked.
(iii) Sardar Patel played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of Princely States in bringing most of them into the Indian Union whether by negotiation or by force.
Ques 18: Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
The New Congress had something that its big opponents lacked - it had an issue, an agenda and a positive slogan.
The Grand Alliance did not have a coherent political programme. Indira Gandhi said that the opposition alliance had only one common programme (Indira HataoMn contrast to this, she put forward a positive programme captured in the famous slogan 'Garibi Hatao'.
(i) Which Congress is being referred to as 'the New Congress'?
(ii) Highlight any two steps taken by Indira Gandhi to remove poverty.
(iii) How far is it justified to call the 'opposition alliance' as the 'Grand Alliance'?
Ans: (i) The Congress led by Indira Gandhi after the split in Congress in 1969.
(ii) (a) Nationalization of Banks
(b) Abolition of Privy Purse
(c) Land reforms
(iii) All the major parties i.e. SSP, PSP, Bhardya Jan Sangh, Swatantra Party and the Bhardya Krand Dal came together to form an alliance against the New Congress.
To call this alliance of opposition parties as a Grand Alliance is justified because all the major parties were included in this alliance.
Ques 19: Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
The Cold War was not simply a matter of power rivalries, military alliances and of balance of power. These were accompanied by a real ideological conflict as well, a difference over the best and most appropriate way of organizing political, economic, and social life all over the world.
(i) Why is a war - like situation called Cold War?
(ii) Identify one military pact each signed by each of the two super powers to balance the power rivalries.
(iii) Differentiate between the ideologies represented by the rival blocs.
Ans: (i) Because actual weapons are not being used and there is a constant fear of war, its not war but the competition, the tensions and a series of confrontations hence called Cold War.
(ii) U.S.A led NATO. U.S.S.R led Warsaw Pact.
(iii) U.S. led alliance has adopted capitalism and Liberal democracy whereas U.S.S.R led bloc was propagating socialism/communism and mainly the one party system.
Study the cartoon given above and answer the following questions:
(i) Which country is represented by this mighty soldier?
(ii) Why have the names of so many countries been written on the uniform of the soldier?
(iii) What message does this cartoon convey to the international community?
Ans: (i) U.S.A
(ii) Because the US had invaded all these countries and showed hegemony and supremacy of power.
(iii) It gives the message that the US is a Superpower and has the might to push its interests in any part of the world.
Ques 21: Describe any six criteria for the new membership of Security Council as suggested after 1997.
What is meant by Security? Mention any four components of Indian security strategy.
Ans: The leaders in this meeting decided that the following steps should be taken to make the UN more relevant in the changing context.
1. Creation of a Peace building Commission.
2. Acceptance of the responsibility of the international community in case of failures of national governments to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
3. Establishment of a Human Rights Council (operational since 19 June, 2006)
4. Agreements to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
5. Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
6. Creation of a Democracy Fund.
7. An agreement to wind up the Trusteeship Council.
Every time a person steps out of his or her house, there is some degree of threat to their existence and way of life. Our world would be saturated with security issues if we took such a broad view of what is threatening.
Security relates only to extremely dangerous threats-threats that could so endanger core values that those values would be damaged beyond repair if we did not do something to deal with the situation.
The first component was strengthening its military capabilities because India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours - Pakistan in 1947-48, 1965, 1971 and 1999; and China in 1962. Since it is surrounded by nuclear armed countries in the South Asian region, India's decision to conduct nuclear tests in 1998 was justified by the Indian government in terms of safeguarding national security. India first tested a nuclear device in 1974.
The second component of India's security strategy has been to strengthen international norms and international institutions to protect its security interests. India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, supported the cause of Asian solidarity, decolonization, disarmament, and the UN as a forum in which international conflicts could be settled.
India also took initiatives to bring about a universal and non - discriminatory non-proliferation regime in which all countries would have the same rights and obligations with respect to weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, biological, chemical). It argued for an equitable New International Economic Order (NIEO).
The third component of Indian security strategy is geared towards meeting security challenges within the country. Several militant groups from areas such as the Nagaland, Mizoram, the Punjab, and Kashmir among others have, from time to time, sought to break away from India. India has tried to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system, which allows different communities and groups of people to freely articulate their grievances and share political power.
Finally, there has been an attempt in India to develop its economy in a way that the vast mass of citizens are lifted out of poverty and misery and huge economic inequalities are not allowed to exist. The attempt has not quite succeeded; we are still a very poor and unequal country. Yet democratic politics allows spaces for articulating the voice of the poor and the deprived citizens.
Ques 22: Describe any six factors responsible for the disintegration of U.S.S.R.
What is meant by New International Economic Order? Mention any four reforms of the global trading system proposed by UNCTAD in 1972?
Ans: Factors responsible for Disintegration of U.S.S.R:
(i) Internal weaknesses of Soviet political and economic institutions. Economic stagnation for many years led to consumer shortages.
(ii) There was a huge economic burden as Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining a nuclear and military arsenal and the development of its satellite states in Eastern Europe and within the Soviet system (the five Central Asian republics in particular)
(iii) Ordinary citizens became more knowledgeable about the economic advancement of the West. After years of being told that the Soviet system was better than Western Capitalism, the reality of its backwardness came as a political and psychological shock.
(iv) Soviet Union became stagnant in an administrative and political sense as well.
(v) The Communist Party who ruled for over 70 year was not accountable to the people, ordinary people were alienated by slow and stifling administration, rampant corruption.
(vi) The inability of the system to correct mistake it had made the unwillingness to allow more openness in government and the centralization of authority in a vast land.
The Non-aligned countries were categorised as the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) - and the challenge they faced was to be more developed. Economic development was also vital for the independence of the new countries. Without sustained development, a country could not be truly free and then be dependent on richer countries. The idea of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) originated with this realization.
Reforms of the global trading system proposed by UNCTAD in 1972.
(i) To give the LDC?s control over their natural resources exploited by the developed Western countries.
(ii) To obtain access to Western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.
(iii) To reduce the cost of technology from the Western countries.
(iv) To provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institutions.
Ques 23: Explain globalization. How has technology contributed in promoting globalization?
Explain the meaning of 'global commons'. How are environmental concerns becoming important in global politics?
Ans: Globalization is the process where the economics of various countries in the world become more and more connected to one another. In a globalized economy, people from one country can buy goods quite easily from other countries. Now-a-days, people in one country can even buy services from other countries (because of the internet a company can have accountants in India, for example, do its taxes).
Technology has played an important role in the contribution to Globalization.
(i) The invention of the telegraph, the telephone, mobiles, television, internet, e-mail, fax, information technology etc. has revolutionised communication in different parts of the world.
(ii) The ability of ideas, capital commodities and people to move more easily from one part of the world to another has been made possible largely by technological advances.
(iii) The digital and information resolution has changed the way the world learns, communicates, does business and treats illness.
(iv) Computer technology has made long distance learning an everyday reality.
Global commons are those resources which are not owned by anyone but rather shared by a community. They include earth's atmosphere Antartica, the Ocean floor and outer space.
Different environmental concerns becoming important in global politics.
(i) Cultivable area is barely expanding any more. Agricultural land is losing fertility, grasslands have been overgrazed
(ii) Safe drinking water is not available to many areas and population. Billions have no access to sanitation, resulting in. the death of more than three million children, every year.
(iii) Natural forests are being cut and people are being displaced. It has cost climate disturbances and loss of biodiversity.
(iv) A steady decline in the ozone layer in the Earth's stratosphere is posing a real danger to ecosystems and human health.
(v) Coastal pollution is adding to the deterioration in the quality of marine environment.
Ques 24: Examine any three factors responsible for the US hegemony in the world politics.
Assess the positive and negative aspects of Indians relations with Bangladesh.
Ans: The US Hegemony as a Hard Power: The nation of hegemony as military domination is relevant to the current position and role of the US in World politics. The base of US power lies in the superiority of its military power. American military dominance today is both absolute & relative.
The US Hegemony as a Structural Power
1. The second notion of hegemony is very different from the first. It emerges from a particular understanding of the world economy requires a hegemony or dominant power to support its creation and existence.
2. The hegemony must possess both the ability and the desire to establish certain norms for order and exist sustain the global structure.
3. The Hegemony usually does this to its own advantage often to its relative determent as its competitions take advantage of the openness of the world economy without paying the cost of maintaining its openness.
4. Therefore, hegemony in this second sense as economic superiority is reflected by the roles played by the US in providing global public goods.
The U.S. Hegemony as a soft power: The third sense of hegemony is about the capacity to manufacture consent?. Here, hegemony implies class ascendancy in the social, political and particularly ideological spheres. Hegemony arises when the dominant class or country can win the consent of dominated classes by persuading the dominated classes in a manner favourable to the ascendancy of the dominant class.
This notion of hegemony suggests that a dominant power deploys not only military power but also ideological resources to shape the behaviour of competing and lesser powers.
The predominance of the US in the World today is based not only on its military and economic powers but also its cultural presence. All ideas of the good life and personal success, most of the dreams of individuals and societies across the globe are dreams churned out by practices prevailing in20th Century America.
America is the most appealing and in this sense most powerful culture to earth. The attribute is called Soft Power, that is, the ability to persuade rather than forcing.
The Governments or India and Bangladesh have had differences over several issues including the sharing of the Ganga and Brahmaputra river waters. The Indian government has been unhappy with Bangladesh's denial of illegal immigration to India, its support for anti-Indian Islamic fundamentalist groups. Bangladesh's refusal to allow Indian troops to move through its territory to norm eastern India, and its decision not to export natural gas India or allow Myanmar do to so through Bangladesh territory.
Bangladeshi governments have felt that me Indian government behaves like a regional bully over the sharing of river waters, encouraging rebellion in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, trying to extract its natural gas and being unfair in trade. The two countries have not succeeded in resolving their boundary dispute.
Despite their difference, India and Bangladesh do cooperate on many issues. Economic relations have improved considerably m the last ten years. Bangladesh is a part of India?s Look east policy that wants to link up with South East Asia via Myanmar.
On disaster management and environmental issues, the two stares have cooperated regularly. Efforts are on to broaden the areas of cooperation further by identifying common threats and being more sensitive to each author's needs.
Ques 25: Suppose you are an important leader of the Farmers agitation. The government authorities ask you to present any three demands on behalf of the farmers. On priority basis, which three demands will you make? Support your demands with appropriate arguments.
In 2014 elections, people have voted for stable government at the Centre. Do you think that the era of coalition has eneded? Support your answer with suitable arguments.
Ans: Farmland, clean water and a way of life. All three are dependent on thriving agricultural community that is threatened by rising land prices and development. Safeguard these irreplaceable resources-our rural landscape and its family farms by protecting regional farmlands and working landscape through this Fund. Besides this, I will put the various suggestion and demands against the government to improve the situations of the Indian farmers and their productivity as well as safeguard for them.
Minimum support price:
Wheat and rice come with a government minimum support price, and fruits and vegetables don't. Farmers find it reassuring to know that MSP exists and may influence open market prices and/or demand for their produce.
(i) Risk of crop failure: Pulses, fruits and vegetables are more vulnerable to adverse weather, leading to higher risk of failure. Rather than pay for crop insurance (where it is available), farmers prefer to simply avert these crops.
(ii) Care and effort required in cultivation: Wheat and rice require less care and effort to grow than vegetables. Higher care for crops means reduced availability of farmers for alternate income-generating activities, where crafts or wage labour.
(iii) Need to sell quickly due to lack of storage facilities: India has about 5400 cold storage units, the majority of which are appropriate for potato. So farmers don't really have much of an option to store fruit and vegetables for later. The need to sell immediately means that they are at the mercy of current-market prices unlike grain that can be held on to for a longer time.
(iv) Price volatility: Fruits and vegetables experience a much higher degree of price volatility than grains. Part of the reason for, this is the high level of mismatch between demand and supply of fruits and vegetables. Another reason is the inefficiency of markets in matching supply and demand in different parts of the country. And of course, their inherent perish-ability and lack of cold-chain is an additional worry.
Candidates are free to express their view point, it may be either yes or no but the answer should be supported with appropriate arguments. Weight age should be given for originality and logic. If a candidate writes "yes then the answer may include the following points or any other relevant point:
(i) People have given absolute majority to one party i.e. B.J.P.
(ii) People were fed up with the previous experience of coalition governments.
(iii) Regional parties like S.P, B.S.P, DMK etc. have been wiped out.
(iv) Many important decision could not be taken due to varying interests of coalition parties.
Ques 26: Analyse any three lessons learnt from the emergency of 1975.
Analyse any three major factors which led the popularity of Indira Gandhi's Government in the early 1970s.
Ans: The Lessons:
(i) Extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India. Defeat of Indira Gandhi in 1977 election supports the above fact.
(ii) Secondly it brought out many ambiguities regarding the emergency provision in Constitution that have been rectified. It could not have been misused if there had not been ambiguities.
(iii) Thirdly, the Emergency made everyone more aware of the value of civil liberties. The Courts too, have taken an active role after the Emergency in protecting the civil liberties of the individuals. This is a response to the inability of the judiciary.
Indira Gandhiji had adopted a very bold strategy. She converted a simple power struggle into an ideological struggle. She launched a series of initiatives to give the government policy a Left orientation. She got the Congress Working Committee to adopt a Ten Point Programme in May 1967.
This programme included social control of banks, nationalization of General Insurance, ceiling on urban property and income, public distribution of food grains, land reforms and Provision of house sites to the rural poor. While the syndicate leaders formally approved this Left-wing programme, they had serious reservations about the same.
Presidential Election, 1969: The factional rivalry between the Syndicate and Indira Gandhi came in the open in 1969. Following President Zakir Hussain's death, the post of President of the India fell vacant that year. Despite Mrs. Gandhi's reservations the syndicate managed to nominate long time opponent and then speaker of the Lok Sabha, N. Sanjeeva Reddy, as the official Congress candidate for the ensuing Presidential elections. Indira Gandhi retaliated by encouraging the then Vice-President, V.V Giri, to file his nomination as an independent candidate.
She also announced several big and popular policy measures like the nationalization of fourteen leading private banks and the abolition of the privy purse or the special privileges given to former princes. Morarji Desai was the Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister. She put forward a positive programme captured in the famous slogan: Garibi Hatao (Remove Poverty). She focused on the growth of the public sector imposition of ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property, removal of disparities in income and opportunity, and abolition of princely privileges.
Through garibi hatao Indira Gandhi tried generate a support base among the dis advantaged, especially among the landless labourers, Dalits and Adivasis, minorities, women and the unemployed youth. The slogan of garibi hatao and the programme that followed it were part of Indira Gandhi's political strategy of building an independent nationwide political support base. The defeat of the official Congress candidate formalised panic in the party. The Congress President expelled the Prime Minister from the party; she claimed that her group was the real Congress.