Ques 1: Define 'Bipolarity'.
Ans: Diversion of the world into two power blocks led by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. is called bipolarity.
Ques 2: What was the main objective of 'Operation Desert Storm'?
Ans: In the First Gulf war, a massive Coalition force of 34 countries by the United Nations fought against Iraq. The operation organized by United Nations was called as Operation Desert Storm. An American general Normal Schwarzkopf, was the Chief Commander of Operation Desert Storm.
Ques 3: Differentiate between the traditional and the non-traditional notions of security.
Ans: Traditional Notions
1. Traditional Conceptions of security are principally concerned with the use of military force.
2. The traditional security conception the referent is the state with its territory and governing institutions.
3. The scope of traditional Notions of security is confined to internal and External threats to the state.
4. The force is both the principal threat to security and principal means of achieving security.
1. Non - Traditional Notions of security go beyond military threats and dangers affecting the condition of human existence.
2. The referent is expanded and covers wide areas of security.
3. The scope of non - traditional Notions of security covers not just the state but also individuals or indeed all of human kind.
4. o-operation is the principal means of achieving security. i.e., co - operative security to all the human kind.
Ques 4: When was the Mandal Commission set-up? Describe any two recommendations of this Commission.
Ans: Mandal Commission was set up in 1978 by Janta Party Government.
(i) 27% of seats in educational Institutions and government jobs for backward classes.
(ii) Land reforms.
(iii) To improve the conditions of the OBCs.
Ques 5: Why does ASEAN still remain principally an economic association?
Ans: ASEAN still remains principally an economic association because:
(i) ASEAN region as a whole is a much smaller economy compared to the E.U, the US and Japan.
(ii) ASEAN economy is growing much faster than the E.U., the US and Japan.
(iii) Its objective is to create a common market and production base within ASEAN states.
(iv) It also wants to aid social and economic development in the region.
(v) It also likes to improve the existing ASEAN Dispute Settlement Mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
(vi) It has focused on creating a Free Trade Area (FTA) for investment, labour and services. The US and China have already moved fast to negotiate FTA s with ASEAN.
Ques 6: Why did the movement for secession in the Mizo Hills area gain popular support? How was the problem resolved?
Ans: (i) The movement for secession in the Mizo Hills area gained popular support because some Mizos believed that they were never a part of British India and, therefore, did not belong to the Indian Union. The movement for secession gained popular support after the Assam government; failed to respond adequately to the great famine of 1959 m Mizo hills.
(ii) To resolve me problem, an agreement was signed by founder and leader of Mizo national front, Laldenga. And the Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi, in 1986.
Ques 7: Why did Indian distance itself from the two camps led by the U.S. and the Soviet Union? Explain.
Ans: India distanced itself from both the camps led by the US and USSR:
(i) To serve its national interests rather than the interests of the Super Powers.
(ii) To upkeep the sovereignty of the nation and to take independent decisions.
(iii) To follow and advocate the policy of Non-Alignment.
Ques 8: Describe the factors that make most of the former Soviet Republic prone to conflicts and threats.
Describe the role played by India in keeping in Non-Aligned Movement alive and relevant.
Ans: Factors that make most of the former Soviet republics prone to conflicts and threats:
(i) There were internal weaknesses of Soviet political and economic institutions, which failed to meet the aspirations of the people.
(ii) Economic stagnation for many years led. To severe shortages of consumer items and a large section of Soviet society began to doubt and question the system and do so openly
(iii) The Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining a nuclear and military arsenal.
(iv) The development of its satellite states in Eastern Europe and within the Soviet system (the five Central Asian republics in particular). This led to a huge economic burden that the system could not cope with.
(v) They could see the disparities between their system and the systems of the West. After years of being told that the Soviet system was better than Western capitalism, the reality of its backwardness came as a political and psychological shock.
(vi) The Soviet Union had become stagnant in an administrative and political sense as well.
(vii) The rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic republics (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), Ukraine, Georgia.
The Non-Aligned Movement aimed at establishing a new and equitable international economic, social and political order.
(i) Stabilization of world peace: The non-aligned countries always keep themselves away from the power blocks so that they could reduce the tension in the world and if at all there is any war they can bring peace in the particular area by mediating between the enemy countries.
(ii) To put an end to imperialism and colonialism: The non-aligned countries wanted to put an end to imperialism as they supported exploitation, the members of the NAM supported the freedom struggle movements in Asia and Africa.
(iii) Opposition of alliances: The world had already witnessed two crucial and dreadful wars because of the alliances of military. So the non-aligned countries decided not to join any power bloc which might create tension in the world and ultimately, its result in the world war.
Points of criticism of NAM
(i) Non-alignment was said to be unprincipled. In the name of pursuing national interest, often refused to take a firm stand in crucial international issues.
(ii) Members of NAM was inconsistent and took contradictory postures. Having criticised others for joining alliances, India signed the Treaty of Friendship in August. 1971 with the USSR for 20 years. This was regarded, particularly, by outside observers, as virtually joining the Soviet alliances system.
The Indian government's view was that India needed diplomatic and possibly military support during the Bangladesh crisis and that in any case the treaty did not stop India from having good relations with other countries including the US.
Following are the characteristics of Non-Aligned Movement:
1. Non-Alignment is a concept aiming at independent and peaceful to existence.
2. NAM is an active and positive state of affairs.
3. NAM is relevant in peace as well as war.
4. NAM is a concept of International relations.
Ques 9: Explain any three environmental concerns in global politics.
Explain any three reasons for resistance to globalization.
Ans: Environmental concerns in global politics
(i) Cultivated area in world is limited and there is less scope in expand it. It is also a matter of concern that a substantial portion of existing agricultural land is losing fertility and an over-harvested.
(ii) Issues related to access safe water and sanitation is very important. According to UNDP report 1.2 billion people in developing countries have no access to safe water and 2.6 billion have no access to sanitation.
(iii) For ecological balance natural forests are important environmental concerns in global politics. Ecological degradation may affect climate change and it may affect biodiversity on land.
(iv) A steady decline in the total amount of ozone in the earth s stratosphere poses a real danger to ecosystems and human health.
(v) The Coastal waters are becoming increasingly polluted largely due to land-based activities. It may cause deterioration in the quality of marine environment.
Globalization is a very contentions subject, critics of globalization have many reason to resist it.
(i) Leftist argue that contemporary globalization represents a particular phase of global capitalism that expand the breach between the rich and the poor.
(ii) The state is becoming weak and the capacity of the state for welfare of people is getting reduced.
(iii) Economically, critics want a return to self-reliance and protectionism, especially in export-import and investment.
(iv) Culturally, critics are worried that traditional culture i.e. music, dress and language etc. will be harmed and people will lose their age-old values and ways.