Ques 1: Highlight any one consequence of 'Shock Therapy'.
Ans: Consequence of Shock Therapy:
(i) In Russia, the large state-controlled industrial complex almost collapsed, as about 90 per cent of its industries were put up for sale to private individuals and companies at throw-away prices called as "the largest garage sale in history.
(ii) The value of ruble declined dramatically and the inflation rate was so high that people lost their savings.
(iii) The Russian old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed and the withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of the people into poverty.
(iv) Post - Soviet states, especially Russia, were divided between rich and poor regions resulting into great economic inequality.
Ques 2: Explain hegemony as a soft power.
Ans: Hegemony as a soft power implies class ascendency in the social, political and particularly ideological spheres. It arises when the dominate class or a country can win the consent of the dominated class or a country can win the consent of the dominated classes by persuading them to view the world in a favorable manner.
Ques 3: Evaluate the causes for the strained relations between India and China.
Ans: Causes for the strained relations between India and China:
(i) Military conflict over a border dispute between the two countries marred the hope of the two countries coming together to shape the future of the developing world and of Asia particularly.
(ii) Soon after independence, both states were involved in differences arising from the Chinese takeover of Tibet in 1950 and the final settlement of the Sino - Indian border.
(iii) China and India were involved in Oborder conflict in 1962 over competing territorial claims principally in Arunachal Pradesh and in the Aksai Chin region of Ladakh.
(iv) The conflict of 1962 in which India suffered military reverses, had long term implications for India - China relations.
Ques 4: Describe the strategy adopted by the Government of India to promote the Green Revolution.
Ans: The strategy adopted by the Government of India to promote the Green Revolution:
(i) The Government of India offered High Yielding Variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides at highly subsidized prices.
(ii) The government provided better irrigation facilities.
(iii) The government also gave a guarantee to buy the produce of the farmers at a given price.
(iv) The government decided to put more resources into those areas which already had irrigation and those farmers who were already well off.
Ques 5: State any two main demands of the Narmada Bachao Aandolan.
Ans: Main demands of the Narmada Bachao Aandolan:
(i) The Movement demanded proper and just rehabilitation of all those who are directly or indirectly steeled by the project.
(ii) The NBA insisted that local communities must have say in such decisions and they should also have effective control over natural resources like water, land and forests.
(iii) It demanded that, in a democracy, some people should not be made to sacrifice for benefiting others.
(iv) It demanded to stop the construction of the dams.
Ques 6: Explain the importance of cooperation in the field of Traditional Security.
Ans: The importance of cooperation in me field of "Traditional Security" is disarmament, arms control, and confidence building.
Disarmament requires all states to give up certain kinds of weapons. For example, the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and 1992 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) banned the production and possession of these weapons.
Arms control regulates the acquisition or development of weapons. The Anti- Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty 1972 tried to stop the United States and the Soviet Union from using ballistic missiles as a defensive shield to launch a nuclear attack.
Confidence Building is accepted as a means of avoiding violence. It is a process in which countries share ideas and information with their rivals.
Ques 7: Describe any three environmental concerns that have become issues of global politics.
Describe any three effects of globalisation on the economy of a country.
Ans: Environmental concerns that have become issues of global politics:
(i) Throughout the world cultivable are is barely expanding anymore and a substantial portion of existing of existing agricultural land is losing fertility.
(ii) About 1.2 billion people in developing countries have no access to safe drinking water.
(iii) Natural forest are being cut down throughout the world which has disestablished the climate.
(iv) A steady decline in the total amount of ozone is taking place in the earth's stratosphere which is posing real danger to eco system.
The effects of globalization:
(i) Globalization has led to similar economic policies adopted by Governments in different parts of the world that has generated vastly different outcomes in different parts of the world.
(ii) It has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe; the restrictions imposed by different countries on allowing the imports of other countries have been reduced. Similarly, the restrictions on movement of capital across countries have also been reduced.
(iii) Globalization has led to the flow of ideas across national boundaries; spread of internet and computer related services is an example of that.
(iv) Economic globalization has created an intense division of opinion all over the world. Those who are concerned about social justice are worried about the extent of state withdrawal caused by processes of economic globalization.
(v) Globalization generates greater economic growth and well-being for larger sections of the population when there is de-regulation. Greater trade among countries allows each economy to do what it does best.
Ques 8: Describe any three obstacles that delayed the merger of Jammu and Kashmir with India.
Describe any three points of consensus that emerged among most political parties in India in spite of sever competition and conflicts.
Ans: The obstacles that delayed the merger of Jammu and Kashmir with India:
(i) Jammu and Kashmir's Hindu ruler Maharaja Hari Singh did not want to merge with India and declared its independtly princely state.
(ii) On the other hand, the Pakistani leaders thought that since a great majority of the population of the state was Muslim, the state should merge with Pakistan.
(iii) Pakistan sent tribal infiltrations to capture Kashmir. This forced Maharaja Hari Singh to ask India for military help. India extended military help only after Maharaja has signed the Instrument of Accession with the government of India.
(iv) As a result of the tribal invasion of the state in 1947, a part of the state came under Pakistan's occupation which is known as Azad Kashmir.
The consensus that emerged among most political parties in India in spite of severe competition and conflicts:
(i) First agreement of new economic policies while many groups are opposed to the new economic policies, most political parties are in support of the new economic policies. Most parties believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.
(ii) Second, acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward castes - political parties have recognized that the social and political claims of the backward castes need to be accepted. As a result all political parties now support reservation of seats for the backward classes in the education and employment. Political parties are also willing to ensure that the OBCs get adequate share of power.
(iii) Third, acceptance of the role of state level parties in governance of the country - the distinction between state level and national level parties is fast becoming less important. State level parties are sharing power at the national level and have played a central role in the country's, politics of last twenty years or so.
(iv) Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without political agreementoalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements.