Ques 1: What is the full form of 'SEATCF'?
Ans: Southeast Asian Treaty Organisation.
Ques 2: Highlight any one main feature of the U.S. economy.
Ans: The basic feature of the US economy is that it is an open world economy which requires a dominant power to support. The hegemony must possess both the ability and the desire to establish certain norms and order, to sustain the global structure.
Ques 3: Explain the role played by India in maintaining Afro-Asian unity.
Ans: Role played by India in maintaining Afro-Asian unity:
(i) Under the leadership of Nehru, India convened the Asian Relation Conference in March 1947.
(ii) India was a staunch supporter of the decolonization process and firmly opposed racism especially apartheid in South Africa.
(iii) India made earnest efforts for the early realization of an international conference in 1949 to support its freedom struggle.
(iv) The Afro - Asian conference held in the Indonesian city of Bandung in 1955, commonly known as Bandung Conference, marked the zenith of India's engagement with newly independent Asian and African nations.
(v) The Bandung Conference later led to the establishment of the NAM.
Ques 4: Describe any four consequences of the Green Revolution.
Ans: (i) The rich peasants and the large landholders were the major beneficiaries of the process.
(ii) In many parts, the stark contrast between the poor peasantry and the landlords produced conditions favorable for left wing organizations to organize the poor peasants.
(iii) The green revolution also resulted in the rise of middle peasant sections.
(iv) The green revolution delivered only a moderate agricultural growth and raised the availability of food in the country, but increased polarization between classes and regions.
Ques 5: Describe any two issues which made the Anti-Arrack Movement as a women's movement.
Ans: (i) The Anti - Arrack movement had touched upon. Larger social, economic and political issues of the region dial affected women's life.
(ii) A close nexus between crime and politics was established around the business of arrack.
(iii) Groups of local women tried to address these complex issues in their agitation against arrack. Their movement for the first time provided a platform to discuss private issues of domestic violence.
(iv) They ran a campaign against the system of dowry and demanded personal and property laws based on the norms of gender equality.
Ques 6: Explain the concept of 'Human Security'.
Ans: Human Security means the protection of the people more than the protection of states. The proponents of human security argue that the primary aim of the state is the protection of its individuals. According to them the concept of human security should include hunger, diseases and natural disasters as they kill even more people than war. Thus, human security should protect people from these threats as well as from violence and war.
In its broadest formulation, the human security agenda also encompasses economic security and threats to human dignity.
Ques 7: Who are indigenous people? Describe any four problems of the indigenous people.
Describe any three factors which are responsible for globalisation.
Ans: (i) Indigenous people are the descendants of people who inhabited the present territory of a country at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world and overcome them. These are treated as scheduled tribes in constitution of India.
(ii) The problems of the indigenous people:
(a) Issues related to the rights of the indigenous communities have been neglected in domestic and international politics for very long.
(b) The loss of land, which also means the loss of an economic resource base, is the most obvious threat to the survival of indigenous people.
(c) Although, they enjoy a constitutional protection in political representation, they have not got much of the benefits of development in the country.
(d) They pay a huge cost for development since they are the single largest group among the people displaced by various developmental projects since independence.
The factors responsible for globalization:
(a) Technology is the significant element of globalization. All round revolution and communication technology has drastically changed the whole scenario.
(b) The technological advances and innovation have facilities the ability of ideas, capital, commodities and people move easily from one corner of the world to another.
(c) The process of globalization does nor rake place only because of the access to improved communications. The main element is to recognize the interconnections with the rest.
Ques 8: Describe the role of E.V. Ramasami 'Pariyar' in the Dravid Movement and the formation of Dravida Kazhagam (DK). Why did the DK get split and enter into politics as DMK?
Describe the process of Goa's Liberation and becoming a State of the Indian Union.
Ans: The Dravidian movement led to the formation of Dravida Kazhagam (DK) under the leadership of Tamil socialre former E. V. Ramasami Periyar?. The organization strongly opposed the Brahmins dominance and affirmed regional pride against die political, economic and cultural domination of the north. Initially, the Dravidian Movement spoke in terms of the whole of south India.
The DK split and the political legacy of the movement was transferred to Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) due to the following:
(1) It demanded the restoration of the original name of Kallakudi railway station which had been renamed Dalmiapuram after an industrial house from the north.
(2) Secondly, agitation was for giving Tamil cut rural history greater importance in school curriculam.
(3) The third agitation was against the craft education scheme of the state government which it alleged was linked to the Brahmanical social outlook.
Goa was under colonial rule since the 16th century. Daring their rule, the Portuguese suppressed the people of Goa, denied them civil rights and carried out forced religious conversions. After achieving independence, the government of India tried its best to persuade the Portuguese to withdraw from Goa.
In Goa also, there was strong movement for freedom, which was strengthened by satyagrahis from Maharashtra. Finally, in 1961 the government of India sent its army which liberated Goa, Daman and Diu and it was made a Union Territory One section of the people of Goa desired that Goa, as a Marathi speaking area should merge with Maharashtra but many Goans were keen to retain a separate identity and culture particularly the Konkani language.
Thus in a referendum-like opinion poll procedure held by Central Government, majority voted in favour of remaining outside Maharashtra. As such it continued as a Union territory which finally became a state in 1987.