Ques 1: How did the U.S. respond to the 9/11 attacks?
Ans: The U.S. launched Operation Enduring Freedom against all those suspected to be behind the attack of 9/11, particularly AI-Qaeda and die Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
Ques 2: Highlight any one major distinction between the Soviet economy and the Capitalist economy.
Ans: The Soviet economy was planned and controlled by the state only whereas the capitalist economy was enjoyed by the people or group of people as well as by the state.
Ques 3: How far do you agree that the proclamation of emergency weakened the federal distribution of power in India?
Ans: During the emergency, distribution of powers was suspended. All the powers came into the hands of the central government because of the Presidential Rule.
Ques 4: Justify that? Regionalism is not as dangerous as Communalism?
Ans: Under Regionalism, the set of demands raised by the people are for the development of that particular region within the country which is the key feature of democracy, whereas communalism represents the demands of a particular religious community for a separate independent region to rule over or for their own vested interests.
Ques 5: Why do some people feel that Article 370 should be revoked?
Ans: Some people feel that Article 370 should be revoked because they believe that the special status of the state conferred by this Article does not allow full integration of the state with India.
Ques 6: Mention any two benefits of globalization.
Ans: Benefits of Globalization:
(i) There is increase in the volume of trade in goods and services.
(ii) Inflow of private foreign capital gets enhanced.
(iii) New jobs are created by MNCs.
(iv) Improved production efficiency and healthy competition.
Ques 7: Suggest any two measures to have good relations with Pakistan.
Ans: Suggested measures:
(i) Cultural exchanges by prominent personalities.
(ii) Economic cooperation should be encouraged by both the countries.
(iii) Movement of citizens to interact and understand each other.
(iv) Action against Militants.
Ques 8: Which characteristics made the Congress an ideological coalition during the freedom movement of India?
Ans: Congress as an ideological Coalition Factors:
(i) Different groups merged their identity within the Congress. Very often they continued to exist within the Congress as groups and individuals holding different beliefs.
(ii) It accommodated the revolutionary and pacifist conservative and radical, extremists and moderates as well as the right, left and all shades of the centre. It was a platform for numerous groups.
Ques 9: Identify the most important outcome of the Rio Summit.
Ans: Outcomes of Rio Summit:
(i) The Rio Summit produced conventions dealing with climate change, biodiversity, forestry etc.
(ii) It recommended a list of developmental practices called Agenda 21.
(iii) There was consensus on sustainable development.
Ques 10: How was the U.S. benefited by the Soviet disintegration?
Ans: (i) Cold War ended and the US became the sole super power.
(ii) The capitalist economy became the dominant economic system internationally.
(iii) It signifies collapse of the ideological conflict between the Socialists and the Capitalists.
Ques 11: Describe any four demands made by the Bharatiya Kisan Union after 1980.
Ans: Demands made by the Bharatiya Kisan Union after 1980:
(i) Higher official floor prices for sugarcane and wheat.
(ii) Abolition of restrictions on the inter-state movement of farm produce.
(iii) Guaranteed supply of electricity at reasonable rates.
(iv) Waiving of repayments due on loans to farmers.
(v) The provision of a government pension for farmers.
Ques 12: State any two differences between the First Five Year Plan and the Second Five Year Plan.
Ans: Difference between the First Five Year Plan and the Second Five year Plan:
(i) First Five year plan started with a thrust on agriculture development whereas the Second Five Year Plan stresses on heavy industries.
(ii) The First Five Year Plan had emphasised on patience and Second Five Year Plan wanted to bring about quick structural transformation.
Ques 13: Explain the circumstances that forced the Tibetans to leave China. Highlight India's role in helping the Tibetan refugees.
Ans: (i) China annexed Tibet in 1950 and started the suppression of Tibetans.
(ii) The large section of the Tibetan population opposed this takeover. So, in 1958, there was armed uprising in Tibet against China's occupation. This was suppressed by the Chinese forces.
Under these circumstances, a large number of Tibetans sought refuge in India and any many other countries or the world also.
(i) Many political leaders and parties in India supported the cause of Tibet's independence.
(ii) Many places like Delhi and Dharmshala became the largest refugee settlements of Tibetan refugees.
(iii) The Government of India as well as many state governments extended help to resettle the Tibetan refugees.
Ques 14: Distinguish between the internal and external notion of traditional security.
Ans: Internal notion of traditional security:
(i) Internal military conflicts.
(ii) Separatist movements.
(iii) Internal wars.
External notion of traditional security:
(i) Danger to a country from military threats.
(ii) Deterrence, defence and balance of power.
(iii) Alliance building as components of traditional security.
Ques 15: In what way do the coalition governments prove to be more democratic than the one-party governments?
Ans: Coalition governments prove to be more democratic from the one-party governments in many ways:
(i) It eliminates the fear of one-party dictatorship.
(ii) Different groups and regions get due representation in the government.
(iii) Due to coalition government many parties come together on different issues.
(iv) Coalition government keeps in view the regional aspirations and interests.
Ques 16: 'Democracy is becoming the first choice of the people of South Asia.' Justify the statement.
Ans: The following points justify the given statement:
(i) Despite the mixed record of the democratic experience, the people in all the countries of South Asia share the aspiration for democracy.
(ii) Sur veys in SAARC countries show that there is widespread support for democracy everywhere.
(iii) Ordinary citizens view the idea of democracy positively and support the institutions of representative democracy.
(iv) The people think that democracy is most suited for their country.
(v) According to some, democracy could flourish and find support only in prosperous countries of the world.
Ques 17: Read the given passage carefully and answer the following questions:
Above all, the linguistic states underlined the acceptance of the principle of diversity. When we say that India adopted democracy, it does not simply mean that India embraced a democratic constitution, nor does it merely mean that India adopted the format of election. The choice was larger than that. It was a choice in favour of recognising and accepting die existence of differences which could at times be oppositional Democracy, in other words, was associated with plurality of ideas and way of life.
(i) What is meant by 'linguistic states'?
(ii) Why were linguistic states former in India?
Explain any two reasons.
(iii) How is democracy In India associated with plurality of ideas and ways of life?
Ans: (i) Linguistic states are organized or created on the basis of its regional language.
(ii) (a) It was felt that if the demands for separate states on linguistic basis are accepted, the threat of division and separation would reduce and establish unity in diversity's.
(b) Accommodation, of regional demands and the formation, of Linguistic states were seen as more democratic because of language and religious differences.
(iii) India is country of different religions and ideologies. Still, the people have freedom to express their views and have equal representation in the decision making bodies.
Ques 18: Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions:
The Naxalite Movement has used force to snatch land from the rich landowners and give it to the poor and the landless. Its supporters advocated the use of violent means to achieve their political goals. In spite of the use of preventive detention and other strong measures adopted by the West Bengal government...., the Nexalite Movement did not come to an end. In later years, it spread to many other parts of the country.
(i) Why did the Naxalites prefer to use violecce?
(ii) Assess the positive role of the Naxalite Movement in spite of using violence.
(iii) Suggest any two measures to contain this movement.
Ans: (i) Naxalities preferred to use violence because they argued that democracy in India was a sham and the legal process would not help them. So they preferred to take law in their own hands.
(ii) The Naxalite movement has used force to snatch land from the rich land owners and give it to the poor and the landless in order to enable them to meet their both ends meet as well as achieve their political goals.
(iii) (a) Government should provide the basic rights to the people of backward areas and Adivasis.
(b) Forced labour, and exploitation by money lenders must be stopped.
(c) The Government should follow constitutional norms while dealing with the Naxalities.
Ques 19: Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions:
Non-alignment as a strategy evolved in the Cold War context.
............ with the disintegration of USSR and the end of Cold War in 1991, non-alignment, both, as an international movement and as the core of India's foreign policy, lost some of its earlier relevance and effectiveness.
(i) Why did India adopt non - alignment?
(ii) Explain any two reasons for the loss of its relevance by the Non-Aligned Movement.
(iii) How far do you agree that the Non-Aligned Movement has become an international movement?
Ans: (i) India adopted Non-alignment to make international policies and decisions in a free manner and to actively intervene in world affairs to soften Cold War Rivalries.
(ii) Both as an International movement and as the core of the India's foreign policy, lost some of its earlier relevance and effectiveness.
(iii) NAM has become an international movement because it is based on a resolve to democratise the international system. It provides an alternative world in order to redress the existing inequalities in various countries, especially the newly independent countries.
Ques 20: Study the cartoon given below and answer following questions:
(i) Which country does the given cartoon refer to?
(ii) Identify the two symbols in this cartoon which have given you the clue about the related country.
(iii) Where does the cartoon place the related country in the international power politics?
Ans: (i) China,
(ii) The Great Wall of China and Dragon
(iii) The cartoon depicts China's economics rise which made it a big power. It is projected to overtake the us as the world?s largest economy by 2040.
Ques 21: Describe any three steps taken by the Indian Government to check the environmental degradation.
Describe any three effects of globalisation on the culture of a country.
Ans: Steps taken by the Indian government to check the Environmental Degradation:
(i) National Auto-fuel policy Indian National Auto Fuel Policy mandates cleaner fuels for vehicles.
(ii) Energy conservation act: The Energy Conservation Act passed in 2001, outlines initiatives to improve energy efficiency. The Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy.
(iii) National mission on biodiesel: The Indian Government is also keen to launch a National Mission on Biodiesel, using about 11 million hectares of land to produce Biodiesel, and India has one of the largest renewable energy programmes in die world.
Cultural effects of globalization may be positive as well as negative:
(i) External influences simply enlarge our choices and sometimes they modify our culture without overwhelming the trandition. For example, the burger is no substitute for a mask dosa and, therefore, does not pose any real challenge. In the same way blue jeans can go well with a homespun Khadi Kurta.
(ii) Globalisation broadened our cultural outlook and promotes cultural homogenisation.
(iii) The culture of a developed society leaves its imprint on a less powerful society and the world begins to look more like a dominant power wishes it to be.
(iv) This is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the whole of humanity, for it leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.
Ques 22: Which three major developments took place in Indian politics during the last decade of the 20th century? Describe.
Briefly describe the story of Sikkim from the time of India's independence to its merger with India.
Ans: (i) Decline of congress: The defeat of the Congress Party In the election of 1989 marked the end of Congress dominance over the Indian party system. It could win only 197 seats in Lok Sabha.
(ii) Rise of mandal issue: The Mandal Issue started with the National Front Government's decision to implement the recommendation of Mandal Commission the jobs in the Central government should be reserved for OBCs. This led to violent and Mandal protests in different parts of the county.
(iii) New economic policy: The government adopted new economic policy in 1991. It was, started by Rajiv Gandhi. These changes first become visible in 1991. It radically changed the direction that the Indian economy had pursued since independence.
(iv) Demolition of Babri Masjid or Ayodhya dispute: Ayodhya dispute started with the demolition of the disputed structure of Babri Masjid at Ayodhya in December 1992. It led to various changes in politics of the country. It raised die question about the nature or Indian nationalism and secularism.
(v) Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi: The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991 led to change in the leadership of the Congress. In the election of 1991, Congress emerged as the single largest party P. V. Narsimha Rao was elected as the Prime Minister of India.
At the time of independence, Sikkim was nor a part of India. It was a Protectorate of India. Its defence and foreign relations were looked after by India but not administrated by India. Monarchy system of Chogyal was unable to deal with the democratic aspirations of the people of Sikkim. Majority of Sikkim's population was Nepalis and Lepcha - Bhutia community was in minority. The anti-Chogyal leaders of both the communities got support from the Government or India. The first democratic elections were held in 1974. The Assembly first sought the status of a associate state and then in April, 1975 passed a resolution asking tor full integration with India. The Indian parliament accepted this request immediately and Sikkim became the. 22nd State of Indian Union.
Ques 23: Explain any three causes of the split in the Congress Party in 1969.
Explain the circumstances that led to the mid-term elections in 1980.
Ans: Cause of split in the Congress Party in 1969:
(i) Differences between Indira and the Syndicate
(ii) Nomination of N. Sanjeev Reddy as official candidate for the post of President of India in 1969, which was against the wishes of Indira Gandhi.
(iii) Revolutionary steps taken by Indira Gandhi were not welcomed by the old Congress leaders.
(iv) Indira Gandhi supported V. V. Giri as an independent candidate for the post of President of India.
(v) The defeat of N. Sanjeev Reddy led to the split of the Congress Party.
Circumstances that led to the mid-term election in 1980:
(i) The opposition to emergency could not keep the Janta Party together for a long time. The Janta Party lacked direction leadership and a common programme.
(ii) Janta party government could not bring about a fundamental change in policies from those pursued by the Congress earlier.
(iii) There was a split in the Janta Party and the government which was led by Morarji Desai lost its majority in less than 18 months.
(iv) Another government headed by Charan Singh was formed on the assurance of the support of the Congress Party. But the Congress Party later decided to withdraw its support with the result that Charan Singh Government resigned just after four months.
Ques 24: Suppose there had been no Cold War, how would that situation have affected India's foreign policy?
If the Soviet Union had not disintegrated and the world had remained bipolar, how would that situation have affected the world politics?
Ans: If the Soviet Union had not disintegrated, it would definitely have affected the following developments.
(i) Cold War confrontations would not have ended and United Nations would not have become the only super power of the World.
(ii) Most of the countries which were part of erstwhile USSR would have never got independence.
(iii) Accumulation of nuclear weapons would have continued endlessly.
Ques 25: Give any three suitable arguements to support India's candidature for the permanent membership of the U.N. Security Council.
How are the threats faced by the people in the Third World different from those faced by the people living in the First World? Support your answer with examples.
Ans: (i) India is second most populous country in the World comprising almost one-fifth of the World's Population.
(ii) India is also the world's largest democracy and has virtually participated in all of the initiatives of the UN.
(iii) Its role in the UN's peace keeping efforts is a long and substantial one.
(iv) India's economic emergence on the world stage, due to its policies of liberalization and globalization, has enhanced its stake for membership.
(v) India has also made regular financial contribution to the UN and never faltered on its payments.
The differences in the threats that people in the Third World faced and those living in the First World.
(i) The Third world countries face the threats not only from outside their borders, but also from within. On the other hand, most of the First World countries face threats only from outside their borders.
(ii) Third World faces threats from separatist movements. There is no such threat in the First World Countries.
(iii) For the newly independent Third World Countries, external and internal wars posed a serious challenge to their security than the First world countries faced.
Ques 26: Analyse the political impact of hegemony of the U.S. on the world.
Analyse any three factors responsible for the European Union to be a highly influential regional organisation.
Ans: Political Impact of the US Hegemony on the World:
(i) Now the international system is dominated by a sole superpower i.e. the US.
(ii) The US today spends more on its military capability from the next 12 powers combined.
(iii) Most of the other countries that are big military spenders are US friends and allies.
(iv) The US Hegemony is reflected in the role played by the US In providing global public goods.
(v) SLOCs is under the control of muld-oceanic US Navy.
(vi) The US also accounts for 15 percent of world trade.
(vii) World Bank, International Monetary Fund and World Trade Organisation are assumed as the products of American hegemony.
(viii) The Predominance of the US in the world today is also based on its cultural presence.
(ix) The US is the most seductive and most powerful culture on earth.
Factors responsible for the European Union to be a highly influential regional organization:
(i) Influence of EU in economic fields: The EU is the world's biggest economy. Its currency, the Euro can pose threat to the dominance of the US dollar also. Its economic power gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa. Its share of world trade is 3 times larger that of the US.
(ii) Influence of EU in political fields: Its two members Britain and France hold permanent seats in the UN Security Council. It also includes several non- permanent members of the UNSC. The EU has influenced some US policies such as the current US position on Iran's nuclear programme.
(iii) Influence of EU in military fields: The EU's combined Armed Forces are the second largest in the world. Its total spending on defence is second after the US. Its two members Britain and France also have nuclear 550 nuclear war heads.