Ques 1: Which two ideologies were involved in a conflict during the Cold War era and why?
Ans: The two ideologies in conflict were- Socialism and capitalism.
The US bloc was in favour of Capitalism and was against spread of Socialism which was economic of eastern alliance i.e. USSR bloc.
Ques 2: While the Chinese economy has improved dramatically, why has every Chinese not received the benefits of the reforms? Give any four reasons.
(i) Unemployment has risen.
(ii) Work conditions were not good.
(iii) Environmental degradation increased.
(vi) Corruption was also on the increase.
Ques 3: Why do some countries question the issue of Indians inclusion as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council? Explain.
Ans: (i) Strained relations with Pakistan.
(ii) Some countries are concerned about India's nuclear capabilities.
(iii) China is also not in favor of India due to strategic reasons.
(iv) If India is accommodated, other developing countries will also ask for permanent membership.
(v) Some others feel that Africa and South America must be re resented.
Ques 4: Explain the role of Environmental Movements to meet the challenge of Environmental Degradation.
Ans: (i) Some of them work at the international level whereas most of them work at the local level.
(ii) They are amongst the most vibrant, diverse and powerful social movements across the global.
(iii) It is within social movements that new forms of political action are or reinvented.
(iv) These movements raise new ideas and long term visions of what we should do and what we should not do in our individual and collective lives.
Ques 5: How did the coalition like character of the Congress Party give it an unusual strength?
Ans: (i) A coalition accommodates all those who join it and help in striking a balance on almost all issues.
(ii) There is a greater tolerance of internal differences and ambitions of various groups and leaders are accommodated.
(iii) It helped the Congress to retain a parity inside it even if a group was not happy.
(iv) Internal factionalism became a strength of the Congress Party, which is usually a weakness.
Ques 6: State any six post-Cold War changes that have necessitated reforms to make the U.N. work better.
What is meant by traditional notions of internal and external security?
Ans: Post-Cold War changes:
(i) Soviet Union has collapsed.
(ii) US is the strongest power.
(iii) The relationship between Russia and the US arc more co-operative.
(iv) The economies of Asia are growing at an unprecedented rate.
(v) India and China are growing- rapidly.
(vi) Many new countries have joined the UN.
(vii) A. whole new set of challenges like genocide, civil war, ethnic conflict, terrorism, climate change, environmental degradation etc., confronts the world.
Traditional notions of internal security: Traditional security must also concern itself with internal security. After the second world war, for the most powerful countries on earth, internal security was more or less assured. After 1945, Ac US and the Soviet Union appeared to be united and could expect peace within their borders. In Europe, most of the powerful countries faced no threat from groups or communities living within their borders. However, newly independent countries of Asia and Africa faced problems of Civil war,
Traditional notion of external security:
The period after the Second World War was the cold war period in which the US led western alliance faced the Soviet led Communist alliance. The two alliances feared a military attack from each other. Some European powers, in addition, continued to worry about violence in their colonies, from colonized People who wanted Independence.
Ques 7: What is Sardar Sarovar Project? Which benefits are expected to be if the project becomes successful? Also state the issues of rehabilitation and relocation associated with it.
While trying to forge and retain unity in diversity in India, there are many difficult issues which are yet to be tackled. Describe any three such areas of tension.
Ans: Sardar Sarovar Project is an ambitious developmental project launched in the Narmada Valley. It's a mega dam project consisting of 30 big dams, 135 medium dams and around 3000 small dam to be constructed in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
(i) Water for irrigation.
(ii) Generation of electricity.
(iii) Help to control flood and drought, (any two to be explained)
Issues: About 245 villages have been affected and people belonging to these villages have to be relocated and rehabilitated.
(i) Areas of tension in the way of retaining unity in diversity. The issue of Jammu and Kashmir. Some issues of North East about which there was no consensus about them being a part of India or not. Strong movements in Nagaland and Mizoram demanding separation from India.
(ii) Mass agitations in many parts for the formation of new state on the basis of language.
(iii) First phase of nation building was not enough.
New challenges came up in Punjab, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttrakhand.