Ques 1: Which one of the following statements about the Berlin wall is false?
(a) It symbolized the division between the Capitalist and the Communist worlds.
(b) It marked the unification of two parts of Germany.
(c) It was broken by the people on 9th November, 1989.
(d) It marked the unification of the two parts of Germany.
Ans: (b) It marked the unification of two parts of Germany.
Ques 2: Why was ASEAN established?
Ans: ASEAN was established:
(i) To accelerate the economic growth.
(ii) For social progress and cultural development.
(iii) To promote regional peace and security.
Ques 3: Which one of the two is more essential-construction of mega dams or an environmental movement that opposes it and why?
Ans: It construction of mega dams is essential for development and progress of country. However relocation and rehabilation of the affected people should be done but without environmental degradation.
Ques 4: Which two objectives Jawaharlal Nehru wished to achieve through the strategy of Non-alignment?
(i) To prepare the hard earned sovereignty
(ii) To protect territorial integrity
(iii) Piece coexistence for securing world place.
Ques 5: Highlight the most novel aspect of the Chipko Movement.
Ans: The most novel aspect of Chipko Movement was the active participation of women.
Ques 6: Mention any two major military features of the Cold War.
Ans: Following are two military features of cold war:
(i) The two superpower and the countries in the rival block led by the super power were expected to behave as rational and reposible actors.
(ii) When two super powers and the blocks led by them are on a deterance relationship, fighting wars will be massively destructive.
Ques 7: 'The leaders of the newly independent India did not see politics as a problem: They saw it as a way of solving the problems.' How far do you agree with the statement?
Ans: The above statement is absolutely true because most of the leaders of national movement joined politics and tried to be in power to solve the problems of the people. They actively engaged themselves in all political activities. Even the opposition was constructive criticism. They tried to face the challenging along with their appropriate solution.
Ques 8: Match the following:
(a) A politically controversial appointment
(b) Led the Railway strike in 1972
(c) Declined to join Nehru's Cabinet
(d) Died in police custody
(i) Charu Majumdar
(ii) Jayprakash Narayan
(iii) George Fernandes
(iv) Justice A. N. Ray
Ans: (a) - (iv), (b) - (iii), (c) - (ii), (d) - (i)
Ques 9: While the rest of the country was reorganized on linguistic lines in 1950, why had Punjab to wait till 1966?
Ans: (i) In. Punjab there was two linguistic group:
Hindi: Speaking and Punjabi speaking. Punjabi speaking group were not getting full support from non-pun |ab group, hence they wanted their separate stare.
(ii) It was not granted with other states in 1956. Ten Years later in 1966, the terroterries of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh were separated. Hence larger Punjab was created.
Ques 10: How was the reorganization of North-East India completed and by when?
Ans: Reorganisation of north cast was almost completed in 1972. Meghalaya was carved out of Assam in 1972. Manipur and Tripura too emerged as separate states. The states of Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram came into being much later in 1987. Nagaland had become a state in 1963.
Ques 11: In which four ways did the new economic policy of China benefit its economy?
Ans: (i) The state played and continues to play a central role in setting up a market economy.
(ii) Privatisation of agriculture in 1982 and privateisation in 1998.
(iii) New trading laws and creation of special economic zones
(iv) High personal savings in the rural economy led to an exponential growth of rural industry.
(v) Chinese economy grew at a faster rate. The SEZ led to a phenomenal rise in Foreign Trade.
Ques 12: What is Amnesty International? State its main functions.
Ans: It is an international NGO that campaigns for the protection of human rights. Functions:
(i) It prepares and publishes reports on human rights.
(ii)It believes that human rights are indivisible and interdependent.
(iii) It promotes respect for all the Human right in the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights".
Ques 13: What are 'global commons'? Why is it said that international cooperation over the global commons is not easy?
Ans: Global commons are the resources which are not owned by anyone country but rather owned by international community. For example, earth's atmosphere, Antartica, the ocean floor and the outer space. They are also called res communis humanitatis.
It is difficult to achieve consensus on common environmental agenda. There have been significant agreements such as Antartic treaty (1959), Montreal protocol (1987) and Antartic Environmental Protocol (1991). History of outer space as a global commons shows that the management of these areas is influenced by North South inequalities. The benefits of exploitative activities in outer space are far from being equal either for the present or the future.
Ques 14: What distinguished the dominance of the Congress Party in India from other examples of one party dominance in other countries? Explain.
Ans: The dominance of the Congress Party in India was different because of the following reasons:
(i) In India democracy was not compromised by dominance of one party.
(ii) In India multiparty system prevailed where as in other countries like China and Russia dominance of one party was due to one party system.
(iii) In India there was no military interference like in Myanmar and Egypt.
(iv) In India dominance of Congress party was due to its own popularity.
Ques 15: Critically examine the major outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy.
Ans: (i) Much of the agriculture, trade and industry were left in private hands.
(ii) The state controlled key heavy industries, provided industrial infrastructure, regulated trade and some crucial interventions in agriculture.
(iii) This led to growth of both public and private development which became the basis for future development.
Ques 16: How did Janata Party make the 1977 elections into a referendum on the Emergency imposed in 1975? Explain.
Ans: As all the opposition parties joined hands against Congress and gave a choice to the people to choose anyone out of two. Janata Party advocated the cause of democracy and called the period of democracy as the absence of democracy. JP Narayan became the icon of the opposition and also a choice between Indira and JP. Janata Party asked the voters to choose between democracy and dictatorship.
Ques 17: Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
Each of these countries was required to make a total shift to a capitalist economy, which meant rooting out completely any structures evolved during this period. Above all, it meant that private ownership was to be the dominant pattern of ownership of property. Privatization of state assets and corporate ownership patterns were to be immediately brought in. Collective farms were to be replaced by private farming and capitalism in agriculture. This transition ruled out any alternate or 'third way'.
(i) Name any two countries which were required to make a total shift.
(ii) Why were the collective farms to be replaced by private farming?
(iii) Since the 'third way' had been ruled out, what were the only two ways of controlling the economy?
Ans: (i) Russia, Georgia, Uzbekistan or any other country created after disintegration of USSR.
(ii) Due to the end of state controlled economy and introduction of privatization and liberalization.
(iii) Two ways-State controlled economy (socialism) Capitalism.
Ques 18: Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions:
At the most simple level, globalization results in an erosion of state capacity that is the ability of government to do what they do. All over the world, the old 'welfare state' is now giving way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as the maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens. However, it withdraws from many of its earlier welfare functions directed at economic and social well-being. In place of the welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.
(i) What do the worlds 'erosion of state capcity' imply' Explain with the help of an example.
(ii) Why is the concept of welfare state giving way to a minimalist state?
(iii) How has market become the prime determinant of social priorities?
Ans: (i) Erosion of state capacity means reduction in the capability or power of the government to fulfill or take up responsibilities. Nowadays, the governments of various countries are obliged to obey the international norms for preservation and conservation of environment.
(ii) Due to privatization, most of the economic activities are in the private sector. States do have role to facilitate the economic development by maintaining law and order and providing security to the citizens. As such welfare activities are getting reduced.
(iii) Multi-national companies have come into the field of economic growth. They are in search of markets to sell their products. Now markets have become the determinants of social priorities. It had lead to a reduction in the capacity of governments to take decision on their own.
Ques 19: Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions:
When India conducted its first nuclear test, it was termed as peaceful explosion. India argued that it was committed to the policy of using nuclear power only for peaceful purposes. The period when the nuclear test was conducted was a difficult period in domestic politics. Following the Arab-Israel War of 1973, the entire world was affected by the Oil Shock due to the massive hike in the oil prices by the Arab nations. It led to economic turmoil in India resulting in high inflation.
(i) When did India conduct its first nuclear test and Why?
(ii) Why was the period, when the nuclear test was conducted in India, considered to be difficult period in domestic politics?
(iii) Which international event of 1970s was responsible for high inflation in India?
Ans: (i) In May 1974 at Pokhran (Rajasthan). To use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.
(ii) Prices were rising due to Arab - Israel war. There was a hike in oil prices. So, India was facing difficulties on the economic front.
(iii) The Arab Israel war of 1973 created the oil shock throughout the whole world
Ques 20:Study the cartoon given below and answer following questions:
(i) Identify any four national leaders from the above cartoon and mention the serial number of each.
(ii) Which was the most controversial issue of the period related to leader No.2 as Prime Minister of India?
(iii) What was the position of the party led by leader No.1 in the Lok Sabha elections of 1989?
Ans: (i)1. Rajiv Gandhi.
2. V. P. Singh
3. L. K. Advani
4. Devi Lal
5. Jyoti Basu
6. Chander Shekhar
7. N. T. Rama Rao
8. P. K. Mahanto
9. K. Karunanidhi
(ii) Implementation of Mandal Commission recommendation.
(iii) The party lead by leader no. 1 was badly affected in 1989 and could not muster clear majority (reduced from 415 to 189).
Ques 21: Highlight any three positive and three negative feature each of the soviet system in the Soviet Union.
How far is it correct to say the international alliances during the Cold War era were determined by the requirements of the superpower and the calculations of the smaller states? Explain.
Ans: Positive features:
(i) Soviet system was more developed than rest of the world except USA.
(ii) Minimum standard of living was insured for all the citizens.
(iii) The Govt. subsidized the basic needs including health, education, child care & other welfare schemes.
(iv) There was no unemployment.
(i) System was very bureaucratic and authoritarian.
(ii) Lack of democracy and mainly absence of freedom of speech.
(iii) There was only one party system (communist party of Soviet Union).
(iv) The party did not recognize the aspirations and feelings of people.
Superpowers used their military power to bring countries into their fold.
(i) Soviet Union used its influence in Eastern Europe backed by the large armies of countries of its alliance.
(ii) The statement is utmost correct about the superpower as well as their alliances.
(iii) On the other hand, the United States built alliance called SEATO and CENTO on the question of North Vietnam, North Korea and Iraq, Russia and China came closer.
(iv) Eastern alliance known as War saw pact was led by USSR, came into existence in 1995. Alliances were made for the requirement of vital national resources.
(v) Superpowers needed territories to launch their weapons and troops. In return they helped them in many ways.
Ques 22: Analyse the three different views within India about the type of relationship India should have with the United States of America.
Evaluate any three major factors responsible for making the European Union a political force being an economic force.
Ans: (i) Both India and US are coming close to each other and started to gain by coming closed.
(ii) India should take advantage of US hegemony and national understandings to establish best possible options for itself.
(iii) India should take the lead in establishing a coalition of countries from developing world.
(i) The Council of Europe established in 1949 w-as a step forward in political cooperation.
(ii) European Economic Community in 1957 acquired a political discussion leading to creation of European Parliament.
(iii) Disintegration of Soviet Union put Europe on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of the European Union in 1992.
(iv) It has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency.
(v) EU being the world?s biggest economy has its own political influence also.
Ques 23: Describe any three international challenging issues that can only be dealt with when all the countries work together.
What is meant by traditional notion of external security? Describe any two components of this type of security.
Ans: Challenging issues:
(i) Terrorism & influence of ISIS.
(ii) Global warming/environmental degradation
(v) Epidemic diseases like Zika virus.
Traditional notion of external security is when the greatest danger to a country is from military threats from other countries.
Components of external security:
(1) Deterrence and defence against external attacks.
(2) Avoidance of war.
(3) Balance of Power/ Alliance building (to be explained)
Ques 24: 'The accommodation of regional demands and the formation of linguistic states were also seen as more democratic.' Justify the statement with three suitable arguments.
Examine the different areas of agreement and disagreement with respect to the model of economic development to be adopted in India after independence.
Ans: Arguments to justify the statement:
(1) It is almost 60 years that the formation of Linguistic States have changed the nature of democratic politics in a positive and constructive way.
(2) Formation on the basis of language became a uniform basis for drawing the state boundaries.
(3) It has united the country rather than led to disintegration.
(4) Regional aspirations when fulfilled, give strength to the people and make democracy a success. Many a regional aspirations are being accommodated to strengthen the democracy.
Areas of Agreement:
(i) Development of India should mean both economic growth and social and economic justice.
(ii) The matter of development cannot be left to businessmen, industrialists and farmers only but the government should play key role.
(iii) The task of poverty alleviation and social and economic redistribution was being seen as the primary responsibility of Government.
Areas of disagreement:
(i) Disagreement on the kind of role to be played by the government.
(ii) Disagreement over the importance attached to the needs of justice if it differed from the economic growth.
(iii) Disagreement on the issue of giving priority to industries vis agriculture and private vis public sector.
Ques 25: Analyse the circumstances that favoured Indira Gandhi to become Prime Minister after the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri. Mention any four achievements of Indira Gandhi that made her popular as a Prime Minister.
Analyse the circumstances responsible for the declaration of a state of emergency in India on 25th June, 1975.
Ans: (1) Indira Gandhi was the daughter of popular ex PM J.L. Nehru.
(2) She had become Congress President in 1958.
(3) She had been Union Minister for information in Shastri's cabinet from 1964 - 66.
(1) She had given a positive famous slogan Garibi Hatao.
(2) She focused on growth of public sector.
(3) She had imposed the ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property to remove disparities in income and opportunity.
(4) She had abolished the princely privileges to prevail the principles of equality and social and economic justice.
(5) Decisive victory in the 1971/s India-Pakistan war soared Indira Gandhi's popularity.
(6) First nuclear explosion in 1974 also increased her popularity.
Circumstances that led to Imposition of emergency:
(1) Clash between the executive (Government) & Judiciary.
(2) The government diverted all energies for the maintenance of law and order as a result development was not taking place.
(3) Students movements in Bihar and Gujarat against price rise and corruption.
(4) Railway strike led by George Fernandes.
(5) A big rally at Ram Lila Maidan and Gall to the employees including police/army not to obey the undemocratic orders.
(6) Judgments of Allahabad High Court setting aside the election or Indira Gandhi.
All these led to the atmosphere of distrust against Indira Gandhi which hurriedly tried to save her position by imposing emergency.
Ques 26: Describe any six factors which made the fanners movement run by Bharatiya Kisan Union as the most successful popular movement.
Which three lessons do we learn from regional aspirations and their accommodation as an integral part of democratic politics? Describe.
Ans: (i) Kisan Andolan led by BKU was one of the most disciplined agitation.
(ii) BKU used traditional caste panchayats to bring them together on economic issues,
(iii) BKU used clan networks for generating funds and resources.
(iv) The demands raised by BKU were very clear to farmers and were readily accepted by the farmers.
(v) BKU kept itself apolitical and worked as a pressure group.
(vi) BKU used the pressure tactics and showed the strength and power of the farmers.
(1) Regional aspirations are very important part of democratic politics and expression of regional issues is a normal phenomenon.
(2) Democratic negotiations are the best way to resolve the regional issues.
(3) Regional matters can be resolved by power sharing within constitutional framework.
(4) Regional balance and economic development decrease the feeling of regional discrimination. Therefore the problem of backwardness of regions should be addressed at a priority.
(5) Constitutional provisions already incorporated in resolving regional issues. As the sixth schedule of the constitution allows different tribes complete autonomy of preserving their practices and customary laws.
(6) Federation should be given respect in true sense.