Ques 1: What is meant by Cuban Missile Crisis?
Ans: Crisis between USA and USSR in 1962 when Khrushchev decided to con (a) t Cuba into a Russian base and laced nuclear missiles there. The two world leaders who played crucial roles in Cuban Missile Crisis where president Khrushcher of USSR and President John F. Kennedy of USA.
Ques 2: Mention any four significant changes in Indo-China relations that have taken place after the Cold War.
Ans: (i) There relations now have a strategic as well as an economic dimension.
(ii) Both view themselves as rising powers in global politics.
(iii) Both would like to play a major role in Asian economy and politics.
(iv) Bilateral trade between India and China has increased from $338 million in 1992 to more than $18 billion-in 2006.
Ques 3: What is the full form of WTO? When was it set up? How does it function?
Ans: World Trade Organisation. Set up in 1995. All decisions are taken unanimously but the major economic powers such as the US, EU and Japan have managed to use the WTO to frame rules of trade to advance their own interests.
Ques 4: 'The Indian Government is already participating in global efforts through a number of programmes related to environmental issues.' Give any four examples to support the statement.
Ans: (i) India's National Auto Fuel Policy mandates cleaner fuels for automobiles.
(ii) The Energy Conservation Act, passed in 2001, outlines initiatives to improve energy efficiency.
(iii) The Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy.
(iv) Recent trends in importing natural gas and encouraging the adoption of clean coal technologies show that India has been making real efforts.
Ques 5: Highlight the circumstances that compelled the socialists to form a separate Socialist Party in 1948. Mention any two grounds on which they criticized the Congress Party.
Ans: The Congress Socialist Party was formed within the Congress in 1934. In 1948, the congress amended its constitution to prevent its members from having a dual party membership. This forced the Socialists to form a separate Socialist Party in 1948.
They criticized the Congress for favouring capitalists and landlords and for ignoring the workers and the peasants.
Ques 6: Describe the two basic reforms of the U.N. on which almost everyone agrees that they are necessary after the Cold War.
Explain balance of Power as component of traditional security policy. How could a state achieve this balance?
Ans: Two basic reforms:
(1) Reform of me organisation's structures and processes-On this the biggest discussion has been on the functioning of the Security Council. Demand for increase in Council?s permanent and non-permanent membership. US and other western countries want improvements in die UN's budgetary procedures and its administration.
(2) Review of the issues that fall within the jurisdiction of the UN-Some countries want the organization to play greater or more effective role in peace and security missions while others want its role to be confined to development and humanitarian work.
Balance of Power: When countries look around them, they see that some countries are bigger and stronger. This is a clue to who might be threat in the future. For instance, a neighboring country may not say it is preparing for attack. But the fact that this country is very powerful is a sign that at some point in the future it may choose to be aggressive. Govts. Are therefore, sensitive to the balance of power between their country and other countries.
They work hard to maintain a favourable balance of power with other countries, especially those close by, those with whom they have differences, or with those they have had conflict in the past. A good part of maintaining a balance of power is to build up one's military power, although economic and technological power are also important.
Ques 7: Describe the issues associated with the Anti-arrack Movements in Andhra Pradesh which drew the attention of the entire country.
Describe the advantages of democratic approach to the question of diversity in uniting a large country like India.
A women's protest against the sale of alcohol was organized in the South. It demanded prohibition on sale of arrack. This demand was linked to social, economic and political issues of the region which affected women's lives. Groups of local women tried to address the issue of nexus between crime and politics. They also dealt with the issue of domestic violence. It became a part of woman movement.
Advantages of democratic approach:
(i) It helps deal with popular discontent ln a peaceful manner by negotiations.
(ii) It gives effective representation to problems of diverse groups and their demands.
(iii) It encourages popular participation of people in the democratic process. (To be explain).