Ques 1: Name any four founders of NAM and the countries they belonged to respectively.
(i) Josip Broz Tito
(ii) Jawahar Lal Nehru
(iii)Gamal Abdel Nasser
Country they belong
Ques 2: What were the two major policy decisions taken by the Chinese leadership in the 1970s?
Ans: Major decisions taken by China in 1970:
(i) China ended its political and economic isolation with the establishment relations with the USA in 1972.
(ii) Premier Zhou Enlai proposed the four Modernizations - Agriculture, Industry, Science and Technology and Military in 1973.
(iii) Den Xiaoping announced the "open door" policy and rapid economic reforms in China.
Ques 3: How do per capital income and population growth affect the economic disparity in the world? Suggest any two ways to reduce economic disparity between the poor and the rich at the global level.
Ans: 1. Per Capita income and population growth:
(i) Per Capita income and population growth affect in the economic disparity in the world. As we know that high per capita income and low population growth make rich countries or rich social groups get richer.
(ii) On the other hand, per capita low income and high population growth reinforce each other to make poor countries and poor groups get poorer.
2. Two ways to reduce Economic Disparity:
(i) To reduce economic disparity between the poor and the rich at the global level, countries affected by this economic disparity will have to slow down population growth and raise incomes.
(ii) Countries hit by the economic disparity will have to use their available resources judiciously. They will have to strengthen their political, economic, social, cultural and demographic structures as to a bridge the gap of economic disparity.
Ques 4: Explain India's stand on environmental issues.
Ans: India's Stand on Environment Issues: India's stand towards environmental issues have always been positive.
(i) India signed and ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol in August 2002.
(ii) At the G-8 Meeting in June 2005 India pointed out that the per capita emission rates
or the developing countries are a tiny fraction of those in the developed world,
(iii) India's international negotiating position relies heavily on principles of historical responsibility as enshrined in UNFCCC.
(vi) India has one of the largest renewable energy? programmes in the world.
Ques 5: Distinguish between the economic ideologies of the Congress Party and the Swatantra Party formed in 1959.
Ans: Difference between the economic ideologies of the Congress Party and the Swatantra Party:
(A) At the Nagpur session in 1959 Congress passed the resolution, which called for:
(i) Land ceilings.
(ii) Take over the food grains trade by the state.
(iii) Adoption of cooperative farming.
(B) In die same year Swatantra Party was formed with a different ideology as the following:
(i) Government should be less involved in controlling the economy.
(ii) It was not in favour of economic development through centralized economy.
(iii) It believed that prosperity could come only through individual freedom.
(iv) It was in favour of private sector.
(v) It was also opposed to cooperative farming.
Ques 6: Describe the composition of U.N. Security Council. What is the major difference in the privileges given to its permanent and non-permanent members.
Describe any three new sources of threat to security giving examples for each.
Ans: The Security Council is an important organ of the UN which is mainly responsible for ensuring peace in the world. The Security Council is composed of 15 members of which 5 are permanent members and 10 are elected by the General Assembly for two years. The non-permanent members are not eligible for immediate re-electron. Each member of Security Council has one vote. The approval of all the permanent members is necessary on important matters. In the event of a threat to peace or occurence of war between two or more countries, the Security Council has the power to take appropriate measures to restore peace and security.
U.N. Security Council is an important organ of United Nations. It has fifteen members - five permanent and ten elected by the General Assembly for two year terms.
Difference in the privileges between permanent and non - permanent members:
(i) The main privileges of the permanent members are permanency and the veto power, which can neglect any resolution of the Security Council.
(ii) The non-permanent members serve for only two years at a time. A country cannot be re-elected immediately after completing their term. They do not have Veto power.
New Source of threat are:
(i) Terrorism: It refers to political violence that targets civilians indiscriminately. International terrorism involves the citizens or territory of more than our country. They use civilians as a weapon against national government to change a political context or condition they do not like.
Example: Plane hijacking, planting bombs at crowded places.
(ii) Human rights: These are in the form of political, economical, social rights and the rights of colonized people or ethnic and indigenous minorities.
Example: Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, Indonesian military's killing of people in East Timor.
(iii) Health epidemics: Due to migration, business, tourism etc. epidemics like HIV - AIDS, bird flu, and SARS have rapidly spread across countries. By 2003, an estimated 4 crore people were infected with HIV AIDS worldwide. Treatment of these epidemics have proved to be a major factor in driving the region backward into deeper poverty.
Ques 7: Describe the journey of the movement for Right to Information which ultimately culminated into an Act i.e. RTI Act, 2005.
Describe the internal and external disputes responsible for making the politics of Jammu and Kashmir continuously controversial.
Ans: Movement for Right to Information Act, 2005:
(i) The movement started in 1990 by Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) in Rajasthan he adopted the initiative in asking for records of famine relief work along with accounts of labourers.
(ii) The villagers asserted their right to information.
(iii) The movement had a small success when they could force an amendment in the Rajasthan Panchayati Raj Act.
(iv) In 1966, MKSS formed National Council for People's Right to Information in Delhi to raise RTI to the status of National Campaign.
(v) In 2002, a weak Freedom of Information Act was legislated but never came into force.
(vi) In 2004, RTI Bill was tabled and received Presidential assent in June 2005.
External and Internal disputes:
Since, the politics of Jammu and Kashmir always remained controversial and conflict ridden both for external and internal reasons. Externally, Pakistan has always claimed that Kashmir valley should be part of Pakistan. As we noted above, Pakistan sponsored a tribal invasion of the State in 1947, as a consequence of which one part of the State came under Pakastani control. India claims that this area is under illegal occupation. Pakistan describes this area as Azad Kashmir". Ever since 1947 Kashmir has remained a major issue of conflict between India and Pakistan.
Internally, there is a dispute about the status of Kashmir within the Indian union. You know that Kashmir was given a special status by Article 370 and 371 last year in Indian Constitution at Work. Article 370 gives greater autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir compared to other States of India. The State has its own Constitution. All provisions of the Indian Constitution are not applicable to the State. Laws passed by the Parliament apply to J & K only if the State agrees.
This special status has provoked two opposite reactions. There is a section of people outside of J & K that believes that the special status of the State conferred by Article 370 does not allow full integration of the State with India. Another section, mostly Kashmiris, believe that the autonomy conferred by Article 370 is not enough. A section of Kashmiris has expressed at least three major grievances.
First, the promise that Accession would be referred to the people of the State after the situation created by tribal invasion was normalised, has not been fulfilled. This has generated the demand for a Plebiscite7. Secondly, there is a feeling that the special federal status guaranteed by Article 370, has been eroded in practice. This has led to the demand for restoration of autonomy or Greater State Autonomy. Thirdly, it is felt that democracy which is practiced in the rest of India has not been similarly institutionalized in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.