Ques 1: Which one of the following was NOT given primacy by the makers of the Soviet System?
(a) Abolition of Private property.
(b) Society based on the principle of equality.
(c) No opposition party to be allowed.
(d) No state control over economy.
Ans: No State control over economy.
Ques 2: What does the logo on the ASEAN flag symbolise?
Ans: The logo of ASEAN flag symbolises that the ten stalks of paddy represent the ten South-East Asian countries bound together in friendship and solidarity. The Circle represents the unity of ASEAN.
Ques 3: Why is it said that history of petroleum is also the history of war and struggles?
Ans: It is true because World Economy is based on petroleum and immense wealth is associated with oil. It generates political struggles and wars to have control over it.
Ques 4: During Nehru era, why did some political parties and groups in our country believe that India should be more friendly with the bloc led by the U.S.?
Ans: It was because the US bloc claimed to be prodemocracy.
Ques 5: How did the farmers associated with Bharadya Kisan Union differ from the most other farmers in India?
Ans: (i) Farmers related to BKU grew cash crops for the market while other farmers in India engaged in subsistence agriculture.
(ii) They were from prosperous community and belonged to the same region, but other farmers were not so. (Any one point)
Ques 6: What constrained the Super Powers to go for a full - fledged war inspite of having nuclear weapons?
Ans: Both the Super Powers knew very well the intensity of destruction that would take place. It was not acceptable to either of them. No political gain could justify the destruction of their societies. That is why they did not go for a full-fledged nuclear war.
Ques 7: Assess the role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad towards maintaining communal harmony in India.
Ans: Role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad:
(i) He was a great freedom fighter and was opposed to the partition of India.
(ii) He was proponent of Hindu-Muslim Unity.
Ques 8: Match the following in Column 'A' with those in Column 'B' in a meaningful way:
(i) Head of the Commission of Enquiry
(ii) Deputy Prime Minister of India from 1967 to 1969
(iii) Deputy Prime Minister of India from 1977 - 79
(iv) Union Minister of India from 1952 - 1977
(a) Chowdhary Charan Singh
(b) Jagjiwan Ram
(c) J. C. Shah
(d) Morarji Desai
Ques 9: What was 'Operation Blue Star'? Why did it hurt the sentiments of the Sikh Community?
Ans: Operation Blue Star was an Indian Army action in the Golden Temple, Amritsar to flush out the militants. This operation damaged the historical temple and hurt the sentiments of Sikh community because they saw military action as an attack on their faith.
Ques 10: Why and how did the Mizo Movement for secession gain popular support?
Ans: The movement for secession in the Mizo Hills area gained popular support because some Mizos believed that they were never a pat of British India and therefore did not belong to the Indian Union. The movement for secession gained popular after the Assam government failed to respond adequately to the great famine of 1959 in Mizo hills.
Ques 11: Describe India-China relations from 1947 to 1962.
Ans: Indo-China relations from 1947-1962:
(i) After the Chinese revolution in 1949, India was one of the first countries to recognize the Communist Government of China.
(ii) When China annexed Tibet in 1950, both the countries developed some differences.
(iii) In 1954, joint enunciation of Panchsheel was made by Indian Prime Minister Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai.
(iv) In 1959, India gave political asylum to Dalai Lama. This annoyed China.
(v) In 1962, China invaded the territory of India and relations between both the countries got strained.
Ques 12: What is Human Rights Watch? Describe its main contribution to the field of Human Rights.
Ans: Human Rights Watch is an American founded international NGO which is involved in research and advocacy on human rights.
(i) Human right organisation investiage and expose human right violations, hold abusers accountable and challenge government and those who hold power. To end abusive practices.
(ii) It helped in building international coalitions.
(iii) It made efforts to stop the use of child soldiers.
(iv) It established the International Criminal court.
Ques 13: What was the 'Earth Summit'? How far did the summit prove to be useful? Explain.
Ans: Meaning of the earth summit: The increasing focus on environmental issues within the periphery of global politics was firmly consolidated at the UN Conference on environment and development held in Rio de Janiro, Brazil in June 1992. It was also called the Earth Summit.
(i) This Summit produced conventions dealing with climate change, biodiversity and forestry.
(ii) It recommended a list of development practices called Agenda 21.
(iii) Under this list there was consensus on combining economic growth with ecological responsibility, known as sustainable development.
Ques 14: Explain any four reasons for the dominance of the Congress Party in the first three general elections in India.
Ans: Reasons for the dominance of Congress Party in first three general elections in India:
(i) The results of the first general election did not surprise anyone as the Indian National Congress was expected this election. The Congress party had inherited the legacy of the National Movement. Moreover, it was the only political party to have an organization spread all over the country.
(ii) The Congress Party had the most popular and charismatic leader in Nehru Ji. The final results of the Congress did surprise many. The party got 364 of the 489 seats in the first Lok Sabha and finished way ahead of any other challenger.
(iii) In the second and the third general elections, held in 1957 and 1962 respectively, the Congress Party kept its position intact in the Lok Sabha. It won three-fourth of the total seats.
(iv) Along with the Lok Sabha elections, the Congress Party did equally well in the State Elections which were held simultaneously. In this way, the Congress Party ruled all over the country at the National and the State level.
Ques 15: Evaluate the major outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy.
Ans: Major outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy:
(i) The State controlled key heavy industries provided infrastructure.
(ii) It regulated trade in India.
(iii) Although agriculture was in the private sector, the public sector made some intervention in agriculture.
(iv) This model laid the foundation of India's future economic growth.
(v) Infrastructure for transport and communication was improved substantially.
(vi) Abolition of Zamindari system was the most significant and successful reform.
(vii) Areas which required lot of investment were taken up by the public sector as they were very essential for the national progress.
Ques 16: Examine the conditions responsible for the growth of Naxalite Movement in India. Suggest ways and means to crush it.
Ans: Conditions responsible for the growth of Naxalite Movement:
(i) Social and economic injustice prevailing in the society.
(ii) Forced labour.
(iii) Expropriation of resources by outsiders.
(iv) Exploitation by moneylenders.
(v) The naxalites say it is a fight for improved land rights and more jobs for neglected agricultural labour and poor.
Suggestions to crush Naxalite Movement:
(i) Government should provide the basic rights to the people of backward areas and Adivasis.
(ii) Forced labour and exploitation by moneylenders must be stopped.
(iii) The Government should follow constitutional norms while dealing with the Naxalites.
Ques 17: The value of the ruble declined dramatically. The rate of inflation was so high that people lost all their savings. The collective farm system disintegrated leaving people without food security, and the government started to import food. The old trading structure broke down with no alternative in its place. The old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed. The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of the people into poverty.
Read the above passage carefully and answer the following questions:
(i) What is meant by subsidy?
(ii) How did the disintegration of collective farm system lead to the loss of food security?
(iii) This passage is associated to which country? Why did the government start importing food?
Ans: (i) Subsidy is the help usually provided by the government to keep the price of a product or service low as compared to the open market price.
(ii) Collective farming was to be replaced by private farming which meant food grains to be purchased from the open market. The government had no control over the prices as well as the stock. This created loss of food security.
(iii) (a) This passage is associated with Russia.
(b) The government started importing food due to scarcity of food grains and privatization of agriculture.
Ques 18: Globalization does not always reduce state capacity. The primacy of the state continues to be the unchallenged basis of the political community. The old jealousies and rivalries between countries have not ceased to matter in world politics.
The state continues to discharge its essential functions (law and order, national security) and consciously withdraws from certain domains from which it wishes to. State continue to be important.
Indeed, in some respects state capacity has received a boost as a consequence of globalization, with enhanced technologies available at the disposal of the state to collect information about its citizens.
Read the passage given above carefully and answer the following questions:
(i) What are the two most essential functions of the state?
(ii) How do enhanced technologies enable the state to rule better?
(iii) Justify with the help of an example that globalization gives a boost to the state capacity.
Ans: (i) (a) To defend and secure the boundaries of the State to maintain national security.
(b) To provide justice and maintain law and order.
(ii) (a) On the basis of enhanced technologies the State can be ruled better.
(b) Enhanced technologies enable the State to collect important information about its citizens.
(iii) In spite of globalization, the primacy of the state remains unchallenged. The State continues to discharge its essential functions without diluting its sovereignty.
Ques 19: Two developments strained this relationship. China annexed Tibet in 1950 and thus removed a historical buffer between the two countries. Initially, the Government of India did not oppose this openly. But as more information came in about the suppression of Tibetan culture, the Indian Government grew uneasy.
The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, sought and obtained political asylum in India in 1959. China alleged that the Government of India was allowing anti"-China activities to take place -within India.
Read the above passage carefully and answer the following questions:
(i) What is meant by 'historical buffer'?
(ii) Why didn't the Government of India oppose the annexation of Tibet by China?
(iii) How far was it justified on the part of India to grant political asylum, to the Dalai Lama and thousands of Tibetan refugees?
Ans: (i) Historical butter means the country or area lies between two large and powerful countries, reduces the risk of war between them.
(ii) India was a newly independent country and did not want to get involved with China unnecessarily. It was an internal matter of China, so India did not want to spoil its relation with China. But on later Stagey India realized its mistake.
(iii) In 1958, there was armed uprising in Tibet against China's occupation.
However, in ore information came in about the suppression of Tibetan culture by the Chinese forces. Consequently, the Dalai Lama sought and got political asylum in India in 1959, along with thousands of Tibetan refugees.
Thus it was fully justified to help them on humanitarian grounds as well as a good neighbour country.
Study the above cartoon carefully and answer the following questions:
(i) Who was head of the Government formed by the National Front in 1989?
(ii) Why was the government formed by him called a puppet government?
(iii) Identify the puppeteers pulling the strings and the political parties they belong to.
Ans: (i) V. P. Singh
(ii) The National Front Government did not get the clear - majority. It was being supported by BJP and the Communist Party from outside. The government of V.P. Singh worked according to the directions of leaders of BJP and CPI so it was called a puppet government.
(iii) The puppeteers were:
(a) Jyoti Basu of Communist Party.
(b) L.K. Advani from BJP
Ques 21: How did the Soviet Union suddenly disintegrate? Explain any six reasons.
Why was the end of the Second World War considered to be the beginning of Cold War? Explain.
Ans: Reasons for disintegration:
(i) Internal weakness of Soviet political and economical institutions.
(ii) Soviet Union used much of its resources in maintaining Nuclear and military arsenals.
The cherynobyl disaster was one of reason of negligence.
(iii) The Communist party that had ruled the Soviet Union for over 70 years was not accountable to the people.
(iv) Ordinary people were alien hated by slow and stifling administration, rampant corruption, the inability of the system to correct mistake it had made, the unwillingness to allow more openness in government and the centralization of authority in a vast land.
(v) The party bureau craft gained more privileges than ordinary citizens.
(vi) The Soviet Union had become stagnant in administrative and political sense.
(vii) Reforms introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev.
Due to the following reasons the end of the Second World War was considered to be the beginning of Cold War:
(i) The end of the Second World War was also considered to be the beginning of the Cold War. As we know that the war came to an end when the US dropped two atom bombs on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This actions of the US forced Japan to surrender.
(ii) However, the dropping of two atom bombs on the Japanese cities has always been controversial decision of the US. Critics have argued that the US knew that Japan was about to surrender and it was futile to drop the bombs.
(iii) Virtually, the US action was akin to one upmanship. It was intended to check the USSR from having military and political gains in Asia and other parts of the world.
(iv) The end of the Second World War created new power equations along with new and changed arenas of conflicts. The fire of the Second World War extinguished but left some cinders.
(v) The US and the USSR emerged as two superpowers which were rival to each other. Both sides have capacity to retaliate against an attack and cause lots of destruction, both neither can afford to begin war.
(iv) Thus, the rivalry between the two superpowers remained a cold 7 and not hot or shooting war. Both sides followed the logic of deterrence and began to make military blocs. The smaller States were forced to link to the superpowers.
Ques 22: Resistance is the only option available to overcome the hegemony? Justify the statement by comparing it to other antihegemony strategies.
Assess the role of ASEAN as an economic association.
Ans: Hegemony can be overcome by die following the given strategies:
(i) Band wagon strategy
(ii) Hide strategy
(i) Band wagon strategy: Some people thing that it is strategically more prudent to take advantage of the opportunities provided by the hegemone. For instance, raising economic growth rates requires increased trade, technological transfers and investment, which are best acquired by working with rather than against the hegemone. Thus instead of engaging in activities opposed to the hegemonic power. This is called band wagon strategy.
(ii) Hide strategy: Another strategy open to states is to hide. This implies stay away from the dominant power as far as possible. There are many examples of this behaviour. However this wouldn't seem to be viable for the big countries. This strategy can be attractive policy for small states but it is hard to imagine for mega - states like China, India, Russia and European Union being able to hide for a long time from the influence of US.
Role of ASEAN as an economic association:
(i) The economy of ASEAN region is growing much faster than that of the US, EU and Japan.
(ii) This accounts for the growth in its influence both in the region and beyond.
(iii) ASEAN is trying to create a common market and production base within the ASEAN States.
(iv) A mechanism is being evolved to settle and resolve the economic disputes.
(v) ASEAN has focused on creating a Free Trade Area for investment, labour and services.
(vi) Its vision 2020 defined an outward looking role for ASEAN in the international community.
(vii) The current economic strength of ASEAN is being a trading and investment partner to the growing Asian economies such as India and China. Singapore and Thailand.
(viii) Two ASEAN members signed FTA with India.
Ques 23: Trace the evolution of the United Nations since it establishment in 1945. How does it function with the help of its structures and agencies?
Describe the security challenges faced by the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa after the Second World War.
Ans: Evolution of the UN:
(i) The United Nations was founded as a successor to the League of Nations. It was established m 1945 just after the Second World War.
(ii) The UN was set up through the signing of the UN Charter by 51 states.
(iii) It was formed with the hope mar if would act to stop conflict and wars.
(iv) By 2006, UN had 192 members. These included almost all independent states. Presently, its Secretary General is Ban ki Moon of South Korea.
(i) In the UN General Assembly, all member nations have one vote each.
(ii) In the UN Security Council, there are five Permanent members - Britain, France, US, Russia and China and lo temporary members.
(iii) The UN consists of many structures and agencies.
(iv) War, peace, and. difference between the member states are discussed, in the General Assembly.
(v) Social and Economic issues are dealt with by many agencies including WTO, UNDP, UNHRC, UNICEF and UNESCO.
Following are the security challenges faced by the newly - independent countries of Asia and Africa after the Second World War:
(i) The security challenges facing the newly -independent countries of Asia and Africa were certainly different from the challenges in Europe in two ways. These new countries faced the prospect of military conflict with neighboring countries.
(ii) These countries also had to worry about internal - military conflict. These countries faced threats not only from outside their boundaries, generally from their neighbours, but also from within.
(iii) Several newly-independent countries came to fear their neighbours even more than they feared the US or the USSR or the former colonial powers. They had disputes and differences over borders and territories or control or people and populations or all of these simultaneously.
(iv) Internally the new states were anxious and troubled about threats from separatist movements which desired to make independent countries. Sometimes, the internal and external threats combined.
(v) A neighbour might assist or provoke an internal separatist movement leading to tensions between the two neighbouring countries.
Ques 24: Analyse any six consequences of the partition of India in 1947.
Assess the outcomes of the early phase of planned development in India.
Ans: Consequences of partition of India in 1947:
(i) The Year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfer of population that human history has known.
(ii) There were killing and atrocities. On both sides of the border in the name of religion people of one community ruthlessly killed and mained people of the other community.
(iii) Thousands of women were abducted on both sides of the border. They were made to convert to the religion of the abductor and were forced into marriage.
(iv) People were forced to abandon their homes and move across the border.
(v) Women were killed by their own family members to preserve family honour. Many children were separated from their parents.
(vi) All the writer poets in various fields expressed their grief and anger.
(vii) Minorities on both sides of border, fled their homes and secured temporary shelter in refugee camps.
Outcomes of early phase of Planned Development in India.
(i) The foundation of India's future economic growth were laid down.
(ii) Some of the largest development projects in India's history were undertaken during this period.
(iii) Infrastructure for transport and communication were developed.
(iv) Land reforms did not take place effectively in most parts of the country.
(v) Political power remained in the hands of land owning classes.
(vi) Big industrialist continued to benefit and thrive while poverty did not reduce much.
(vii) These who benefited from unequal development soon became politically powerful and made it even more difficult to move in the desired direction.
Ques 25: Examine the major changes that the country witnessed at the time of fourth general election in 1967.
Why is emergency considered to be one of the most controversial episodes in Indian politics? Analyse any three reasons.
Ans: Major changes country witnessed at the time of Fourth General Elections:
(i) Two Prime Ministers died in quick succession and the new Prime Minister, who was being seen as a political nobles, had been in office for less than a year.
(ii) The period was fraught with grave economic crises.
(iii) Widespread drought and decline in agricultural production.
(iv) Serious food shortage.
(v) Depletion of foreign exchange reserves.
(vi) Drop in industrial production and exports.
(vii) Combined with sharp rise m military expenditures and diversion of resources from planning and economic development.
Due to the following reasons the emergency became controversial.
(i) The Constitution simply mentioned internal disturbance as the reason for declaring emergency. Before 1975 emergency was never proclaimed on this ground.
(ii) People had the right to politically protest against the government. The Bihar and Gujarat agitation were mostly peaceful and non-violent. Those who were arrested were never tried for any anti-national activity.
(iii) The Home Ministry, which is entrusted with the responsibility of monitoring the external situation of the country, also did not express any concern about the law and order situation in the country.
Ques 26: Who were Dalit Panthers? Describe their main activities.
Describe the story of Goa's liberation from the Portuguese to its becoming a state of the Indian Union.
Ans: Dalit Panthers were a militant organization of the Dalit Youth which was formed in Maharashtra in 1972 as a part of these assertions.
Main Activities of Dalit Panthers:
(i) Their activities always mostly centered around fighting against atrocities on Dalits in various parts of the State.
(ii) Their main ideological agenda was to destroy the caste - system.
(iii) To build an organization of all the oppressed sections like the landless poor peasants and urban industrial workers along with Dalits.
(iv) It provided a platform for the Dalit educated youth to use their creativity as a protest activity.
(v) Dalit writers protested against the brutalities of the caste system.
(vi) Dalit Panthers got involved in electoral compromises to strengthen their position.
Goa's liberation: Although the British Empire in India came to an end in 1947, Portugal refused to withdraw from the territories of Goa, Diu and Daman which were under its colonial rule since the sixteenth century. During their long rule, the Portuguese suppressed the people of Goa, denied them civil rights, and carried out forced religious conversions. After India?s Independence, the Indian government tried very patiently to persuade the Portuguese government to withdraw.
There was also a strong popular movement within Goa for freedom. They were strengthened by socialist satyagrahis from Maharashtra. Finally, in December 1961, the Government of India sent the army which liberated these territory after barely two days of action. Goa, Diu and Daman became Union Territory. Another complication arose soon. Led by the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party (MGP) one section desired that Goa, as a Marathi speaking area should merge with Maharashtra.
However, many Goans were keen to retain a separate Goan identity and culture, particularly the Konkani language. They were led by the United Goan Party (UGP). In January 1967, the Central Government held a special opinion poll 7 in Goa asking people to decide if they wanted to be part of Maharashtra or remain separate. This was the only time in independent India that a referendum" like procedure was used to ascertain people's wishes on a subject. The majority voted in favour of remaining outside of Maharashtra. Thus, Goa continued as a Union Territory. Finally, in 1987, Goa became a State of the Indian Union.