Ques 1: Mention any two of the agreements signed between the two super powers starting in the 1960s.
Ans: (i) Limited Test Ban Treaty: It banned nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water. It was signed by the US, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5th August 1963.
(ii) Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty: It allows only the nuclear weapon states to have nuclear weapons and stops others from acquiring them.
Ques 2: Inspite of the improvement in the Chinese economy, there have been negative consequences affecting the people of China. Mention any four such consequences.
Ans: (i) Unemployment has risen in China with nearly 100 million people looking for jobs.
(ii) Female employment and conditions of work are as bad as in Europe of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
(iii) Environment degradation and corruption has increased.
(iv) Corruption has increased.
(v) Rise in economic inequality between rural and urban residents.
(vi) Rise in economic inequality between coastal and inland provinces.
Ques 3: What is meant by alliance building as a component of traditional security policy? What are its advantages?
Ans: Alliance building as a component of traditional security policy is a coalition of states that coordinates their actions to deter or defend against military attack. Most alliances are formalised in written treaties and are based on a fairly clear identification of who constitutes the threat. Countries make alliances to exchange their effective power relative to another alliance.
Its advantages are:
(i) It increases their effective power relative to another country or alliance.
(ii) Alliances are based on national interests and can change when national interests change.
Ques 4: Explain the concept of 'Common property resource' with the help of an example from India.
Ans: The concept of common property resource means common property for a group. The underlying norm is that members of the group have both rights and dudes with respect to the nature, levels of use and the maintenance of a given resource. For example, the management of sacred groves on State owned forest land along the forest belt of South India. The institutional arrangement for the actual management of the sacred groves on state-owned forest land appropriately fits the description of a common property regime.
Ques 5: Explain the functioning of the Congress Party as an ideological and social coalition.
Ans: (i) As a social coalition: the Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle, class and urban elite. But with every civil disobedience movement it launched, its social base widened. It brought together diverse groups, whose interests were often contradictory. Peasants and industrialists, urban dwellers and villagers, workers and owners, middle, lower and upper classes and castes, all found space in the Congress.
(ii) As an ideological coalition: It accommodated the revolutionary and pacifist, conservative and radical, extremist and moderate and the right, left and all shades of the centre. The Congress was a platform for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in the national movement. In pro, Independence days, many organizations and parties with their own constitution and organizational structure were allowed to exist within the Congress.
Ques 6: Which three complaints related to the U.N. Security Council were reflected in the resolution passed by the U.N. General Assembly in 1992? Describe any three criteria that have been proposed for new permanent members of the Security Council.
What is meant by non-traditional notion of security? Differentiate between the narrow and the broad concept of human security.
Ans: The three complaints are:
(i) The Security Council no longer represents contemporary political realities.
(ii) Its decisions reflect only western values and interests and are dominated by a few powers.
(iii) Security Council lacks equitable representation.
The three criteria are: A new member should be:
(i) A major economic power.
(ii) A major military power.
(iii) A substantial contributor to the UN budget.
(iv) A big nation in terms of its population.
(v) A nation that respects democracy and human rights.
(vi) A country that would make the Council more representative of the world's diversity in terms of geography, economic systems, and culture.
Non - traditional notions of security goes beyond military threats. It includes a wide range of threats and dangers affecting the conditions of human existence. They begin by questioning the traditional referent of security. In doing so, they also question the other three elements of security - what is being secured, from what kind of threats and the approach to security.
The narrow concept of human security focuses on violent threats of individuals. Kofi Annan opined, the protection of communities and individuals from internal violence.
The broad concept of human security on the other hand, advocates of the broad concept of human security argues that the threat agenda should include hunger, disease and natural disasters because they kill far more people than war, genocide and terrorism combined.
Ques 7: Describe any six advantages of popular movements.
What is the social and political composition of Jammu and Kashmir? Describe the roots of Kashmir Issued Which compelled the Indian Government to maintain autonomy in this state.
Ans: Advantages of popular movements:
(i) They represented new social groups whose economic and social grievances were not redressed in the realm of electoral politics. They ensured effective representation of diverse groups and their demands.
(ii) They reduced the possibility of deep social conflict and disaffection of these groups from democracy.
(iii) Popular movement suggested new forms of active participation and thus broadened the idea of participation in Indian democracy.
(iv) They involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands and similar expectations.
(v) They make people aware of their rights and the expectations that they can have from democratic institutions.
(vi) They have been involved in educative tasks for a long time and have thus contributed to expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions.
Jammu and Kashmir comprises three social and political regions: Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. The heart of the Kashmir region is the Kashmir valley; the people are Kashmir speaking and mostly Muslim with a small Kashmir speaking Hindu minority. Jammu region is a mix of foothills and plains, of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs and speakers of various languages. The Ladakh region is mountainous, has very little population which is equally divided between Buddhists and Muslims.
Roots of Kashmir Issue:
(i) When Maharaja of Kashmir signed the Instrument of Accession with Government of India, it was also agreed upon that once the situation got normalised, the views of the people of J&K would be ascertained about their future.
(ii) India agreed to maintain the autonomy of Jammu & Kashmir.
(iii) Since then the politics of J&K always remained controversial and conflict ridden both for external and internal reasons. Externally, Pakistan has always claimed that Kashmir valley should be part of Pakistan.
(iv) There is a dispute within Kashmir about the status of the state within the Indian Union.
(v) Article 370 and 371 give a special status to J&K; the state has its own constitution. Not all provisions are applicable to J&K. Laws passed by the Parliament apply to J&K only if the state agrees. So, the problem persists.