Ques 1: How far do you agree with the statement that cultural globalization is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the entire globe?
Ans: This is correct to state that cultural globalisadon is dangerous for poor countries. The cultural globalisation has made negative impact on Indian and other poor country's culture. Its main effect is on younger generation who sees foreign TV channels showing explicit sexual pictures etc, celebration of western culture and wear western dresses especially girl students in schools and colleges.
Ques 2: In which four ways did the new economic policies of China benefit its economy?
Ans: New economic policies of China:
(i) China has now turned as the third major alternative centre of power.
(ii) China's economic success since 1978 has been linked to its rise as a great power.
(iii) China has been the fastest growing economy since the reforms first began. Now it is projected that China's economy will overtake the US as the World's largest economy by year 2040.
(iv) The economic integration into the region makes it the driver of East Asian growth, thereby giving it enormous influence in regional affairs.
Ques 3: What is Veto Power? Which member nations of the U.N. Security Council enjoy this special power and why?
Ans: Far taking decision in UN Security Council, every member in 15 members of Security Council has one vote. However, the permanent members can vote in a negative manner so that even if all other permanent and non - permanent members vote for a particular decision, any permanent member's negative vote can stop the decision. This negative vote is called "Veto Power". This Veto Power is only enjoyed by the five permanent members of the Security Council.
Ques 4: How does globalization result in erosion of state capacity? Explain.
Ans: Globalisation results in erosion of state capacity Economic globalisation gives more importance to institutions like the IMF and the WTO.
(ii) As the restrictions imposed by different countries have been reduced. So, greater trade in commodities across the globe can be seen.
(iii) Economic globalisation for its results would lead to economic ruin for the weaker countries, especially for the poor within these countries.
(iv) In place of old welfare states, it is market that becomes the prime determinants of economic and social priorities. The entry and the increased role of the multinational companies all over the world leads to a reduction in the capacity of the government to take decision on their own, thus reduces state capacity.
Ques 5: Analyse the biggest three constraints that operate on American hegemony.
Examine any three major areas of conflict between India and Pakistan.
Ans: Three constraints on American hegemony:
(i) The biggest constraint to American hegemony lie within the heart of hegemony itself.
We can identify the constraints on American power after 9/11.
(ii) The first constraint is the institutional architecture of the American states itself. A system of division of powers between the three branches of government places significant breaks upon the unrestrained and immediate exercise of America's military power by the executive branch.
(iii) Next constraint on American power is also domestic in nature and items from the open nature of American society. Although the American mass media may form time to time impose or promote a particular perspective on domestic public opinion in the US, there is nevertheless a deep skepticism regarding the purpose and method of government in American political culture. This factor, in the long run, is a huge constraints on the US military action overseas.
(iv) Last constraint in the international system which can put restriction on the US hegemony. There is only one organization in the international system that could possibly moderate the exercise of American power today and that is the NATO.
The US has an enormous interest in keeping the alliances of democracies and which in return can help the allies in NATO to put constraint in the exercise of US hegemony.
Areas of Conflict between India and Pakistan:
(i) Territorial disputes over the Kashmir region sparked two of the three major Indo-Pakistan wars in 1947 & 1965, and a limited war in 1999. Although both countries have maintained a fragile ceasefire violations beginning in July 2014, and artillery shelling and small arms fire continued through late 2016. Both sides accuses each other for violating the ceasefire and claim to be shooting in retaliation to attacks.
(ii) Loss of trust between the Government of India and Pakistan. After conflict in Kargil, on the advice of then UN Gen. Secretary Kofi Annan, Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee and President of Pakistan Gen. Parvez Musharraf met in Agra summit in July 2001. After much diplomatic efforts, the Agra summit started amid high hopes of resolving various disputes between two countries. Since Parvez Musharraf met face to face with Kashmir! Leaders of All Parties Hurriyat conference, the talks and peace process between two countries collapsed and no signatures were attained. It was widely felt that it was Parvez Musharraf who sabotaged joint piece efforts.
(iii) The diversion of Jihadi fighters & proxy groups in Kashmir threaten to further increase in violence along the border and even within Indian Territory. If another Mumbai 2008 style attack where Laskar-e-Taiba whose leader Hafiz Mohammad Saeed, fighters rampaged through the city for 4 days killing 164 persons, were carried out by Pakistan's militants, it could trigger a severe military confrontation between the two nuclear armed states. Yet again, Pakistani militants of Jaish-e-Mohammad, whose leader Masood Azhar freely moves in Pakistan, attacked Uri Air Base in 2016 killing 16 Indian soldiers.
Ques 6: Describe the three main complaints related to the U.N. Security Council which were reflected in the resolution passed by the U.N. General Assembly in 1992.
Describe various aspects of human security as well as global security.
Ans: Two basic reforms:
In 1992, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution. The resolution reflected three main complaints:
(i) The Security Council no longer represents contemporary political realities.
(ii) Its decision reflects only western values and interest and are dominated by a few power.
(iii) It lacks equitable representation.
In view of these growing demands for the restructuring of the UN, on 1st January 1997 the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan initiated an enquiry into how the UN should be reformed. For instance. How should new Security Council members be chosen.
Since then, the following are just some of the criteria which has been proposed for new permanent and non permanent members of the Security Council. A new member, it has been suggested, should be:
(a) A major economic Power,
(b) A major Military power,
(c) A substantial contributor to the UN budget,
(d) A big nation in terms of the population.
(e) A nation that respects democracy and human rights,
(f) A country that would make the council more representative of the world's diversity in terms of geography, economic system and culture.
Four new sources of threats to security can be identified as follows:
(i) Terrorism is a war against democracy and a crime against humanity It refers to political violence that target civilians deliberately and discriminately to use it as a weapon against national government. It has become a global phenomena because even superpower is not free from terrorist attacks
(ii) Human rights are those basic conditions which an individual is supposed to enjoy as a human being. These rights includes political rights, freedom of speech and expression, economic rights, social and civil rights and right of indigenous people to lead as honourable and dignified life.,
(iii) Global poverty refers to low economic growth, low - national income and low standard of living of developing or least developed countries.
(iv) Health epidemic is very serious threat to a country's security because severe acute respiratory syndrome (SAR.S), HIV-AIDS, bird flu, etc., diseases spread across countries through migration, business, tourism and military operations.