Ques 1: State any one special feature of Indo-Russian friendship.
Ans: India's relation with Russia is an important aspect. Indo-Russian relations are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions.
For example: India's silver screen heroes Raj Kapoor and Amitabh Bachchan are household names in Russia.
Ques 2: Which one of the following was a part of its Global war on terrorism by the U.S?
(a) 'Operation Desert Storm'
(b) Computer War
(c) 'Operation Enduring Freedom'
(d) Videogame War.
Ans: The Global war on terrorism by the US is known as Operation Enduring Freedom?
Ques 3: Give any one example to show that events taking place in one part of the world could have an impact on another part of the world.
Ans: The best example of affecting other countries when the event takes at one place is outpouring the help from all parts of the world for victims of major earthquake/Asian tsunami. This is a sign of emergence of a global society.
Ques 4: What has been the ideology of left parties in India?
Ans: The communist group emerged in different parts of India taking inspiration from the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and advocating socialism as a solution to problems affecting the country.
Ques 5: How far is the demand for reservation beyond SCs, STs and OBCs justified?
Ans: At present in India, approximately 50% seats are reserved for SCs, STs and OBCs. The seat reservation and quota for people in all institutions, govt. offices were given as caste discrimination due to illiteracy and backwardness. Today demand for reservation by various sections of society is unjustified.
Ques 6: Starting in the 1960s, the two super powers signed which two significant agreements to control arms?
Ans: The two super powers, USA and USSR signed the following two significant agreements:
(i) LTBT (Limited Test Ban Treaty) - In 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground.
(ii) NPT - Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The further goal is to achieve nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Ques 7: Assess the commonly agreed upon two goals visualized by the Indians during the national movement which have been fulfilled after independence.
Ans: Two goals visualised by Indians were:
(i) India to be run by Democratic Government. Even citizen is independent and can choose its leader.
(ii) The Government to be run by all, including poor people and socially disadvantage groups.
Ques 8: Match the following leaders in List-A with the suitable statements in List-B:
List - A
(a) Lal Bahadur Shastri
(b) C. Natarajan Annadurai
(c) Charu Maiumdar
(d) Jagjiwan Ram
List - B
(i) Founder of Communist Party of India (Marxist - Leninst)
(ii) Founder of D.M.K.
(iii) A Member of Parliament from 1952 till his death in 1986.
(iv) Coined the famous slogan ?Jai Jawan - Jai Kisan?
Ques 9: In your opinion, was Anandpur Sahib Resolution a plea for strengthening federalism or a plea for separate Sikh nation?
Ans: It was in 1970, a section of Akalis began the demand political autonomy for the region. This was reflected in a resolution passed at their conference at Anandpur Sahib in 1973. The resolution was a plea for strengthening federalism. But it could also be interpreted as Sikh?s demand for a separate Sikh nation.
Ques 10: Assess the role of democratic negotiations in responding to regional aspirations.
Ans: A large and diverse democracy like India must deal with regional aspirations on regular basis. Situation in Punjab, North East, Assam, Kashmir Valley have threatened the government but government of India reached negotiated settlement with regional movement. It is clear policy of government, not to encourage regional aspirations which espouse separatism. Thus politics in India has succeeded in accepting regionalism as a part and parcel of democratic policy.
Ques 11: Describe the four major objectives of ASEAN Economic Community.
Ans: ASEAN is Association of South East Asian Nations. Four main objectives are:
(i) Where ASEAN as a whole is smaller than US, EU, Japan but yet its economy is growing faster than US, EU and Japan, ASEAN is also showing the growth in these regions.
(ii) The objective is to create a common market and production base within ASEAN states and to aid social and economic development in the region.
(iii) This community would also like to improve the existing ASEAN dispute settlement mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
(iv) ASEAN has focused on creating a Free Trade Area (FTA) for investment, labour and services.
Ques 12: What is meant by alliance building as a component of traditional security policy? State its advantages.
Ans: Traditional security is mainly concerned with the use or threat of use of military forces. In traditional security, force is both the principal threat to security and the principal means of achieving security.
The benefit of Alliance building is:
(i) An alliance is a coalition of states that coordinate their actions of deter or defend against military attack.
(ii) This is based on national interests and can change when national interests change, eg; US backed the Islamic militants in Afghanistan against Soviet Union in 1980.
Ques 13: Highlight any four negative consequences globalization for the people of India.
Ans: The negative consequences of globalisation:
(i) Some farmers committed suicide because their crops failed. They have bought very expensive seeds supplied by a multi-national company.
(ii) Many retail shopkeepers fear that they will lose their livelihoods if some major international companies open retail chain in the country.
(iii) Many public sector enterprises were running in losses in spite of heavy investment in them.
(iv) It has created disparities among states also by making rich more-richer and poor more-poorer.
Ques 14: Explain the circumstances that led to the accession of Hyderabad to India.
Ans: Just before independence, British rulers announced the end of their rule over India and all princely states were free to join any country or remain independent. This was a very serious problem and could threaten the very existence of united India. The problem started when few rulers of princely states decided on their independence and Hyderabad was the biggest of these ruled by Nizam.
The interim government at centre took a firm stance against the possible division of India. Sardar Patel who was home minister at that time played a historic role in negotiating with all the rulers of princely states and bringing them into the Indian Union.
However, the ruler of Hyderabad Nizam, one of the richest man of world, did not agree to sign on agreement. When the movement of the people of Hyderabad state against Nizam?s rule gathered force, joined by peasantry of state, they became victim of Nizam's oppressive rule. The atrocities and communal riots started and Nizam's paramilitary forces were against public. At this point, central government ordered the army to tackle the situation. In September 1948, Indian army moved in to control the Nizam's forces. After fighting for few days, the Nizam surrendered. This led to Hyderabad accession to India.
Ques 15: How did the methods of voting in free India go on changing from time to time till day? Explain the reasons also.
Ans: Over the period voting system has changed.
(i) In the first general election, a box was placed inside each polling booth for each candidate with the election symbol of the candidate. Each voter was given a blank ballot paper to drop into the box, they wanted to vote for.
(ii) After first two elections, this method was changed. Now ballot paper carried the names and symbols of candidates was given to voter and voter stamped against the name of candidate to vote for.
(iii) In 2004, Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) were introduced to press the button according to choice of voter containing the name of candidate and symbol of political party.
Ques 16: Analyse any four factors responsible for the downfall of the Janata Government in 1979.
Ans: The factors responsible for the downfall of the Janta Government:
(i) The Janta Party government mat came to power after 1977 election, was far from cohesive. Morarji Desai became the Prime Minister but did not bring the power within the party to an end.
(ii) The Janta Party lacked direction, leadership and common programme.
(iii) The Janta Party government could not bring about a fundamental change in policies from those pursued by the Congress.
(iv) The Janta Party 7 split and the government which was led by Morarji Desai lost its majority in less than 18 months.
Ques 17: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
In the event of a nuclear war, both sides will be so badly harmed that it will be impossible to declare one side or the other as the winner, even if one of them tries to attack and disable the nuclear weapons of its rival, the other would still be left with enough nuclear weapons to inflict unacceptable destruction. Both sides have the capacity to retaliate against an attack and to cause so much destruction that neither can afford to initiate war. Thus, the cold war - inspite of being an intense form of rivalry between great powers - remained a 'cold' and not hot or shooting war. The deterrence relationship prevents war but not the rivalry between powers.
(i) Why did intense rivalry between the super powers remain a cold war only?
(ii) Why can't a nuclear war between the two nuclear powers be decisive?
(iii) Explain the logic of 'deterrence'.
Ans: (i) Both sides have the capacity to retaliate against an attack and to cause so much destruction that neither can afford to initiate war. Thus the cold war - inspite of being an intense form of rivalry between great powers - remained a cold and not the shooting war.
(ii) In the event of nuclear war, both sides will be so badly harmed that it will be impossible to declare one side or the other as winner, even if one of them tries to attack and disable the nuclear weapons of its rival, the other would still be left with enough nuclear weapons to inflict unacceptable destructions.
(iii) When two superpowers and the blocs led by them are in a deterrence relationship, war will be massively destructive.
Ques 18: Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Despite the mixed record of the democratic experience, the people in all these countries of South Asia share the aspiration for democracy. A recent survey of the attitudes of the people in the five big countries of the region showed that there is widespread support for democracy in all these countries. Ordinary citizens, rich as well as poor and belonging to different religions, view the idea of democracy positively and support the institutions of representative democracy. They prefer democracy over any other form of government and think that democracy is suitable for their country. These are significant findings, for it was earlier believed that democracy could flourish and find support only in prosperous countries of the world.
(i) Assess the popularity of representative democracy?
(ii) Analyse the reasons for the widespread, support for democracy in the five big countries of South Asia,
(iii) How far do you agree with the statement that democracy can flourish and support only in prosperous countries?
Ans: (i) A recent survey of the attitudes of the people in the five big countries of the region showed that there is widespread support for democracy in all these countries.
(ii) Ordinary citizens, rich as well as poor and belonging to different religions in these Asian countries, view Use idea of democracy positively and support the institutions of representative democracy. They prefer democracy over any other form of government and think that democracy is suitable for their country.
(iii) We agree with the survey that survey finding are significant and democracy can flourish in all die countries, not only in prosperous countries.
Ques 19: Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Movements are not only about collective assertions or only about rallies and protests. They involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands and similar expectations. But then movements are also about making people aware of their tights and the expectations that they can have from democratic institutions. Social movements in India have been involved in these educative tasks for a long time and have thus contributed to expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions.
(i) Mention any one right granted to the people of India as a result of any movement.
(ii) How far do you agree that social movements have contributed to the expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions?
(iii) What is the relationship between the movements and the democratic institutions?
Ans: (i) This is a case of RIGHT TO INFORMATION.
(ii) We agree with the statement that social movements have contributed to the expansion of democracy. Social movements in India have been involved in these educative tasks for a long time and have thus contributed to expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions.
(iii) Movement is not only collective assertion or only about rallies and protests. They involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands and similar expectations. Movements are also about making people aware of their RIGHTS and the expectation that they can have from democratic institutions.
Ques 20: Study the following cartoon carefully and answer the questions that follow:
(i) Identify and name the leader shown on the right in the cartoon.
(ii) What type of relationship does the cartoon indicate between the people and the ruler?
(iii) In your opinion, how successful was the approach adopted by the leader on the right to solve the issue of Princely States?
Ans: (i) Sardar Patel, the Home Minister at that time is shown in the cartoon.
(ii) The state is princely state and ruler of state is Monarch the people of princely states were suppressed by the ruler very badly.
(iii) The government approach was consolidation and integration of the territorial boundaries of the nation and it had assumed supreme significance. Sardar Patel played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of princely states, offering them privy purses and bringing them into the Indian Union.
Ques 21: How did India play a crucial role in the Non-aligned Movement during the Cold War period? Explain.
Why did the Soviet Union, the second most powerful country in the world, disintegrate? Explain any six reasons.
Ans: Non-Alignment Movement during cold war Period:
(i) India's policy was neither negative nor passive.
(ii) Non-Alignment was not a policy of fleeing away.
(iii) On the contrary, India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften cold war rivalries. India tried to reduce the differences between the alliances.
(iv) Thereby prevent differences from escalating into a full scale war.
(v) Indian diplomats and leaders were often used to communicate and mediate between cold war rivals such as in Korea war in the early 1950s.
(vi) India chose to involve other members of the non - aligned group to reduce the tension in the world war. For example: India repeatedly tried to activate those regional and international organisations, which ware not a part of alliances led by the US & USSR.
(vii) Nehru took the help of many countries who were the members of a genuine commonwealth of free and cooperating nations? that would play a positive role in softening, if not ending the cold war.
Reasons responsible for the disintegration of USSR:
(i) The soviet system became very bureaucratic and authoritarian in making life very difficult for its citizens. It also impacted in lack of democracy and the absence of freedom of speech stifled people who often expressed their dissent in jokes and cartoons.
(ii) Lack of democracy.
(iii) Most of the institutions of the Soviet State needed reforms; the one party system represented by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union had tight control over all institutions and was unaccountable.
(iv) Economic stagnation for many years led to serve consumer in shortages and a large section of Soviet society began to question and doubt the system.
(v) The Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining a nuclear and military arsenals and the development of the satellite states in .Eastern Europe and within die Soviet system. This led to huge economic burden that the system could not handle,
(vi) Dominance of Russia; neglect of the interests of other republics.
Ques 22: 'The bedrock of contemporary U.S. power lies in the overwhelming superiority of its military power.' Justify the statement with any three suitable arguments.
Analyse any three major factors responsible for evolving the European Union from an economic union in a political one.
Ans: The military domination of US is relevant to the current position in world politics.
(i) In 1999, in response to Yugoslavia, action against the pre-dominantly Albanian population, in the province of Kosovo, NATO forces led by US bombarded targets around Yugoslavia, forcing the downfall of government and thus stationing of NATO forces in Kosovo.
(ii) Inspite of sanctions made by UN, US used all its forces in curbing terrorism -
(iii) Significant US military action during the Clinton years was in response to the bombing of the US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, Dar-es-Salaam and Tanzania. In the few days of bombing President Clinton ordered OPERATION INFINITE REACIT. In this operation a series of missiles strike on Al-Qaeda were used 10 curb terrorism.
(iv) In absolute terms, the US today can reach any point of the planet accurately and in real time and able to finish the opposite side while its own forces are sheltered to the maximum extent possible from the danger of war.
(v) US spends more on its military capability and technology than the next 12 powers combined.
(vi) The military dominance of US is based on QUAUITATIVE GAP a technological charm or advancement that no other power can at present conceive span.
EU (European Union) was initially started as Economic power and now a major political power too. This is explained as below:
(i) EU foundation was laid for a common foreign and security policy cooperation, with its own flag, anthem and currency. It also has a common foreign and security policy in its dealing with other nations.
(ii) The EU is the world's biggest economy. Its currency, Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of the US Dollar. Its share in world trade is 3 times larger than that of US.
(iii) Now, the EU also has political and diplomatic influence. Two members of EU, Britain and France, holds permanent seats on the UN Security Council. This has enabled the EU to influence some US policies such as current US position on Iran's nuclear programme.
(iv) Its use of diplomacy economic investments, and negotiations rather than coercion and military forces has been effective.
Ques 23: Describe any three challenging global issues that can only be dealt with when everyone works together.
What is meant by traditional notion of internal and external security?
Ans: The globalisation does not emerge merely because of the availability of improved communication. There are various global issues that can only be dealt with when every country work together.
(i) Globalisation shifts powers to regulate certain activities from government to international institutions which are direcdy controlled by multinational companies, e.g., when a country is engaged in the business activities of other countries, its government makes agreement with respect to these countries separately.
(ii) Globalisation also compels many governments to change legislation and constitution. The private sector multinational companies often are compelled to do away with certain rules and regulations that safeguards the rights of working people and environment.
(iii) While cultural homogenisation is an aspect of globalisation. The same process also generates precisely the opposite effects. It leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive. This phenomenon is cultural hetrogenisation. The cultural globalisation has made negative impact on Indian culture. This has taken form of objecting particularly to various cultural influences - ranging from the availability of foreign TV channels showing explicit sexual pictures etc, celebration of western culture and westernisation of the dress tastes of girl students in school and college.
(i) Traditional security is mainly concerned with the use or threat of use of military force. In traditional security, force is both the principle threat to security and principles of achieving security.
(ii) Creation and substance of alliance belong to the traditional security. An alliance is a coalition of states that coordinate this action to deter or defend against military attack.
Traditional security perspective emphasises on compromises to limit the violence by giving three choices to the state if security is threatened:
(i) To surrender when actually confronted by war, but they will not advertise this as the policy of the country.
(ii) To prevent the other side from attacking by promising to raise the costs of war to an unacceptable limit.
(iii) To defend to protect itself when war actually breaks out so as to deny the attacking country its objectives or to turn back or to defeat the attacking forces altogether.
Ques 24: Analyse the impact on Sine-Indian relations since 1962 onwards.
How far has India been successful in conducting its foreign policy peacefully and avoiding international conflicts? Explain with the help of examples.
Ans: India and China are two giants of Asia and also the neighbour countries with biggest population of world. Relations between these two countries have always remained topsy-turvy.
(i) China and India were involved in a border conflict in 1962 over territorial disputes principally in Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and the Aksai Chin region of Ladakh. China attacked India on 20th October, 1962 and captured many Indian areas but declared a unilateral ceasefire on 21st November. This worsened the relations with China.
(ii) Rajiv Gandhi visited China in 1988 and government has taken measures to contain conflict and maintain peace and tranquility on the border.
(iii) They also signed agreement on cultural exchanges and cooperate in science and technology. Both the countries also opened border posts for trade.
(iv) Trade growing at 30% per year since 1999, a positive move perspective on relations with China has emerged. Bi-lateral trade between India and China has increased from $330Million to more than $ 18 Billion.
Indians foreign policy in avoiding international conflicts:
(i) India has always followed the policy of non-alignment on various international issues.
(ii) India has kept a distance from both the military blocks led by USA and USSR respectively.
(iii) India criticized on the issue of Suez Canal.
(iv) India played a crucial role in mediating between the two Koreans.
Ques 25: Examine the developments that gave rise to the conflict between the Union Government and the Judiciary in India.
Analyse the circumstances that led to the restoration of Congress System after the Party's split in 1969.
Ans: This was also the period when the government and ruling party had many differences with the judiciary.
Three constitutional issues has emerged:
(i) Whether parliament abridge Fundamental rights The Supreme Court said it cannot.
(ii) Can the Parliament curtail the right to property by making an amendment Court said that Parliament cannot amend the Constitution in such a manner that rights are curtailed.
(iii) The Parliament amended the Constitution saying that it can abridge Fundamental Rights for giving effects to Directive Principal. But the Supreme Court rejected this provision also.
This led to a crisis as far as the relations between government and the judiciary were concerned. The best example is the famous Kesavananda Bharti case. In this case, Court gave a decision that there are some basic features of the Constitution and the Parliament cannot amend these features.
The split in the Congress reduced the Indira Gandhi government to minority. Yet her government continued in the office with the issue based support of few parties including CPI and DMK. During this period government made conscious attempts to project its socialist credentials.
The results of LOK SABHA election in 1971 were unexpected. The Congress (Indira) CPI alliance had more seats and votes than the congress has ever won in the first four general elections. Indira Gandhi Congress won 354 seats in Lok Sabha and secured 44% of popular votes of its own. Contrast to this with the performance of Congress (0) with so many stalwarts could manage only one-fourth votes than Indira Gandhi party and could win only 16 seats. With this the Congress Party led by Indira Gandhi established its claim to being REAL CONGRESS and restored to its dominant position in Indian Politics.
Soon after the Lok Sabha elections, a major political and military crisis broke out in East Pakistan and the Indo-Pak war leading to the establishment of Bangladesh. These events added to the popularity of Indira Gandhi. Her Party swept through all the assembly elections held in 1972.
She was seen not only as the protector of the poor and underprivileged, but also a strong nationalist leaders. The opposition to her, either within the party or outside it, simply did not matter. With two successive election victories, one at the central and other at state level, the dominance of congress was restored.
Ques 26: Describe the external and internal disputes responsible for making the politics of Jammu and Kashmir continuously controversial.
Describe any three major developments that left a long lasting impact on the politics of India after the death of Rajiv Gandhi.
Ans: Soon after the independence, the issue of Jammu & Kashmir came up. It is not only a conflict between India and Pakistan, it was a question of political aspirations of people of Kashmir Valley.
Jammu and Kashmir comprises three social and political regions: Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. The Kashmir Valley consists of mostly Muslims speaking Kashmir And very few Kashmir speaking Hindu minority. Jammu region is a mix of foothills and plains, with population of Hindu,
Muslims and Sikhs, speaking various languages. The Ladakh between Buddhist and Muslims. The Kashmir issue has external and internal dimensions. It involves the issue of Kashmir identity known as Kashmiryat and the aspirations of the people of J&K for political autonomy.
Since J&K was initially a princely state, its Hindu ruler die not want to merge with India or Pakistan and wanted independent status for his state. Pakistani leaders though that Kashmir region belongs to Pakistan, as majority population is Muslims. The popular movement led by Sheikh Abdullah of National Conference, wanted to get rid of Maharaja, but was against joining Pakistan.
In October 1947, Pakistan sent tribal infiltrators from its side to capture Kashmir. This forced Maharaja Hari Singh to ask for Indian Military help. India sent the Military supper and drove back the tribal infiltrator. Since then Kashmir became Indian state with a special provision under article 370.
Nowadays, Pakistan is directly involved in terrorist and secessionist violence in the Kashmir Valley.
Since 1990-91, the political parties instead of ideology, the consensus on the following points have emerged.
(i) Agreement on new economic policies: While many groups are opposed to the new economic policies, most political parties are in support of the new economic policies - Most parties believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.
(ii) Political and social claims of the backward castes: Political parties have recognised that the social and political claims of the backward castes need to be accepted. As a result, all political parties now support reservation of seats for the backward classes in education and employment. Political parties are also willing to ensure that the OBCs get adequate share of power.
(iii) Role of state level parties in governance: The distinction between State level and National level parties is fast becoming important. State level parties are sharing power at the national level and have played a central role in the country's politics of last twenty years or so.
(iv) Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement: Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological difference to power sharing arrangements. Thus, most parties of the NDA did not agree with the Hindutava ideology of the BJP. Yet, they came together to form a government and remained in - power for 3 full term.