Ques 1: Distinguish between cultural homogenization and cultural hetrogenisation.
Ans: While cultural homogenization is an aspect of globalisation, the same process also generates precisely the opposite effects. It leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive. When cultural globalisation starts negative effects on national culture, it is known as cultural hetrogenisation.
Ques 2: Mention any four negative consequences on the people of China inspite of improvement in the Chinese economy.
Ans: China has been the fastest growing economy since the reforms took place but there were negative effects on Chinese people.
(i) Unemployment had risen.
(ii) Female employment and condition of work was bad.
(iii) Environmental degradation and corruption had increased.
(iv) Inequality between rural & urban residents and coastal and inland provinces.
Ques 3: Why do some countries question Indians inclusion as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council? Explain.
Ans: India have supported the restructuring of the UN on several grounds. One of India's major concern has been the composition of Security Council, which has remained largely static while the UN generally membership has expanded considerably. India considers that this has harmed the representative character of the Security Council. India supports an increase in the number of both permanent and non-permanent members.
India itself wishes to be a permanent member of restructured UN. India is the most populous country and also the world's largest democracy. The country s economic emergence in the world is another factor to claim the permanent seat in Security Council. There are some countries who question India's inclusion in Security Council. Pakistan has opposed India due to its strained political relationship. Few other countries feel if India is included, then other emerging powers will have to be accommodated such as Brazil, Germany, Japan and South Africa.
Ques 4: How has state capacity received a boost as a consequence of globalization? Explain.
Ans: If we view overall scenario of the world today, state capacity has received a boost as a consequence of globalisation.
(i) Enhanced technology available at the disposal of the state to collect information about its citizens. With this information the state is better equipped to make their policies with regard to various schemes.
(ii) States become more powerful than they were earlier as an outcome of new policy.
(iii) From economic globalisation a state has broader way of understanding of other countries and its market.
Ques 5: Analyse any three different views within India about the type of relationship India should have with the U.S.
Analyse the differences in relationship between India and Bangladesh.
Ans: In the post-Cold War era, the Indian Foreign policy has shifted to more pro US stand. The present India's foreign policy emphasises more on economic interest in place of military.
However, three possible strategies have been suggested through debates by Indian analyst:
(i) Aloofness from US: By observing military nature of US hegemony and closeness between India and US, some Indian analyst suggests that India should maintain its aloofness from Washington and focus upon increasing its own comprehensive national power.
(ii) Take advantage of US hegemony: Other group of analysts see growing convergence of interest between the US and India as a historic opportunity for India. They advocate a strategy that would allow India to take advantage of US hegemony and the mutual convergences to establish the best possible option for itself. According to them opposing US is futile strategy that will only hurt India in a long run.
(iii) India should join coalition to challenges US hegemony. The third strategy suggested by the analysts is that India should take the lead in establishing a coalition of countries from the developing world and over the time, coalition would become more powerful and may succeed in weakening the hegemony away from its dominating ways.
By observing the above strategies we can conclude that Indo-US relations are perhaps too complex to be managed by a single strategy. Actually India needs to develop a mixed strategy in its foreign policy to deal with the US by maintaining its own identity in the global hegemony.
The population of East Pakistan had voted to protest against years of being treated as second class citizens. In 1971 the Pakistan arrested the Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and unleashed a reign of terror on the people of East Pakistan. People took shelter in the neighbouring areas of India. India extended moral and material support to the freedom struggle in Bangladesh. Welcomed and supported by the local population, the Indian army made rapid progress in East Pakistan.
Within 10 days Indian army had surrounded Dhaka from three sides and 90,000 strong army of Pakistan had to surrender. Now as a new free country Bangladesh, India declared a unilateral ceasefire. India gave shelter to refugees but these Bangladeshi refugee have become a problem for India as they did not returned back. They entered every state of India and demanding shelter and jobs.
Another issue water sharing of Teesta, Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.
Some terrorist group are active in Bangladesh who are involved in terrorism activities against India. Bangladesh is not able to tackle the problem of terror activities.
On disaster management and environmental issues, the two countries have cooperated regularly.
Ques 6: Describe the three new criteria that have been proposed for new permanent members of the U.N. Security Council.
Describe health epidemics as the new source of threat under the non-traditional sources of threat to security.
Ans: In view of growing demands for the restructuring of the UN, on 1st January 1997 the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan initiated an enquiry into, how the UN should be reformed For instance, how should new Security Council members be chosen.
Since then, the following are just some of the criteria which has been proposed for new permanent and non-permanent members of the Security Council. A new member, it has been suggested, should be:
(a) A major economic Power,
(b) A major Military Power,
(c) A substantial contributor to the UN budget,
(d) A big nation in terms of the population,
(e) A nation that respects democracy and human rights,
(f) A country that would make the council more representative of the world's diversity in terms of geography, economic system and culture.
Clearly, each of these criteria has some validity. Governments saw advantages in some criteria and disadvantages in others depending upon their interests and aspirations. The biggest three criteria's are analysed now. Countries could see that the criteria were problematic. How big the country's economic or military power should be A bigger population is an asset or liability who is trying to play a bigger role in the world.
Non-traditional notions of security go beyond military threat to include of wide range of threat and dangers affecting the conditions of human existence.
In the non - traditional conception the referent is expanded proponents of non-traditional security reply "not just the state but also individuals, communities or indeed all of humankind".
Non-traditional views of security have been called human security or global security.
The idea of global security- emerged in the 1990s in response to the global nature of threat such as global warming, international terrorism and health epidemics like AIDS, bird flu and so on. No country can resolve these problems alone. In some situations one country may have to disproportionately bear the brunt of a global problem such as environmental degradation. E.g., due to global warming, a sea level rise of 1.5 ' 2.0 metres would flood 20°o of coastal areas and inundate, most of the Maldives.
Since these, problems are global in nature international cooperation is vital, even though it is difficult to achieve it alone.