Ques 1: Assess the impact of Valentine's Day on Indian culture.
Ans: Impact of Valentine's Day on Indian culture is westernization of the dress, tastes of girl students in schools and colleges.
Ques 2: Describe Indo-China relations from 1947 to 1962.
Ans: Nehru's foreign policy towards neighbours: Due to the foreign policy with neighbouring countries, India-China nations border problem which created a lot of damage. India and China had the same experiences with foreign rule for more than two hundred years.
(i) After the Chinese revolution in 1949, India was one of the first countries to recognise the communist government. Nehru helped the new government in international era. Some of the colleagues were worried about the possible aggression by China in future but Nehru thought it was exceedingly unlikely that India will face an attack from China.
(ii) On 29th April 1954, a peaceful co-existence between Zhou Enlai and Nehru was a step in the direction of stronger relation between the two countries.
(iii) The plateau of the central Asian region called Tibet, is one of the major issues that historically caused tension between India and China. In 1950 China took over the control of large part of Tibet, but population of Tibet demanded their freedom. Hence Panchsheel agreement was signed in 1954. In 1958 it was decided Tibet will be given greater autonomy than what they enjoyed. But many refugees came to India and other parts of the country. Dalai Lama also set up his home in Dharamshala.
But due to these tension China invasion occurred in 1962, for which India demanded help from other countries. The attack lasted one week and Chinese forces captured some areas in Arunachal Pradesh. But after this China declared a cease fire. Now relations are good between India and China.
Ques 3: What is the full form of WTO? When was it set up? How does it function?
Ans: (i) Full form of WTO is World Trade Organisation.
(ii) Its an international organisation set up on 1st January, 1995 as the successor to the general agreement on trade and tariffs.
(iii) It makes rules about trade and all decisions are taken unanimously but the major economic powers such as US, European Union and Japan have managed to use the WTO to frame rules of trade in advance in their own interest. The developing countries often complain of non - transparent procedure and being pushes around by big powers.
Ques 4: Explain any four economic consequences of Globalisation.
Ans: Economic consequences of globalisation are as follows:
(i) Globalisation usually involves greater economic flows among the different countries. Some of these are volunteer and some are forced by the international institutes.
(ii) It has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe, the restrictions imposed by different countries on allowing the imports of other countries have been reduced.
(iii) Movement of capital across the countries have also been reduced in operational terms. It means that investors in the rich countries can invest their money in countries other than their own.
(iv) It has also led to flow of ideas across national boundaries which helps developed economies more and developing economies have to suffer.
Ques 5: 'Resistance is the only option available to overcome the U.S. hegemony.' Justify the statement by comparing it to other anti-hegemony strategies.
'Nepal and India enjoy a very special relationship that has very few parallels in the world.' Justify the statement with any three suitable arguments.
Ans: The definition of Hegemony is leadership or dominance, especially by one state or group over others either in physical power or economic power. The US hegemony began in 1991 after sudden collapse of USSR and disappearance of Soviet Union from international scene. In the short term, we must realize that no single power is anywhere near balancing the US military.
Some people believe that resistance to American hegemony will be a better way to handle the situation.
When comparing the anti-hegemony strategies from normal strategy to resistance to hegemony, we can say:
Resistance to hegemony:
(i) It may not come from other states/countries who are powerless to confront US today.
(ii) It can come from non-state actors/ activities.
(iii) The challenge to American hegemony will emerge to the economic and cultural realms, and will come from combination of non-governmental organisations (NGOs), social movements and public opinion.
(iv) It may come from sections of media and intellectuals, artist and writers.
(v) These prominent public figures may well form link across national boundaries, including Americans, to criticize and resist US policies.
Normal way of Anti-Hegemony strategy:
(i) Bandwagon strategy. It emphasises not to oppose hegemonic power, instead take opportunities to extract benefit by operating within hegemonic system.
(ii) To hide strategy: implies to stay away as far as possible from the dominant power. This strategy is applicable to small states but states may not be able to hide for substantial length of time.
India and Nepal have very special relationship that has few parallels in the world.
(i) A treaty between the two countries allow the citizen of two countries to travel and work in each other countries with outs Visas and Passports.
(ii) Despite this the two countries had trade dispute in the past.
(iii) Indian government have shown displeasures against the growing relationships between Nepal and China.
(iv) Indian security agencies see the Maoist and Naxalite movement as growing security threats.
Nevertheless, Indo-Nepalese relationship is fairly stable and peaceful. Despite differences, trade scientific cooperation, common natural resources, electricity generation and interlocking water management grids hold the two countries together. There is a hope that the consolidation of democracy in Nepal will lead to improvements in the ties between the two countries.
Ques 6: Trace the evolution of the United Nations since its establishment in 1945. How does it function with the help of its various structures and agencies?
What is meant by global poverty? Suggest any two ways to reduce disparity between the poor and the rich at the global level.
Ans: The Un was founded as a successor to the successor to the League of Nations. It was established in 1945 immediately after the Second World War. The UN organization was set up by signing of the United Nations Charter by 51 states. The UN's objective is to prevent international conflict and to facilitate cooperation among the states. It was founded with the hope that it would act to stop the conflicts between states escalating into war and if war broke out, to limit the extent of hostilities.
We sum up the UN as The United Nations was not created to take humanity in heaven, but to save it from hell.
The UN functions through its various arms:
(i) Economic and Social Council: Looks into the economic and social welfare of member countries.
(ii) International Court of Justice: Resolves disputes between and among member countries.
(iii) International Atomic Energy Agency: Safety and Peaceful use of nuclear technology.
(iv) Security Council: Reservation of international peace and security.
(v) UN High Commission for Refugees: Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies.
(vi) World Trade Organisation - facilitates free trade among member countries.
(vii) International Monetary Fund: Overseas and Global financial system.
(viii) General Assembly: Debates and discusses global issues.
(ix) World Health Organisation: Providing good health for all.
(x) Secretariat: Administration and Co-ordination of UN affairs.
Global poverty: it refers to a country to be suffering from low income and less economic growth to be categorised as least developed or developing countries. Negative effects of globilisation are:
(i) It has widened income disparity by making rich ever richer and the poor more poorer.
(ii) Even farmers are supposed to be well educated if they want to use modern methods of cultivation, which poor countries farmers cannot meet due to less education.
(iii) Reducing inequality is, first and foremost, a question of human rights, fairness and social justice. It is also a key to eradicating extreme poverty, fostering sustainability, promoting civil progress, reducing conflict and violence and developing inclusive governance.
(iv) Various evaluations have concluded that in 2015, almost half of the world?s household wealth was owned by 1 % of the global population, and that the sixty-two richest individuals owned as much as the bottom half of humanity.
Ways to reduce the disparity between the poor and rich at the global level:
(i) Economic inequality can give wealthier people an unacceptable degree of control over the lives of others.
If wealth is very unevenly distributed in a society, wealthy people often end up in control of many aspects of the lives of poorer citizens: over where and how they can work, what they can buy, and in general what their lives will be like. As an example, ownership of a public media outlet, such as a newspaper or a television channel, can give control over how others in the society view themselves and their lives, and how they understand their society.
(ii) Workers, as participants in a scheme of cooperation that produces national income, have a claim. 1:0 a fair share of what they have helped to produce.
What constitutes a fair share is of course controversial. According to which inequalities in wealth and income are permissible only if these inequalities could not be reduced without worsening the position of those who are worst/off. If an economy is producing an increasing level of goods and services, then all those who participate m producing these benefits - workers as well as others - should share in the result.
(iii) Improve public schools
There's no surer ticket out of poverty than a solid education. But that education has to be affordable and it has to be equally distributed.
(iv) Raise the minimum wage
It's impossible to live on today's minimum wage, which is substantially lower, when adjusted for inflation, throughout the world, it's convenient for employers to argue they can't pay higher wages. Their profits indicate otherwise the industry owners are becoming rich every year. The American dream is to work hard and get ahead. That is not a reality today, even for people who are working full-time.
(v) What can be done to close the gap in social science research into inequalities
The report published by social sciences highlights the need for more cooperation across disciplines, borders and inequality specialisations to help governments to develop more effective polices to create more inclusive societies, everywhere in world.
International networks, open data sources, open access to publishing and software are vital to achieve this.