Ques 1: Why does mineral industry invite criticism and resistance in various parts of the globe? Give any one major reason.
Ans: The mineral industry's extraction of earth, its use of chemicals, its pollution of waterways and land, its displacement of communities invites criticism and resistance in various parts of globe.
Ques 2: Describe any four long-term implications of the conflict of 1962 between India and China.
Ans: The long term implications due to war with China, Nehru was criticised, then defence minister V. Krishna Menon resigned.
The relation with China experienced friendly gestures from India as India signed popular Panchsheel to develop Indo China relations in 1954 and advocated China's membership to the United Nations. Still after 1957, various contentious issues arose in Indo-China relations-
(i) In 1962, military conflict over a border dispute over the MacMohan line resulted an unwarranted claim by China which lies now in Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin regions of Ladakh.
(ii) Differences arose from. Chinese takeover oi Tibet in 1950 which was protested by India against China.
(iii) After Panchsheel, attack by China on India in 1962, to occupies larger territories of India, created a humiliation.
(v) China's assistance to Pakistan's nuclear programme also created differences.
(vi) China's military relation with Pakistan, Bangla Desh and Myanmar were viewed as hostile to Indian interest.
Ques 3: What is Amnesty International? State its main functions.
Ans: Amnesty International is an N.G.O. that campaign for the protection of human rights ail over the world. It promotes respect for all the human rights in the universal declaration of Human Rights. It believes that human rights are interdependent and indivisible. It prepares and publishes reports from various countries on human rights.
Ques 4: Explain any four cultural consequences of globalisation with examples.
Ans: Four cultural consequences of globalisation:
(i) It leads to the rise of a uniform culture or what is called cultural homogenisation. What we have in the name of a global culture is the imposition of western culture on the rest of world.
(ii) Western culture affects the rest of the world. The popularity of a burger or blue jeans has a lot to do with the powerful influence of the American way of life.
(iii) The culture of the politically and economically dominant society leaves it simprints on a less powerful society.
(iv) With the rise of McDonaldization of the world, with cultures seeking to buy into the dominant American dream. This is not only dangerous for the poor countries but also for the whole humanity, for it leads to shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.
Ques 5: Examine the sequence of events related to the formation of governments in Bangladesh from 1971 to 1990.
Evaluate the American hegemony as a hard power.
Ans: Sequence of events related to the formation of government of Bangladesh are:
People protest against the unfair treatment meted out to the Bengali culture and the language. They demanded fair representation in administration. Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman led the popular struggle against West Pakistan domination. In 1970 election, the Awami League led by Mujib-ur-Rahman won all the seats and secured a majority. But the government dominated by the West Pakistani leadership, General Yahya Khan refused to convene the assembly and Mujib-Ur- Rahman was arrested. War between India and Pakistan broke out in 1971 which was ended in the surrender of Pakistani forces in east Pakistan and formation of Bangladesh as an independent country.
Formation of various government between 1971 to 1990:
1971 - Sheikh Mujib-Ur-Rahman elected head of first government. However, in 1975 Mujibur-Rahman amended the constitution to shift from Parliamentary system to Presidential form of government.
Sheikh mujib was assassinated in a military uprising in August 1975.
The new Military Ruler, Ziaur-Rahman ruled from April 1977 to May 1981 who again was assassinated.
Lt Gen H. M. Ershad, another military ruler became president from December 1983 to December 1990.
Between these periods, few leaders ruled but not for long duration.
Three factors responsible for the US hegemony in the world politics are:
(i) The US power lies in the overwhelming superiority of its military power. American military dominance today is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, the US today has military capabilities that can reach any point on the planet accurately, lethally and in real time, thereby crippling the adversary while its own forces are sheltered to the maximum extent possible from the dangers of war.
(ii) No other power today can remotely match them. The US today spends more on its military capability than the next 12 powers combined. Furthermore, a large chunk of the Pentagons budgets goes into military research or development and technology. Thus the military dominance of the US is not just based on higher military spending, but on a qualitative gap, a technology chasm that no other power can at present conceivably span.
(iii) The US invasion of Iraq shows that the American capacity to conquer is formidable. Similarly the US capability to deter and to punish is self-evident. More than forty countries joined in the US led Coalition of the Willing after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion.
Thus, no country can deny the US superiority in the world politics.
Ques 6: Mention any six Post-Cold War changes that have necessitated reforms to make the United Nations work better.
What is meant by cooperative security? How can this be made more effective?
Ans: Presently, United Nation has 192 member states. The UN's most visible public figure, and the representative had, is the General Secretary Antonio Guterres who is ex-Prime Minister of Portugal. Reform and improvements are fundamental to any organisation to serve the needs of a changing environment and post-cold war changes has necessitated the reforms.
The UN was established in 1945 immediately after the Second World War. The way it was organised and the way it functioned reflected the realities of world politics after the Second World War. After the cold war, those realities are different. Here are some of the changes that have occurred:
(i) The Soviet Union has collapsed.
(ii) The US is the strongest power.
(iii) The relationship between, Russia, the successor to the Soviet Union, and the US is much more cooperative.
(iv) China is fast emerging as a great power, and India also is growing rapidly.
(v) The economies of Asia are growing at an unprecedented rate.
(vi) Many new countries has joined the UN (as they became independent from the Soviet Union or former communist states in Eastern Europe).
(vii) A whole new set of challenges confronts the world (Genocide, civil war, ethnic conflict:, terrorism, nuclear proliferation, climate change, environmental degradation, epidemics).
Cooperative security is the involvement of international cooperation depending on the nature of the threat and to willingness and ability of countries to respond.
Military force may have a role to play in combating terrorism or in enforcing human rights. But it is difficult to see what force would do to help alleviate poverty, manage migration, refugee movements and control epidemics. Here, in most cases, the use of military force would only make matter worse. Far more effective is to devise strategies that involve international cooperation.
Cooperative security may also involve a variety of other players, born national and international - international organisations such as LN world Health Organisation, World Bank. IMF etc,, non- governmental organisations like Amnesty Imemanonal, the Red Cross, Private foundations and charities, churches, religious organisations, trade unions, associations etc., businesses and corporations.
Cooperative security may involve the use of force as last resort. It is to agree that the use of violence (by forces) is acceptable against international terrorists and those who harbour them.
Non-traditional security is much better when the use of force is sanctioned and applied collectively by the international community rather than when an individual country decides to use force on its own.