Ques 1: Highlight any one feature of the multi-polar world as visualised by both Russia and India.
Ans: Russia and India share a vision of multi-polar world order. It is the co-existence of several powers in the international system, collective security, greater regionalism, negotiated settlements of international conflicts.
Ques 2: What was the significance of 'Operation Iraqi Freedom'?
Ans: On March 19th, 2003 the US launched its invasion of Iraq under the code name Operation Iraqi Freedom.
More than forty countries joined the US. Its purpose was to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and the end of the regime of Saddam Hussein.
Ques 3: Give a suitable example to show that globalisation need not always be positive.
Ans: After globalisation some farmers bought very expensive seeds supplied by the M.N.Cs, but the crops failed and they had committed suicide.
Ques 4: Why does development have different meanings for different sections of the people?
Ans: Development has different meanings for different sections of the people. For example: An industrialist who is planning to set up a steel plant, is a development for industrialists and if same land is used for agriculture, it?s a development for farmer.
Ques 5: Why is violence between two communities considered as a threat to democracy?
Ans: Violence between two communities disrupts the functioning of the government, delays decision making and destabilizes the routine of democracy.
Ques 6: In which way did the policy of Non-Alignment serve India's interests?
Ans: Policy of Non-Alignment helped India in following ways:
(i) It preserved the hard-earned sovereignty.
(ii) Protected territorial integrity.
(iii) Promoted rapid economic development.
Ques 7: Analyse the two political developments of 1940s that led to the decision for the creation of Pakistan.
Ans: Following are the two major political developments of 1940s that led to the creation of Pakistan:
(i) An important resolution was passed by Muslim League on 23rd March, 1940. They demanded autonomy for the Muslim majority areas on the sub - continent.
(ii) Mohammad Ali Jinnah was adamant to become the head of the nation.
Ques 8: Match the following meaningfully from the names in Column 'A' with the information in Column 'B':
(a) Indira Gandhi
(b) Ram Manohar Lohia
(c) Jai Prakash Narayan
(d) Jagjiwan Ram
(i) A Member of Parliament from 1952 till his death.
(ii) Symbol of opposition during emergency of 1975.
(iii) Nationalization of banks.
(iv) Best known for his sharp attacks on Nehru.
Ans: Column A
(a) Indira Gandhi
(b) Ram Manohar Lohia
(c) Jai Prakash Narayan
(d) Jagjiwan Ram
(iii) Nationalization of banks.
(iv) Best known for his sharp attacks on Nehru.
(ii) Symbol of opposition during emergency of 1975.
(i) A Member of Parliament from 1952 till his death.
Ques 9: How far did the Rajiv Gandhi - Longowal Accord succeed in bringing normalcy in Punjab?
Ans: After coming in power following the elections in 1984, the new Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi initiated a dialogue with moderate Akali Dal leader in July 1985. He reached an agreement with Harchand Singh Longowal, this agreement is known as Rajiv Gandhi, Longowal Accord.
It was agreed that Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab, A separate commission would be appointed to resolve border dispute between Punjab and Haryana and a tribunal would be set up to decide the sharing Ravi, Beas water dispute among Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and agreed to give compensation for better treatment for those affected by the militancy of Punjab and the withdrawal of application of Armed Forces Special Power Act in Punjab.
Ques 10: What will happen if the region are not given their due share in decision-making at the national level?
Ans: Regions should be independent to take their decisions because many issues are only related to a particular region. For example:
(i) Odisha is one of the largest reserves of iron ore in the country and state government hopes to cash in on this unprecedented demand for iron ore. If region does not take independent decision, it will affect the state as decisions will go under the centre control which will result in most of the unemployment in the tribal area and by setting up of industries outside the region they will be displaced and hence have to leave their homes and livelihood.
(ii) Kerala model is the name given to the paths of planning and development. It is a model of education, health, land reform distribution all issues should be solved by the region itself, if they will be controlled by the centre it would have bad effects.
Ques 11: What was the main objective behind China's adoption of the Soviet model of economy? In which two ways was China benefitted by it?
Ans: Below are the reasons and benefits of China's adoption of soviet model of economy
(i) After the inception of the People's Republic of China in 1949, following the communist revolution under the leadership of Mao, its economy was based on the soviet model.
(ii) China chose to severe its links with the capitalist's world. It had little choice but to fall back on its own resources and for a brief period on soviet aids and advice.
(iii) The model was to create a state owned heavy industries sector from the capital accumulated from agriculture.
(iv) Like Russia, employment and social welfare was assured to all the citizens.
China followed its own path in introducing a market economy. They did not go for Shock Therapy, but opened their market step by step and now Chinese economy is very developed and constantly flourishing.
Ques 12: Describe terrorism as a new source of threat to security.
Ans: Terrorism is a new source of threat to security because:
(i) It refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately.
(ii) International terrorism involves the citizens or territory of more than one country.
(iii) Civilian targets are usually chosen to terrorise the public as a weapon against the national government or other parties in conflict.
(iv) Classic cases of terrorism involve hijacking of planes planting bombs in trains, cafes, markets and other crowded places.
(v) One of the biggest terrorist attacks so far took place on 11th sep., 2001 on the world Trade Centre in New York, US. Other many big attacks occurred in the Middle East, Europe, Latin America and South Asia.
Ques 13: Explain any four negative consequences of globalisation for the people of India.
Ans: Negative affects of globalization on the people of India are:
(i) An Indian company bought a major rival company based in Europe, despite protests by some of the current owners.
(ii) Many retail shopkeepers fear that they would lose their livelihoods if some major international companies open retail chains in the country.
(iii) A film producer in Mumbai was accused of lifting the story of his film from another film made in Hollywood.
(iv) A militant group issued a statement threatening collage girls who wear western clothes.
Ques 14: Highlight any four consequences of the partition of India in 1947.
Ans: Following are the consequence of the 1947 partition of India:
(i) 1947 was the year of largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfer of the population.
(ii) There were killings and atrocities on both sides of their border.
(iii) In the name of religion people of one community wen ruthlessly killed and maimed people of the other community.
(iv) People were forced to abandon their houses and move across border which led to immense suffering and pain
(v) In many cases women were abducted on both sides of the border and during the journey they were attacked and raped.
Ques 15: What distinguished the dominance of the Congress Party in India from the one-party dominance in other countries? Explain.
Ans: Congress party dominance in India was different from one party dominance system of other countries in following ways:
(i) Indian dominance was under democratic conditions.
(ii) Many parties contested election in conditions of free and fair elections.
(iii) This was similar to the dominance the African National Congress has enjoyed in South Africa after the end of Apartheid.
(iv) In other countries one party system, like China, no other party could be formed but in India anyone who meets the eligibility can form a party as C.P.I. Socialist party, Communist party, Samajwadi party etc., are formed.
Ques 16: Examine the dramatic changes that took place in the party system in India during 1969 to 1977.
Ans: Many dramatic changes took place in the party system in India during 1969 to 1977 like by November 1969, the congress group led by the syndicate came to be referred as The Congress and the other group led by Indira Gandhi came to be called as The Congress Requisition. These two parties were also referred as Old Congress and New Congress.
Indira Gandhi projected the spin as an ideological divide between socialists and conservative, between the pro-poor and pro-rich. First formation of [anta government in 1977 was the result of an accommodative attitude of the constituent political groups, Morarji Desai headed the four party Jama Government for two years, from 1977-1979, following the 1977 general elections.
Ques 17: Study the following carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The smaller states in the alliances used the link to the super powers for their own purposes. They got the promise of protection, weapons and economic aid against their local rivals, mostly regional neighbours with whom they had rivalries. The alliance systems led by the two superpowers, therefore, threatened to divide the entire world into two camps.
This division happened first in Europe. Most countries of Western Europe sided with the US and those of Eastern Europe joined the Soviet camp. That is why, these were also called the ''western' and the 'eastern'' alliances.
(i) Name one organisation each related to the 'western' and the ''eastern' alliances.
(ii) Why were the smaller states interested in joining the super alliances?
(iii) How did the 'alliance system' threaten to divide the world?
Ans: (i) Most countries of Western Europe joined US as western alliance and those of Eastern Europe joined the Soviet camp as eastern alliance.
(ii) Smaller states joined the super alliance for their own purpose as they were promised protection, weapon and economic aid against their local rivals.
(iii) Alliance system was led by the two superpowers, therefore threatened to divide the entire world into two camps.
Ques 18: Study the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The lack of genuine international support for democratic rule in Pakistan has further encouraged the military to continue its dominance. The United States and other Western countries have encouraged the military's authoritarian rule in the past, for their own reasons. Given their fear of the threat of what they call global Islamic terrorism and the apprehension that Pakistan's nuclear arsenal might fall into the hands of these terrorist groups, the military regime in Pakistan has been seen as the protector of Western interests in West Asia and South Asia.
(i) What is meant by 'global Islamic terrorism'?
(ii) Why did Pakistan lack genuine international support for democratic rule?
(iii) Why was the military regime in Pakistan considered as the protector of Western interests in West Asia and South Asia?
Ans: (i) Global Islamic terrorism refers to the apprehension that Pakistan's nuclear arsenal might fall in the hands of the terrorist groups.
(ii) United states and other western countries have encouraged the militaries authorisation rule in the past tor their own reasons and never supported, genuine international support for democratic rule.
(iii) The military regime in Pakistan has been seen as the protector of western interest m West Asia and South Asia as Pakistan nuclear arsenal is in their control.
Ques 19: Study the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Critics of popular movements often argue that collective actions like strikes, sit-ins and rallies disrupt the functioning of the government, delay decision-making and destabilise the routines of democracy. Such an argument invites a deeper question: why do these movement resort to such assertive forms of action?
We have seen that popular movements have raised legitimate demands of the people and have involved large scale participation of citizens. It should be noted that the groups mobilised by these movements are poor, socially and economically disadvantaged sections of the society from marginal social groups.
(i) Popular movements resort to which two types of assertive actions?
(ii) How far do you agree with the arguments given by the critics?
(iii) Why are groups involved in popular movements mostly from marginal social groups?
Ans: (i) Popular movements resorts to generally two types of actions (a) Strikes, (b) Rallies.
(ii) We agree with the argument of critics that such movements disrupt the functioning of the government. The popular movements have raised legitimate demands of the people.
(iii) Mostly the groups mobilised by these movements are poor, socially and economically disadvantaged sections of the society from marginal social groups.
Ques 20: Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
(i) Identify and name the person who is holding the balancing beam between the public sector and the private sector.
(ii) Why has a big tilt towards the public sector been shown in the cartoon?
(iii) How did the over-emphasis on public sector adversely affect the Indian economy?
Ans: (i) The person holding the balancing beam between the public sector and the private sector is Jawahar Lal Nehru.
(ii) India did not accept the capitalist model of development in which development was left entirely to the private sector nor did it follow the socialistic model. Elements from both these models were taken and mixed together in India and made pubic sectors having majority holdings by government. Heavy industries and other important works/departments were given to public sector.
(iii) The enlarged public sector under the control of government, with powerful vested interests of government ministers and ministerial secretariat have created enough hurdles for private capital specially in giving licenses and permits to private sector. The state controlled more things than were necessary and this led to inefficiency and corruption.
Ques 21: Highlight the circumstances which gave birth to the idea of New International Economic Order (NIEO). Explain any two factors that weakened this initiative.
In what three ways did the collapse of the Soviet Union affect the world politics? Explain.
Ans: The idea of New International Economic Order (NIEO) originated with the realisation that United Nation Conference on Trade and Development brought out a report in 1972 entitled towards a new trade policy for development.
(i) Give the LDC's control over their natural resources exploited by the developed western countries.
(ii) Obtain access the western market so that LDCs sell their product and make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.
(iii) Reduce the cost of technology from the western country.
(iv) Provide the LDC's with a greater role in the international economic institution.
Reasons of weakening of NIEO:
(i) It had faded mainly because of the stiff opposition by the developed countries.
(ii) NAM became an economic pressure group.
The collapse or Soviet Union and the Socialist systems in Eastern Europe had profound consequences on World Politics.
(i) The firstly, meant the end of Cold war. This led to -
(a) The end of ideological disputes over whether Socialist system is better or capitalist.
(b) Since this dispute had triggered massive arms race and accumulation of nuclear weapons and existence of military blocs, now with its end, arms race ended and gave hope for a new peace in the world.
(ii) The end of Soviet Bloc meant the emergence of many new countries. All these countries had their own independent aspirations and choices. Some states like Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuvania, Ukraine, Georgia) and the Eastern European states wanted to join the European Union and become part of the NATO. The Central Asian countries wanted to take advantage of their geographical locations. So they continue to have close ties with Russia at one side and with West, the US, China on the other side.
(iii) The Power Relation in the World also changed and so did the relative influence of ideas and institutions. The end of Cold War left the possibility of:
(a) Either remaining superpowers i.e., US would dominate and create a unipolar system.
(b) Different countries or group of countries could became important players in the international system, thereby bringing a multipolar system where no one power could dominate.
Ques 22: Examine the U.S. hegemony as a structural power.
Assess the role of ASEAN as an economic association.
Ans: The sudden collapse of Soviet Union left US hegemony began in 1991. US does not start behaving like a hegemonic power overnight, intact there was a gradual increase in power and after 1991 it became clear that the world was living in the period of hegemony. US has hegemony in all aspects.
(i) This power can be in the form of military dominance, economic strength, political influence/power and cultural superiority.
(ii) If we want to understand world politics and hegemony within, it is necessary that we understand the distribution of power among the countries of the world.
(iii) It may be more appropriate to describe an international system with only one centre of power by the term hegemony.
(iv) US has full dominance on hard power. The base of US power lies in the superiority of the military power. American military dominance today is both absolute and relative.
(v) US hegemony is a structural power therefore, this hegemony means economic superiority is reflected by the roles played by the US in providing global public goods.
ASEAN is principally an economic association:
(i) Where ASEAN as a whole is much smaller than US, EU, Japan but yet its economy is growing faster than US, European Union and Japan. ASEAN is also showing growth in these regions and beyond.
(ii) Objective of ASEAN economic community.
(a) The objective is to create a common market and production base within ASEAN states and to aid social and economic development in the region.
(b) This community would also like to improve the existing ASAEN dispute settlement mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
(c) ASEAN has focused on creating a Free Trade Area (FTA) for investment, labour and services. The US and China have already moved fast to negotiate FTA's with ASEAN.
Ques 23: Mention the six principal organs of the United Nations and describe the functions of any two of them.
Describe the security challenges faced by the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa after the Second World War.
Ans: The principal organs of United Nations systems:
(i) Security Council
(ii) International Court of Justice
(iii) General Assembly
(v) Economic and Social Council
(vi) Trusteeship Council
Security Council: It has five permanent members (with veto right) and ten elected members i.e., total fifteen members.
(a) It is liable for the maintenance of international peace and security.
(b) May adopt compulsory resolutions.
International Court of Justice: Fifteen judges are elected for nine years by absolute majority in both General Assembly and Security Council based in Hague.
(a) Handling disputes between the states and recognize its jurisdiction.
(b) Issues legal opinions.
(c) Renders judgment by relative majority.
The newly independent third world countries of Asia and Africa are facing the following challenges.
(i) The new countries face the prospect of military conflict with neighbouring countries.
(ii) Internally, these countries are worried about threats from Separatists Movement5 which want to form independent countries based on language and religion.
(iii) Many lives were lost in some of these arenas like Korea, Vietnam and Afghanistan but the world was spared a nuclear war and global hostilities.
(iv) Sometimes, countries outside the two blocs, for example the non-aligned countries, played a role in reducing cold war conflicts.
(v) Starting in the 1960s, the side i.e., US and USSR signed three significant agreements within a decade. They were-
(a) Limited test ban treaty7, (b) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and (c) And Ballistic missile treaty.
Ques 24: Do you agree with the statement that 'the foreign policy of independent India has pursued the dream of a peaceful world? Support your answer with any three suitable arguments.
Give any three suitable arguments in favour of India being a staunch supporter of the decolonization process and in firm opposition to racialism?
Ans: Aim of the India's foreign relations was to respect the sovereignty of all other nations and to achieve security through the maintenance of peace.
(i) One major object of Foreign Policy was to preserve the hard-earned sovereignty. Nehru wished this through strategy of Non-Alignment. Parties and groups in the country believed that India should be friendly with the bloc led by US.
(ii) Another objective was to protect territorial integrity. Our leaders opposed to communism. India should be friendly with the bloc US because that bloc claimed to be pro-democracy.
(iii) Third objective was to promote rapid economic development. Our country has many economic problems. Nehru adopted such a foreign policy which can help in our economic progress.
India is a staunch supporter of the decolonisation process and firm opposition of Racialism. In support of this statement following explanation is given:
(i) The Indian national movement was not an isolated process. It was a part of worldwide struggle against colonisation and imperialism. It influenced the liberation movements of many Asian and African countries.
(ii) Prior to India's independence, there were contacts between the Indian nationalist leaders and those of other countries, united as they were in their common struggle against colonization and imperialism.
(iii) Condemned Racial Discrimination - India fought racism in a determined way. The Eighth summit in 1986 under the leadership of Rajiv Gandhi established the Africa Fund with the objective of assisting Front Line states in Southern Africa and India was entrusted with the chairmanship of Fund Committee.
Ques 25: Highlight the acts of dissent and resistance of the Emergency imposed in 1975. In your opinion, how did these acts affect the public opinion?
Analyse the issue Indira vs the Syndicated what type of challenges did the issue pose before Indira
Ans: On 12th June, 1975 Justice Jagmohan Lal Sinha of Allahabad High Court declared Indira Gandhi Lok Sabha election as invalid. Opposition demanded resignation from Indira Gandhi. There were many rallies and sabhas but in response government declared a state of emergency on 25th June, 1975.
(i) It invoked Article 352, under the provision of this Article government could declare a state of emergency on grounds of external threat or internal disturbance and some special powers were given to the government.
(ii) Federal distribution of powers remains practically suspended and the powers are concentrated in the hands of Union government
(iii) Government also has powers to curtail or restrict all or any of fundamental rights.
(iv) Special powers are granted to the government in which normal democratic politics cannot function.
Effects of these Acts on public:
(i) On the midnight of 25th June, 1975 me electricity to all the major newspaper offices was disconnected.
(ii) In the cities leaders and workers of opposition parties were arrested.
(iii) Strikes were banned.
The factional rivalry between the Syndicate and Indira Gandhi came in the public in 1969.
The challenges faced by Indira Gandhi were:
(i) After the death of Zakir Hussain, for the post of President, Syndicate managed to nominate their longtime opponent and N. Sanjeeva Reddy as candidate for the presidential election.
(ii) She had a strong opposition for electoral contest (1971).
(iii) Lok Sabha elections of 1971, were as dramatic as was the decision to hold these elections. The Congress (R) CPI alliance won more seats.
(iv) Indira Gandhi's party could not get less than one fourth of the votes 16 seats.
(v) She focussed on the growth of the public sector, imposition of ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property, removal of disparities in income and opportunity and abolition of Privy Purse.
Ques 26: Describe any three areas of tension which are yet to be solved to retain unity in diversity in India.
Describe any three elements of growing consensus among most of the political parties of India after 1989.
Ans: India adopted a democratic approach to the question of diversity. It allows the political expressions of regional aspirations and does not look upon them as anti - national. But there are problems in unity in diversity.
(i) Problems in Kashmir valley have not been resolved until now. Some Kashmiris want to be a part of India and some Muslims want to be a part of Pakistan.
(ii) In some parts of North-East there was no consensus about being a part of India.
(iii) Nagaland and them Mizoram witnessed strong movements demanding separation from India. In the south some groups from the Dravid movement briefly toyed with the idea of a separate country.
After 1989 three elements or growing consensus among most of the political parties are:
(i) The defeat of the Congress party marked me end of Congress era of mutli - party system has begun so, Alliance Politics was seen. In different elections coalition government was made after 1989. A long phase of coalition politics began.
(ii) The nineties also saw the emergence of powerful parties and movements that represented the Dalit and backward classes. Many of these parties represented powerful regional assertion as well. First coalition government came to power in 1996. BJP did not support it but it was supported by the Congress.
(iii) Many other parties at the national level were formed viz., Janta party, Bhartiya Kranti Dal and Sanyukta Socialist Party. Some parties had a powerful rural base among sections of OBC. In election it has become necessary to reserves quota for OBC.