Class 12 Political Science Solved Paper (2018 Outside Delhi) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 12

Humanities/Arts : Class 12 Political Science Solved Paper (2018 Outside Delhi) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Class 12 Political Science Solved Paper (2018 Outside Delhi) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Political Science Class 12.
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Ques 1: What is meant by 'Western Alliance'?
Ans:
Western Alliance headed by the U.S., represented the ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism.

Ques 2:Which one of the following statements about the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanks is false?
(a) Politics in Sri Lanka openly favoured the Sinhalas.
(b) Interest of Tamils were neglected.
(c) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam were supported by the SAARC countries.
(d) There was no political equality in Sri Lanka.
Ans: 
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam were supported by SAARC countries.

Ques 3: Analyse any one reason for the defeat of the Congress Party in 1977.
Ans:
One reason for the defeat of the Congress Party in 1977 was the effect of Emergency (1975).

Ques 4: Explain the concept of a 'Coalition Government'.
Ans: 
Coalition government means mixture of different parties as Janata Dal, BJP, Left Front and Congress (R).

Ques 5: Which popular movement led to the empowerment of women?
Ans:
Arrack movement led to the empowerment of women.

Ques 6: Assess the main contribution of the Non-Aligned Movement to the newly independent countries.
Ans:
Non-aligned movement contributed these things to the newly independent countries.
(1) To protect territorial integrity.
(2) To promote rapid economic growth.

Ques 7: Show with the help of one example that globalization has affected the dress culture of India.
Ans:
Globalisation affects us in our home, in what we eat, drink and wear. It also affected Indian dressing style as besides saree and suit, ladies started to wear tops and jeans sleeveless tops and tight jeans are opposite to our culture.

Ques 8: List any four areas or regions which come under 'Global Commons'.
Ans: 
The four areas which come under Global Commons are: ocean, air, celestial bodies and Antarctica.

Ques 9: Match the facts given in Column SV with those in Column 'B' in a meaningful way:
Column 'A'
(a) Architect of the Second Five Year Plan. 
(b) One of the leaders of Jana Sangh.
(c) Leader of the Swatantra Party.
(d) Proponent of Hindu-Muslim Unity.
Column 'B'
(i) Balraj Madhok
(ii) Maulana Abul Kalam
(iii) P.C. Mahalanobis
(iv)  Minoo Masani
Ans: 
(a)(iii), (b)(i), (c)(iv), (d)(ii)

Ques 10: Highlight any two aspects of the Indian Foreign Policy which were greatly influenced by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.
Ans: 
(1) (a) To preserve the hard, earned sovereignty,
(b) To protect territorial integrity and,
(c) To promote rapid economic development. Nehru wished to achieve these objectives through the strategy of non, alignment.
(2) Some political parties and groups in the country believed that India should be more friendly with U.S. because U.S. bloc claimed to be pro, democracy and promoted capitalism.

Ques 11: Explain any four steps taken by China that led to the rise of its economy.
Ans:
Four steps taken by China that led to the rise of the economy are:
(1) China provides best education and health to its people. Its economy also grew at a respectable rate of 5 - 6% but, with an annual growth of 2.3% in population meant that, economics growth was insufficient to meet the needs of a growing population.
(2) Regional Location: Regional location of China in very appropriate for business by silk route China in connected to whole Europe and can do business very easily.
(3) Political Influence: After the inception of the People Republic of China in 1949, following the communist revolution under the leadership of Mao. Its economy was based on the Soviet model. The economically backward communist, China, chose to share its' links with the capitalist world. It had little choice but to fall back on its own resources and for a brief period on soviet aid and advice. The model was to create a state owned heavy industries.
(4) Open Door Policy: By 1978 the leader Deng Xiaoping announced the open door policy and economic reforms in China. The policy was to generate higher productivity by the investment of capital and technology provided by foreign countries.

Ques 12: Highlight any four factors which justify Indians claim to a permanent seat in the U.N. Security Council.
Ans: 
Four factors which justify Indians claim to a permanent seat in U.N. Security Council are:
(1) India is the second most populous country in the world, comprising almost 1/5th of the world's population.
(2) India is the world's largest democracy.
(3) India has participated in all initiatives of the U.N.
(4) In the peacekeeping efforts of the UN, India has played a long substantial role.
(5) India has emerged as a potential economic power in the world.
(6) India has also made regular financial contributions to the U.S. and never altered on the payments.

Ques 13: Evaluate any four benefits of the 'Green Revolution'.
Ans: 
Four benefits of Green Revolution:
(1) It improved High Yielding Varieties (HYV).
(2) Increased use of fertilizers, water supplies and better agricultural practices.
(3) It increased mechanisation of agricultural operations and measure of plant protection from pest and diseases.
(4) H.Y.V. Seeds has continued to rise from 1989 million hectares in 1966 - 69 to 45.3 million hectares in 1980-81, 56.18 million hectares in 1986-87 and in 1998-90, 76 million hectare were under H.Y.V. seeds.

Ques 14: Why did India distance herself from the two superpower camps?
Ans: 
India has a distance from the two power camps because of the following reasons:
(1) India wanted to preserve the hard earned sovereignty and it wanted to protect its territorial integrity.
(2) Economics growth of India was slow and it wanted to promote rapid economic development.
(3) India vigorously pursued the dream of a peaceful world by advocating the policy of Non-alignment.
(4) India wanted to separate herself from military alliance led by the U.S. and Soviet Union against each other.

Ques 15: Describe any foul: activities of the Dalit Panthers promote their interests.
Ans:
Dalit Panthers was a militant organisation of me Dalit youth and was formed in Maharashtra in 1973. Four activities to promote their interests are:
(1) The larger ideological agenda of the Panthers was to destroy the caste system and to build an organization oi all the oppressed sections like the landless poor peasants and urban industrial workers along with Dalits.
(2) The movement provided a platform for the Dalit educated 'youths 10 use their creativity as a protest activity Dalit writers protested against the brutalities of caste system in their numerous autobiographies and other literary works.
(3) Most downtrodden social sections of Indian society sent shock waves in Marathi literary world, made literature more broad based and representative of different social sections and initiated contestations in the cultural realm.
(4) In the post emergency period Dalit Panthers got involved in electoral compromise; tor e.g., also underwent many splits which led to its decline, organisations like the backward and Minority Employees. (BA.MCEP) took over the space.

Ques 16: Mention any four Prime Ministers of India and name their respective coalitions that led the Union Government from 1989 to 1999.
Ans: 
India had faced toughest period in politics during 1989 to 1999, when no popular government came to power. This was the period when coalition alliances government became reality. General elections were held in 1989 to elect 9th Lok Sabha.
Four Prime Ministers from 1989-1999:
(1) Since none of the political party could gain majority, V.P. Singh united the entire, disparate parries including National Front with the support of 1 .eft Front and B.J.P. However, lie could remain die Prime minister only during November 1989 to December 1990.
(2) In June 1991, P V. Narsimha Rao became 9th Prime Minister of India, Fie was known as economic reformer. During that period, Congress took the support from AIADMK and some other small political parties, Narsimha Rao was in office for full term of 5 "years from June 1991 to May 1996.
(3) In 1996 general election held for electing 11th Lok Sabha. The result of the election was a hung parliament. The BJP formed a government under the leadership of Atal Bihari Bajpayi, where BJP was in minority. Since, Bajpayee could not prove the majority on Lok sabha, he had to quit the government. Pie was the 10th Prime Minister of India, first term for 13 days in 1996 and then from 1998 to 2004.
(4) Mr. H. D. Devegowda of National Front served as 11th P. M. with the support of congress. He remained in power for the period from June 1996 to April 1997 and his Government collapsed when congress withdraw support.

Ques 17: Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
The 'Cuban Missile Crisis' was a high point of what came to be known as the Cold War. The Cold War referred to the competitions, the tensions and a series of confrontations between the United States of America and the Soviet Union, backed by their respective allies.
Fortunately, however, it never escalated into a 'hot war.
(a) Explain the meaning of 'hot war'.
(b) Why was the 'Cuban Missile Crisis' considered as the high point of the Cold War?
(c) 'Ideological conflict was also a cause of the Cold War.' How far do you agree with the statement?
Ans: 
(a) Hot war was referred to direct attack by missile and bombs on other countries.
(b) Three weeks after the Soviet Union had placed the nuclear weapons in Cuba, the Americans became aware of it. The U.S. President, John F. Kennedy, and his advisers were reluctant to do anything that might lead to full-scale nuclear war between the two countries, but they were determined to get Khrushchev to remove the missiles and nuclear weapons from Cuba.
Kennedy ordered American warships the intercept any Soviet ships heading to Cuba as a way of warming the USSR of his seriousness. A clash seemed imminent in what came to be known as the Cuban missile crisis. It did not break out in a hot war but is often considered as a high point in the cold war.
(c) In April 1961, the leaders of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republis (USSR) were worried that the United States of America. Would invade communist-ruled Cuba and over through fidel castro, the president of the small island nation off the coast of the United States.
Cuba was an ally of the Soviet Union and received both diplomatic and financial aid from it Nikita Khrushchev, the leader or he Soviet Union, decided to convert Cuba into a Russian base as geographically Cuba is located within a short distance from U.S.A. In 1962, he placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. The installation of these weapons put the US, for the first times, under fire from close range and nearly doubled the number of bases or cities in the American mainland which could be threatened by the USSR.

Ques 18: 
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
The Congress evolved from its origins in 1885 as a pressure group for the newly educated, professionals and commercial classes to a mass movement in the twentieth century. This laid the basis for its eventual transformation into a mass political party and its subsequent domination of the political system. Thus the Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle class and urban elite. But with every Civil Disobedience Movement it launched, its social base widened.
(1) What is meant by a pressure group?
(2) Explain the reason for the Congress to be transformed into a rainbow-like social coalition by the time of Independence.
(3) What made the Congress into a mass political party in the twentieth century?
Ans: 
(1) Pressure group is a group of educated, professional and commercial classes. It has a pressure on political parties from outside. Congress was a pressure group at the time of British rule.
(2) (a) The congress party became a social and ideological coalition for it merged different social groups along with their identity holding different beliefs.
(b) It accommodated the revolutionary, conservative, pacifist, radical, extremist and moderates and the right and the left wing with all other shades of the centre.
(c) In pro-independence days, many organisations and parties with their own constitutions were allowed to exist within the congress.
(3) (a) When congress party started to decline, then the charismatic lady Indira Gandhi took over the control. She fulfilled the aspirations of people.
(b) Indira Gandhi gave slogan like GARIBI HATAO and implemented Twenty Point Programme for the society.

Ques 19: Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
The Janata Party made the 1977 elections into a referendum on the Emergency. Its election campaign was focused on the non-democratic character of the Congress rule and on the various excesses that took place during this period. In the backdrop of arrests of thousands of persons and the censorship of the Press, the public opinion was against the Congress.
(1) What is meant by 'referendum'?
(2) 'Acts like arrests of thousands of persons and the censorship of the Press during the Emergency period were non-democratic.' Do you agree with the statement? Justify your answer with one suitable argument for/against each act.
(3) In spite of winning the 1977 elections with a thumping majority, why could the Janata Party remain in power only for a short period? Explain.
Ans: 
(1) Referendum means the opinion of public after the emergency election announced. Therefore, government that are perceived to be anti-democratic are severely punished by the voters.
(2) Arrests of thousands of persons and censorship of press during the emergency were non-democratic because in democracy every person has freedom to speech. After the declaration of emergency the courts could entertain a writ of Habeas corpus filled by a person challenging his/her detention. In April 1976. The constitution bench of the Supreme Court could over rule the high courts and accept the government's plea.
(3) In spite of winning the 1977 election with a thumping majority, Janata Party remained in powder only for a short time because:
(a) After the election, there was still competition among three leaders for the post of Prime Minister. Morarji Desai, Jay Prakash Narayan and Jagjiwan Ram.
(b) The Janata party made this election into a referendum on the emergency. Its campaign was focused on the non-democratic character of the rule. The public opinion was against the Congress. Jayaprakash Narayan became the popular symbol of restroration of democracy. Party divided into many parts and as a result the government failed.

Ques 20: Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the following questions:
Class 12 Political Science Solved Paper (2018 Outside Delhi) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

(a) Which country does this cartoon refer to?
(b) Evaluate any two changes in the economic policies of this country from 'then' to 'now'.
(c) Assess any two outcomes of the latest changes that took place in this country.
Ans: 
(a) This cartoon refers to China.
Republic of China 1949 was followed by communist revolution under the leader of Mao, the economy was based on Soviet Model China chose to its link with the capitalist world the model was to create a state-owned industries from the capital accumulated from agriculture sector.
(b) Two changes in the economic plicies of this country are:  
The new economic policies helped the Chinese economy to break from stagnation. The Chinese economy including both industry and agriculture grew at faster rate.
The new trading laws led to phenomenal raise in foreign trade, China has become the most important destination for foreign direct investment (FDI) anywhere in the world.
(c) Major two outcomes of the latest changes that took place in the country are:
1. Phenomenal Rise in Foreign Trade: China has an economic growth, of over 10 per cent which make this country a fast moving economy.
2. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): FDI m 2000 - 01 was 70 billion U.S. dollars which was a increased by 2010-11 to 115 billion U.S. dollars.

Ques 21: 
What is meant by 'Shock Therapy'? Explain any four consequences of Shock Therapy.
Or
Explain the idea of New International Economic Order (NIEO) for the development of Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Highlight any three reforms proposed by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in 1972 to improve the global trading system.
Ans: 
The model of transition in Russia, Central Asia and East Europe that was influenced by the World Bank and the IMF came to be known as 'Shock Therapy. It was a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system. The Shock Therapy varied in intensity and speed amongst the former Second World War countries, but its direction and features were quite similar.
Consequences of Shock Therapy were:
(1) Russia, the large state controlled industrial complex almost collapsed, as about 90 percent of its industries were put up for sale to private individuals and companies. This was called the largest garage sale in history, as valuable industries were undervalued and sold at throw away prices.
(2) The value of Rouble the Russian currency, declined dramatically due to high rate of inflation and real GDP of Russia also declined between 1989 to 1999.
(3) The old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed. The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed to the periphery of society, and the academic and intellectual manpower was disintegrated or migrated.
(4) Post-soviet states, especially Russia, were divided between rich and poor regions. Unlike the earlier system, there was now great economic inequality between people.
(5) The construction of democratic institutions was not given the same attention and priority as the demands of economic Tran's formation. Dissent or opposition was not allowed.
Or
The idea behind the New International Economic Order (NIEO) was to ensure the sustainable economic development of the Least Developed Countries (L.DC). The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) brought out a report m 1972 entitled Towards a New Trade Policy for Development.
The report proposed a reform of the global trading system to:
(a) Give the least developed countries (LDC) control over their natural resources exploited by the developed western countries.
(b) Obtain access to western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and therefore, made trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.
(c) Reduce the cost of import of technology from the Western countries.
(d) Provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institution.

Ques 22: Describe any three operations (military actions) launched by the US which proved and established its supremacy as a Hard Power.
Or
Describe any three points of conflict between India and Pakistan.
Ans: 
The US power lies in the overwhelming superiority of its Military Power but even better than the absolute capabilities of the US is the fact that no other power in the world today can remotely match them. We can cite the three major military operations by US which indicate its supremacy as a Hard Power.
(1) In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait, rapidly occupying every oil field. After a series of diplomatic attempts failed at convincing Iraq to quit its aggression, the UN mandated the liberation of Kuwait by force. This operation was known as "Operation Desert Storm'. The US President George H. W. Bush hailed the emergency and UN coalition, where 75 per cent forces were from US liberated Kuwait and Iraqi forces were quickly defeated. This is also known as first Gulf War. Thereafter, US invasion of Iraq showed the supremacy which finally ended in hanging of the President of Iraq, Saddam Hussain.
(2) During the time of Bill Clinton US was busy in other various issues but again in 1999, in response to Yugoslavian action against the predominantly Albanian population in the province of Kosovo, the US military action took place. The air forces of the NATO countries led by the US bombarded targets around Yugoslavia for well over two months, forcing the downfall of Yugoslavian government of Slobodan Milosevic and stationing of NATO forces in KOSOVO.
(3) Another significant US military action during Clinton time was in response to the bombing of US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar-es-Salam Tanzania in 1998. These bombing was attributed to Al-Qaeda, a terrorist organisation, within a few days of this bombing, President Clinton ordered Operation Infinite Reach, a series of cruise missile strikes on Al-Qaeda Terrorist targets in Sudan and Afghanistan. When terrorist through 19 hijackers attacked Twin Tower in US on 11 September, 2.001 (hence forth referred as 9/11), the response of US was swift and ferocious. US military attacked mainly Al-Qaeda and Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
Or
When Britishers ended their rule in undivided India and handed over the independence in August 1947, undivided India was divided in four states/countries, i.e., India, West Pakistan, East Pakistan and Kashmir. The conflict began immediately thereafter when Pakistan started claiming that Kashmir should be a part of Pakistan.
The detail of major three conflicts are as below:
(1) Soon after the partition, the two countries got embroiled in a conflict over the fate of Kashmir. The Pakistani government claimed that Kashmir belonged to them whereas, the Indian government claimed that the same belonged to them. Wars between India and Pakistan in 1947-48 and 1965 failed to settle the matter. The 1947-48 war resulted in the division of Kashmir province into Pakistan occupied Kashmir and Indian province of Jammu and Kashmir divided by the Line of control (LOC). Pakistan started supporting the militants and giving training to them, and started attacks in groups and killed many civilians.
(2) Second issue of conflict was the control of the all Siachen glacier and over acquisition of arms. The arms race between two countries assumed a new character with both states, acquiring nuclear weapons and missiles to deliver such arms against each other.
(3) India and Pakistan also have problems over the sharing of river waters. Until 1960, they were tucked in a fierce argument over the use of the rivers of Indus basin.
However, in 1960, with the help of World Bank, India and Pakistan signed the Indus Water Treaty.

Ques 23: 
Examine the six reforms proposed as criteria for new permanent and non-permanent members of the U.N. Security Council.
Or
Analyse any three broad components of the security strategy of India.
Ans: 
On the reforms of structures and processes, the biggest discussion has been on the functioning of Security Council. The following are just some of the criteria that have been proposed for new permanent and non - permanent members of the Security Council. A new member, it has been suggested should be:
(1) A major economic power.
(2) A major military power.
(3) A substantial contributor to the UN budget.
(4) A big nation in terms of its population.
(5) A nation that respects democracy and Human Rights.
(6) A country that would make the council more representative of the world's diversity in terms of geography, economic system and culture.
We are of opinion that security council should reform and improve its working" to make the UN more effective i.e., inclusion, or member states should be judged on the basis of their contribution to peace keeping initiatives permanent members should be from industrialized developed countries and should have special Veto Powers. This position remains the same and no one is allowed to enter in this elite list. Such developed big countries usually neglect the need of smaller nations and such situation must be changed and balanced by enhancing representation from developing countries to become either permanent or non-permanent members s of security council.
Or
India has faced traditional (military} and non-traditional threats to its security that have emerged from within as well as outside its borders its 5 security strategy has tour broad components, which have been used in a varying combination from time to time. We will analyse these here components.
(1) The first component was strengthening its military capabilities because India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours - Pakistan in 1947- 48, 1965, 1971 and 1999; and China in 1962. Since it is surrounded by nuclear armed countries in South Asian region, India's decision to conduct nuclear tests in 1998 was justified in terms of safeguarding her national security, India first tested a nuclear device in 1974.
(2) The second component of India's security strategy has been to strengthen internatioal norms and international institutions to protect its security interest. India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, supported the cause of Asian. Solidarity, decolonisation, disarmament and the UN as the forum in which international conflicts could be settled. India also took initiatives to bring about a universal and non-discriminatory non -proliferation regime in which all countries would have the same rights and obligations with respect to weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, biological, chemical). It argued for an equitable New International Economic Order (NIEO). This strategy from India's point was also justified.
(3) The third component of Indian security strategy is centered towards meeting security challenges within the country. Several militant groups from areas such as the Nagaland, Mizoram, the Punjab, and Kashmir among others have, from time to time, sought to break away from India. India has tried to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system, which allows different communities and groups of people to freely articulate their grievances and share political power. This strategy was absolutely correct.

Ques 24: Describe any three major reasons that led to the declaration of Emergency in 1975.
Or
Describe any four steps taken by Indira Gandhi to implement the 'Garibi Hatao' programme.
Ans: 
The emergency was proclaimed in response to a petition filed by Raj Narain, a socialist leader and a candidate, who had contested against Indira Gandhi in 1971, the following were the reasons given by the government for declaring a National Emergency in 1975.
(1) The government declared that there was a threat of internal disturbances and therefore, it invoked the article 352 of the constitution.
(2) The government decided that a grave crisis had arisen which made the proclamation of a state of emergency necessary.
(3) Technically speaking, this was within the powers of government, as our constitution provides some special powers to the government once an emergency is declared.
The President Fakhruddin Alt Ahmad thus proclaimed emergency, which became the most controversial episode in Indias politics.
Or
In 1971, Indira Gandhi gave a popular slogan Garibi Hatao. To implement the programme under this slogan, she took following decisions:
(1) Indira Gandhi focused on the growth of the public sector.
(2) Imposition of ceiling on rural land holding and urban property.
(3) Removal of disparities in income and opportunity.
(4) Government nationalised total 20 banks which controlled 70 per cent of India's deposit and controlled distribution of money.
(5) Indira Gandhi discontinued the princely privileges i.e., Privy Purse.
Through Garibi Hatao programme Indira Gandhi tried to generate a support base among the dis advantaged, especially among the landless labourers, Dalits and Adivasis, minorities, woman and unemployed youth. In the long run, this programme helped the people below poverty line.

Ques 25: 
Analyse any three threats to the global environment these days.
Or
Analyse any three demerits of globalisation.
Ans: 
The major three threats to the global environment are:
(1) Ozone layer depletion is an alarming concern for ecosystem.
(2) Loss of fertility of agricultural land due to extreme use of fertilisers and overgrazed grasslands.
(3) Coastal pollution too is increasing globally. Although the open sea is relatively clean, waters are becoming increasingly polluted largely due to land - based activities. If unchecked, intensive human settlement of coastal zones across the globe will lead to further deterioration in the quality of marine environment.
(4) Global warming causing melting of Glaciers.
Or
Demerits of Globalisation:
(1) Expensive seeds purchased form MNCs compelled farmers committing suicides due to crop failure.
(2) Slowly and gradually MNC's started buying Indian companies, resulted in instability in market.
(3) While some advances were made in certain arenas, critical sectors such as health, housing and primary education did not receive the attention they deserved.
(4) India had a fairly sluggish rate of economic growth. In 1991, responding to a financial crisis and to the desire for higher rates of economic growth which yet to be achieved.
(5) In view of increasing competition from the world, the economics tend to be over protective of domestic interests. This, ironically, leads the economics of the world to move away from one another instead of coming together.
(6) Due to globalisation, the developed economics use the huge population and market potential of the developing economics to maximize their profits with little regard for social and other considerations.
From the above demerits of globalisation, it can be concluded that every activity has positive and negative both type of results.

Ques 26: 'In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts, a consensus appears to have emerged among most political parties of India.' In the light of this statement, analyse any three elements of growing consensus.
Or
'Jammu and Kashmir is one of the living examples of plural society and politics.' Justify the statement with any three suitable arguments.
Ans: 
Growing consensus: On many crucial issues, a broad agreement has emerged among most parties. Though many of the political parties have ideological differences but such consensus help them come together and keep their rival political parties not to become ruling party.
The main elements of such consensus are as follow:
(1) Agreement on new economic policies: While many groups are opposed to the new economic policies, many among them are in support of the new economic policies. They believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and status of economic power in the world.
(2) Acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward caste: Backward population in the country is 40.94%, the SC population is 19.59%, ST population is 8.63% of the total population. Hence to attract these population, all political parties have recognised that the social and political claims need to be accepted. As a result, all political parties now support reservation of seats for the "Backward Classes" in education and employment. Political parties are also willing to ensure that the OBCs get adequate share of power.
(3) Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement: Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements. Thus, most parties of NDA did not agree with the HINDUTAVA ideology of the BJP. Yet, they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.
It is clear from the above statement that to become a RULING PARTY/ALLIANCES, any party can shift from one camp to other camp. In present case, BJP alliances wanted to keep congress out of Central Ruling Party.
Or
Jammu and Kashmir: The political situation in the state has many dimensions.
(1) Jammu and Kashmir comprises of three social and political regions: Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.
(a) The heart of the Kashmir region is the Kashmir valley. The people are Kashmir speaking and mostly Muslim with a small Kashmir which consists speaking Hindu Minority.
(b) Jammu region is a mix of foothills and plains or various language speaking Hindus, Muslim, and Sikhs.
(c) The Ladakh region is mountainous and has very lime population, which is equally divided between Buddhists and Muslims.
(2) Separatists want a separate Kashmir, Nation, independent of India and Pakistan. However, there is a group in Kashmir who wants greater autonomy for the people of state within the Indian Union. The idea of autonomy attracts the people of Jammu and Ladakh region in a different wav-they often complain of being backward and neglected. Therefore, the demand for Intra-state autonomy is as strong as the demand for the state autonomy.
(3) The initial period of popular support to military has now given a way to the urge for peace. The centre has started negotiations with various sepatarist group. Instead of demanding a separate nation, most of the sepatarists in dialogue arc trying to re-negotiate relationship of the State with India.
Jammu and Kashmir is one or the living examples of plural society and politics. Not only there are diversities of all kinds (religious, cultural, linguistic, ethnic, tribal but there are also divergent political aspirations. However, despite all these diversities and divergence on the one hand and continued situation of conflict on the other, the plural and secular culture of die State has remained largely intact.

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