Section – A
Question 1. Explain the term ‘Hegemony’. 
Explain the main objective of the ‘Marshall Plan’.
Answer: The term ‘hegemony’ stands for an international system which is politically, economically or culturally dominated by a sole super power or hyper-power. The collapse of the Soviet Union left the world with only one single power, the United States of America.
Truman felt that communism did well when people were poor and suffering. It could best be resisted by providing economic aid to build up prosperity. In 1947, Marshall, the US secretary of state, put forward a plan to give billions of dollars of aid to European countries, post World War-II, so that they could recover from the shattering effects of war. Its main aim was also to assist these countries in the rebuilding of infrastructure.
Question 2. Which one of the following statement is ‘not correct’ about the ‘Non-aligned Movement’ ? 
(i) It suggested to the newly independent countreis ways to stay out of the alliances.
(ii) India’s policy of non-alignment was neither negative nor passive.
(iii) The non-aligned posture of India served its interests.
(iv) India was praised for singing the treaty of friendship with USSR to strengthen NAM.
Answer: (iv) India was praised for signing the treaty of friendship with USSR to strengthen NAM.
Question 3. Name any one international organisation that campaigns for the protection of human rights. 
Highlight any one security challenge faced by the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa.
Answer: Amnesty International is an international organisation that campaigns for the protection of human rights.
External wars with neighbours and internal civil wars posed a serious security challenge to newly independent countries of Asia and Africa.
Question 4. Evaluate the role played by Sardar Patel towards the integration of the Princely States with India. 
Answer: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of the princely states firmly but diplomatically and brought most of them into the Indian Union. He addressed the concerns of the princely states and assured them that they would retain their property and states and would be allowed to run and manage public offices. Through his constant efforts, he succeeded in integrating about 562 princely states after independence. This got him the title of ‘Iron Man’.
Question 5. Explain the concept of “Non-Party Move¬ments”. 
Answer: Non-party movements are movements started by voluntary organisations or a group of people who lose their faith in the existing democratic institutions and electoral politics or do not get the support of political parties.
Section – B
Question 5. Explain the concept of “Non-Party Move¬ments”. 
Answer: Non-party movements are movements started by voluntary organisations or a group of people who lose their faith in the existing democratic institutions and electoral politics or do not get the support of political parties.
Question 6. Mention one characteristic each of the ideologies of the USSR and the USA. [1 x 2 = 2]
Mention any two reforms of the global trading system proposed by UNCTAD.
Answer: USA represented the capitalist ideology and USSR represented the socialist ideology.
Two reforms of the global trading system of UNCTAD in 1972 :
Question 7. What would have happened to the world politics if India had not propagated the policy of non-alignment? 
Why did India refuse to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 ?
Answer: The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of countries which decided not to join any major power bloc during the cold war. India and NAM played an important role in securing international peace and security in the world. It prevented USA and USSR from dominating over the newly independent countries and allowed the newly independent countries to remain secure and economically sound without taking favours from any bloc. OR
Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s Prime Minsiter, always believed in modern science and technology. A part of such progress was a nuclear programme started by Homi J. Bhabha. India wanted to generate atomic energy for peaceful purposes. The NPT treaty bans nuclear states from encouraging or giving material to non-nuclear states to acquire nuclear weapons. India did not sign this treaty as it regarded this treaty to be discriminatory. Question 8. “Anti-arrack movement is also considered as a women’s movement”. Support the statement with two arguments. [1 × 2 = 2]
Answer: The anti-arrack movement is considered as a women’s movement because :
Question 9. Highlight any two reasons that you think are responsible for the split in the Congress Party in 1969. 
Highlight any two lessons learnt by the people of India from the Emergency imposed in 1975.
Two lessons learnt from emergency of 1975 are :
(i) It brought out the weakness and strength of India’s democracy. Though India ceased to be a democracy during emergency, the normal democratic functioning resumed very soon. Thus, even though . because of the emergency, the normal functioning of democracy might have ceased, still the easy and quick re-inforcement proved that no emergency could kill the democratic spirit of India.
(ii) It made everyone aware of the importance of civil liberties. Courts also played an active role in restoring and protecting civil liberties of people. Many, civil liberties organisations came up after the emergency.
Question 10. Match the facts given in Column ‘A’ with those in Column ‘B’ in a meaningful manner. [1/2 x 4 = 2]
Section – C
Question 11. Explain any four strengths of the European Union that make it an influential regional organisation. 
Explain the circumstances responsible for the liberation of Bangladesh in 1971.
Answer: The European Union has gradually evolved from an economic unison into a political and military unison. The EU laid foundation and put in consistent efforts for cooperation on Justice and domestic affairs, evolution of a common foreign and defence policy and establishment of a single currency. EU has a considerable political, military, economic and diplomatic influence. Its currency ‘Euro’ can pose a serious threat to the hegemony of US Dollar. EU’s share of world trade is three times bigger than that of the USA and gives it an opportunity to be more assertive in its trade disputes with China and the USA.
The economic power of EU also gives it power to influence the biggest economic organisations of the world like the World Trade Organisation (WTO). The EU plays an influential role in diplomacy and negotiations except the military force. Its combined armed forces are almost the second largest in the world. It also holds a very important position in UN Security Council thus giving it a lot of hold on various sectors including peace keeping, defence and security.
The East wing of Bengal had joined Pakistan as East Pakistan during partition. Between the two parts of Pakistan was about 1200 miles of Indian territory. After Partition, Pakistan’s bureau-military government did not pay much attention to East Pakistan. However, the immediate source of conflict was denial of office of Premier to Sheikh Mujibur Rehman of East Bengal whose party had won 160 out of 300 seats in the 1970 elections. The new President of Pakistan, Yahya Khan denied rights to East Bengal. Sheikh Mujibur Rehman was put behind bars.
Indian troops were charged of fighting on behalf of Mukti Bahani. India made consistent efforts to persuade Pakistan to stop harassing people in East Bengal. US threatened military action but the Indo-Soviet treaty refrained any attack. The Pakistan troops surrendered on 16 December 1971 and agreed to cease-fire. East Pakistan thus became independent in 1972 and was renamed Bangladesh.
Question 12. Assess the role of the United Nations as the most important international organisation. 
Answer: UN is an important international organisation because it deals with war and peace and encourages countries to maintain peaceful and friendly relations with each other. Countries all over the world have conflicts and differences with each other. But UN insists that this does not mean that they should resort to war to deal with their antagonisms. They should instead opt for peaceful methods of conflict resolution. Infact, most of the international disputes should be settled through negotiations and international organisations. The UN also helps to facilitate proper health facilities, sanitation, potable water and healthy food, to eradicate disease and also cooperates in vaccinating populations. Global environmental issues are deliberated and provides solutions are provided and major powers cooperate to mitigate the effect of climatic or security related issues. The UN thus helps to foster idea on such issues mutually.
Question 13. Explain any four environmental concerns that have become issues of Global Politics. [1 x 4 = 4]
Answer: Environment concern in global politics is a> serious issue and is based on the following facts :
Question 14. Describe any four features of the ideology of “Swatantra Party” founded in 1959. 
Describe the changes that took place in the ideology of the Communist Party of India from 1920 to the first general elections in India in 1952.
Answer: The Swatantra party was established to fight the licence permit Raj of the Congress party and since its inception, attracted the support of a good number of the people. After its establishment, the leaders of the party decided to work out details of its ideology, program and organisation. The Swatrantra party stood for liberal democratic ideology and it denounced populism of the Congress party.
Individual Freedom: The party emphasized its opposition to the concept of socialism, in particular, the kind of socialism practised in India. It supported unrestricted individual freedom, in which the state encouraged and assisted individuals in all 21 fields without seeking to replace them. The party believed that the key to prosperity was through increased production and any measure that restricted it was anti-social.
Industry and Trade: As the Swatantra party opposed the Congress economic policy and planning, it laid stress on decentralized distribution of industry r throughout the country side. It was not opposed to urbanization and heavy industry, but nevertheless, it accorded equal importance to small scale industries in the rural India.
Property: The party, in its ideology stressed the importance of property based on the principle of maximum freedom and minimum interference, and f the Gandhian concept of trusteeship, it stood for the fundamental right to property as envisaged in ‘ the constitution.
Education: The party believed in the synthesis of ancient and modern education, introducing the spiritual element in education to provide adequate background of human values. In fact, the party felt that the educational activities of the government, ( direct or indirect, be such to emphasize the moral obligations of those who possess wealth, to hold in ‘ trust for the society 34 and a doctrine of life based ‘ on those moral obligations.
In the early 1920s, communist groups emerged in different parts of India taking inspiration from the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and advocating socialism as the solution to problems affecting the country. From 1935, the Communists worked mainly from within the fold of the Indian National Congress. A parting of ways took place in December 1941, when the Communists decided to support the British in their war against Nazi Germany. Independence raised , different voices in the party. Soon after independence, the party thought that the trasfer of power in 1947 was not true independence and encouraged violent ‘ uprisings in Telangana.
The communists failed to generate popular support for their position and were crushed by the armed forces. This forced them to rethink their position. In 1951, the Communist Party abandoned the path of violent revolution and decided to participate in the approaching general elections. In the first general election, CPI won 16 seats and emerged as the largest opposition party. The party’s support was more concentrated in Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar and Kerala.
Question 15. Analyse the circumstances that you think were responsible for the declaration of Emergency in 1975. 
Answer: Since 1967, significant changes took place in Indian politics. Indira Gandhi emerged as a towering leader with a charismatic personality. Party competition during this period became bitter and polarised. This period even saw tensions between executive and judicial wings of the government.
Supreme Court found many initiations of government as an infringement of the constitution. The Congress called the stand of court, an opposition to principles of democracy and parliamentary democracy. The opposition parties felt that the politics had been personalised and government machinery was being used to implement Indira Gandhi’s personal authority. There were other such activities and revolts against the government that were taking place during the period which included students, peasants, labour organisations, employees, unions and opposition parties. Indira Gandhi was found guilty by the Allahabad High Court on several accounts and was charged for malpractice during the previous campaigns during her Lok Sabha seat election. Even within the parliament ,the government was undergoing much criticism from the opposition parties. The government led by Indira Gandhi claimed that the recent war between India and Pakistan along with the Oil crisis in 1973 has drastically affected the economy of the country that has resulted into price rise of consumer goods.
Unemployment and increasing labouring population generated fume and outrage all over the nation. The government claimed that the regular strikes and protests by the citizens had paralyzed the government and its economy and there was anomaly on streets as well as political opposition prevailing in many parts of the country. In 1975, Indira Gandhi imposed national emergency on the ground of maintaining national integrity.
Question 16. Describe the role of the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, in formulating and implementing the foriegn policy in India. [1 × 4 = 4]
Describe any four factors that influenced the foreign policy of India after independence. Answer: The principles of Nehru that guided the external affairs of India are :
The four factors that determine India’s foreign policy are :
(i) Historical Background: Since ancient times, India has been believing in the ideal of brotherhood of man in its national life. On account of such historical inheritance, India’s foreign policy consists in resolving international issues, peacefully opposing imperialism or neo-colonialism or racial discrimination and in attaching more importance to the policy of disarmament.
(ii) Geographical Setting: In South and South-east Asia, the geographical setting has k strategic importance. On account of its geographical proximity, India is determined to keep the Indian ocean an area of peace and not of belligerence.
(iii) Political Ideals and Values: India’s political ideals of world peace and disarmament and values like peace, ahimsa, truth, etc., have urged her to develop amicable relationship with other countries and to follow the foreign policy of non-alignment.
(iv) Leadership: Keeping all the factors as given above into account, political leadership plays a crucial role in advancing the national interests. Jawaharlal Nehru propounded the new policy of non-alignment. Constitutional commitment to maintain and promote international peace, India’s support to the initiatives of the UN also influenced India’s foreign policy.
Section – D
Question 17. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions : The old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed. The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of the people into poverty. The middle classes were pushed to the periphery of society ……… Besides, privatization led to more disparities.
(i) What is meant by government subsidy ?
(ii) How did the withdrawal of government subsidy lead the people into poverty ?
(iii) Do you support or oppose the policy of privatisation ? Support your answer any two suitable arguments. [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions : The non-aligned countries were more than merely mediators during the Cold War. The challenge for most of the non-aligned countries—a majority of them were categorised as the Least Developed Countries (LDCs)—was to be more developed economically and to lift their people out of poverty. Economic development was also vital for the independence of the new countries. Without sustained development, a country could not be truly free.
(i) Name any two founder countries of Non- Aligned Movement (NAM) during the Cold War period.
(ii) Suggest any two methods to lift the people of the Least Developed Countries out of poverty.
(iii) Explain the concept of ‘sustained development’.
(i) A subsidy or a government incentive is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector generally with an aim of promoting economic and social policy.
(ii) Withdrawal of subsidy or government incentive pushed people towards poverty since they no longer received the financial aid or support they needed to maintain and earn their livelihood.
(iii) Privatisation as a policy led to a lot of disparities. States were divided into rich and poor regions, the economic gap between the classes widened, there was greater economic inequality among people. Thus, the policy did nothing but increased problems and economic gap between classes.
(i) Egypt and India were the two founder nations of Non-Alignment Policy.
(ii) The two methods to lift people of LDCs out of poverty are :
(iii) Sustained development is also known as sustainable development. Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The concept of needs goes beyond simple material needs and includes values, relationships, freedom to think, act and participate, all amounting to sustainable living, morally and spiritually.
Question 18. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions : Most of the time, when we read and hear about security we are talking about traditional, national security conceptions of security related to dangers from military threats. The source of this type of danger to security is another country which, by threatening military action endangers the core values of sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity.
(i) What is meant by a national security?
(ii) Explain the traditional notion of security.
(iii) Suggest any two methods to respond to the threat of war from another country.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions: One of India’s major concerns has been the composition of the Security Council, which has remained largely static while the UN General Assembly membership was expanded considerably. India considers that this has harmed the representative character of the Security Council. It also argues that an expanded Council, with more representation, will enjoy greater support in the world community.
(i) Why has the composition of the Security Council been said to have remained ‘static’?
(ii) How has the static composition of the Security Council harmed its representative character?
(iii) Explain India’s view about the role of the developing countries in the Security Council. [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
(i) National security refers to policy enacted by governments to ensure the survival and safety of the nation-state, including but not limited to the exercise of diplomatic, economic and military power in both peace and war.
(ii) Traditional security concerns itself with internal security. In traditional security, there is recognition that cooperation in limiting violence is possible. These limits relate both to the ends and the means of war.
(iii) In responding to the threat of war, a government has three basic choices: to surrender; to prevent the other side from attacking by promising to raise the costs of war to an unacceptable level; and to defend itself when the war actually breaks out so as to deny the attacking country its objectives and to turn back or defeat the attacking forces altogether.
(i) Ever since the composition of Security council has been decided, its permanent member only constitutes of five most powerful nations of the world, which contribute greatly to the world in peace and security missions, while its non permanent members keep changing. This is why, it is called static.
(ii) The composition of Security Council, which has remained largely static is considered as a harm to the representative character of the Security Council. It does not represent other continents properly as it argues the fact that an expanded council, with more representation, will enjoy greater support in the world community.
(iii) The membership of UN Security Council was expanded from 11 to 15 in 1965 and there was no change in number of members after that. The overwhelming fact is that the majority of UN General assembly members are developed countries, due to which, India argues, that developing countries should also have a role in shaping the decisions in the Security Council, which affect them.
Question 19. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions : Thus began an era of multi-party system …. Our Parliament always had representatives from several political parties. But after 1989, no single party secured a clear majority of seats in Lok Sabha till 2014. This development initiated an era of coalition governments at the Centre.
(i) Which political party won a clear majority in the Lok Sabha elections in 2014 ?
(ii) In your opinion, what are the two main problems of coalition governments ?
(iii) Analyse any two merits of the multi-party system in India. [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
(ii) They form weak governments, because often there is less understanding between the partners. These governments bring unpopular represen-tatives to power which might have not been in power otherwise.
(iii) It provides a number of alternatives for people to choose their representatives from. Equal and better representation is’ facilitated to people in various regions and belonging to different communities.
Question 20. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the following questions :
(i) Write the full name of the organisation represented by the tiger in this cartoon.
(ii) Explain the dilemma of Sri Lankan leadership in trying to resolve this ethnic conflict.
(iii) How did this ethnic problem affect the economic growth of Sri Lanka ? [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
(i) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.
(ii) The Sinhala nationalists thought that Sri Lanka should not give ‘concessions’ to the Tamils because Sri Lanka belongs to the Sinhala people only. The neglect of Tamil concerns led to militant Tamil nationalism. From 1983 onwards, tfie militant organisation, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) has been fighting an armed struggle with the army of Sri Lanka and demanding ‘Tamil Eelam’ or a separate country for the Tamils of Sri Lanka. Thus this ethnic conflict continues to plague Sri lanka.
(iii) In spite of the conflict, Sri Lanka has registered considerable economic growth and recorded high levels of human development. Sri Lanka was one of the first developing countries to successfully control the rate of growth of population, the first country in the region to liberalise the economy, and it has had the highest per capita gross domestic product (GDP) for many years right through the civil war.
Question 21. In the given political outline map of India, five states have been shown as (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E). Identify them on the basis of the information given below and write their correct names in your answer-book with the respective serial number of the information used and the concerned alphabet as per the following format :
(i) The State that resisted its merger with the Union of India.
(ii) The State which was carved out of Assam in 1972.
(iii) The State where the Communist Party of India formed its Government in 1957.
(iv) The State formed in 1966.
(v) The State related to Dairy Cooperative Movement under the name ‘Amul’. [1 x 5 = 5]
Question 22. Describe any four consequences of Shock Therapy. [4 + 2 = 6]
Describe any two features of India’s policy of non-alignment. How did this policy help India to serve its own interests?
Answer: The shock therapy administered in the 1990s did not lead the people into the promised Utopia of mass consumption. It brought ruin to the economies and disaster upon the people of the entire region. In Russia, the large state-controlled industrial complex almost collapsed, as about 90 percent of its industries were put up for sale to private individuals and companies.
The restructuring was carried out through market forces and not by government-directed industrial policies, it led to the virtual disappearance of entire industries. This was called ‘the largest garage sale in history’, as valuable industries were undervalued and sold at throwaway prices. Though all citizens were given vouchers to participate in the sales, most citizens sold their vouchers in the black market because they needed the money.
The value of the ruble, the Russian currency, declined dramatically. The rate of inflation was so high that people lost all their savings. The collective farm system disintegrated leaving people without food security, and Russia started to import food. The real GDP of Russia in 1999 was below what it was in 1989. The old trading structure broke down with no alternative in its place. The old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed. The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of the people into poverty. The middle classes were pushed to the periphery of society, and the academic and intellectual manpower disintegrated or migrated.
India’s policy was neither negative nor passive. As Nehru reminded the world, non-alignment was not a policy of ‘fleeing away’. On the contrary, India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften Cold War rivalries.
The five principles which NAM is based upon are :
A non-aligned posture also served India’s interests directly, in at least two ways :
Question 23. Explain any four features of the U.S. hegemony as hard power. 
Explain the process of establishing democracy ‘ in Nepal.
Answer: Hegemony is an international system to dominate world by only one superpower. United states have the hard power, hegemony through its military capability.
Nepal while moving from a monarchy to a democratic government faced many challenges. These challenges were mainly the result of the triangular conflict between the monarchist forces, the democrats and the Maoists. Throughout this period, political parties and the common people of Nepal wanted a more open and responsive system of government.
In 1990, the king accepted the demand for a new democratic constitution in the wake of a strong pro-democracy movement. However, democratic governments had a short and troubled career. During the nineties, the Maoists of Nepal were successful in spreading their influence in many parts of Nepal. They believed in armed insurrection against the monarch and the ruling elite. This led to a violent conflict between the Maoist guerrillas and the armed forces of the king known as the triangular conflict. In 2002, the king abolished the parliament and dismissed the government, thus ending even the limited democracy that existed in Nepal. In 2006, there were massive, country wide, prodemocracy protests, led by the Seven Party Alliance (SPA), the Maoists and social activists. Due to which the king was forced to restore the House of Representatives that had been dissolved in April 2002.
Question 24. Analyse the concept of ‘Common but differentiated responsibilities’ of States towards the protection of environment. [2 × 3 = 6]
Assess the political, economic and cultural effects of globalisation on India.
Answer: Common but differentiated responsibilities of states towards the protection of environment are:
(i) The developing countries felt that much of the ecological degradation in the world is the product of industrial development undertaken by the developed countries. If they have caused more degradation, they must also take more responsibility for undoing the damage now.
(ii) Moreover developing countries are in process of industrialisation and they must not be subjected to the same restrictions. They must be taken in account in the development application and interpretation of rules of international environmental law. This argument was accepted in the Rio Declaration at the Earth Summit in 1992 and is called ‘common but differentiated responsibilities’.
(iii) The 1992 United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) also provides that the parties should act to protect the climate system “on the basis of equality and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities”.
(iv) The KYOTO Protocol is an international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions.
Political Efffect of Globalisation on India are :
(i) One of the major impacts of political globalisation is that it reduces the importance of nation-states. Many states have organized themselves into trade blocs. Emergence of supranational institutions such as the European Union, the WTO, the G-8, and the International Criminal Court etc. replaced or extended the national functions to facilitate international agreement.
(ii) Another major impact of globalization is the increased influence of Non-Government Organizations in public policy like humanitarian aid, developmental efforts etc. Many organizations have come forward with the mission of uplifting the remotest parts of India where there is massive funding of millions of dollars.
(iii) The rise of global civil society is one of the major contributions of globalisation. Multivariate groups make up civil society which often protests against capitalism. Economic consequences of globalisation are as follows :
Cultural consequences of globalisation :
Question 25. Describe any three features of the Congress Party that kept it as a social and ideological coalition during the freedom struggle. [2 × 3 = 6]
Describe any two positive and two negative consequences of the Green Revolution. [1 1/2 × 4 = 6]
Answer: The Congress Party evolved from its origins in 1885 as a pressure group for the newly educated, professional and commercial classes to a mass movement in the twentieth century. This laid the’ basis for its eventual transformation into a mass political party and its subsequent domination of the political system. Thus the Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle-class and urban elite. But with every Civil Disobedience Movement it launched, its social base widened. Peasants and industrialists, urban dwellers and villagers, workers and owners, middle, lower and upper classes and castes, all found space in the Congress. Gradually, its leadership also expanded beyond the upper caste and upper class professionals to agriculture based leaders with a rural orientation.
By the- time of Independence, the Congress was transformed into a rainbow-like social coalition broadly representing India’s diversity in terms of classes and castes, religions and languages and various interests. In this sense the Congress was an ideological coalition as well. It accommodated the revolutionary and pacifist, conservative and radical, extremist and moderate and the right, left and all shades of the centre. The Congress was a ‘platform’ for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in the national movement.
In 1960’s, India was facing a food crisis due to many reasons. India was dependent on U.S.A for food and U.S.A. was putting many limitations on Indian’s policies. Indian Government decided to make India self-sufficient in food. Hence the government adopted a new strategy for agricultural practices that were gradually replaced by modern technology. Use of high-yielding variety seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation are simply called Green Revolution (or) modern agricultural technology. As a result of Green revolution areas under improved seeds has gone up from about 15 million hectares during 1970-71 to nearly 75 million hectares in 1995-96.
The new varieties were of a! short-term duration and consequently, instead of growing one crop, two crops and sometimes even three crops were grown. The major benefits of the Green Revolution were experienced mainly in northern and north-western India. Unprecedented enthusiasm has prevailed among farmers in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan and Western U.P. For new wheat variety seeds, a situation developed in which the demand for seeds by farmers exceeded the supply.
Positive consequences of the Green Revolution are :
Two negative consequences of Green Revolution are :
Question 26. Analyse any four factors that led the Congress Party to a spectacular win in 1971 elections. [1 1/2 × 4 = 6] OR Analyse the justification given by the Government of India for declaring National Emergency on the night of 25th June, 1975. How far do you agree with this justification. [4 + 2 = 6]
Answer: The new Congress had something that its big opponents lacked—it had an issue, an agenda and a positive slogan. The Grand Alliance did not have a coherent political programme. Indira Gandhi said that the opposition alliance had only one common programme : Indira Hatao (Remove Indira).
In contrast to this, she put forward a positive programme captured in the famous slogan : Garibi Hatao (Remove Poverty). She focused on the growth of the public sector, imposition of ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property, removal of disparities in income and opportunity, and abolition of princely privileges.
Through garibi hatao, Indira Gandhi tried to generate a support base among the disadvantaged, especially among the landless labourers—Dalits and Adivasis, minorities, women and the unemployed youth. The slogan of garibi hatao and the programmes that followed it were part of Indira Gandhi’s political strategy of building an independent nationwide political support base.
Emergency is one of the most controverisal episodes in Indian politics. One reason is that there are differing view points about the need to declare emergency. Another reason is that using the powers given by the Constitution, the government practically suspended the democratic functioning.
The Constitution simply mentioned ‘internal disturbances’ as the reason for declaring Emeregency. Before 1975, emergency was never proclaimed on this ground. The government argued that in a democracy, the opposition parties must allow the elected ruling party to govern according to its policies. It felt that frequent recourse to agitations, protests and collective actions were no good for democracy. Supporters of Indira Gandhi also held that in a democracy, one cannot continuously have extra- parliamentarypolitics targeting the government. This leads to instability and distracts the administration from its routine task of ensuring development. All energies are diverted to maintenanace of law and order.
Indira Gandhi wrote in a letter to the Shah Commission that subversive forces were trying to obstruct the progressive programmes of the government and were attempting to dislodge her from power through extra-constitutional means. Some other parties, like the CPI that continued to back the Congress during the Emergency, also believed that there was an international conspiracy against the unity of India. It believed that in such circumstances some restrictions on agitations were justified.
On the other hand, the critics of the Emergency argued that ever since the freedom movement, Indian politics had a history of popular struggles. JP and many other opposition leaders felt that in a democracy, people had the right to publicly protest against the government. The Bihar and Gujarat agitations were mostly peaceful and non-violent. Those who were arrested were never tried for any anti-national activity. No cases were registered against most of the detainees. The Home Ministry, which is entrusted with the responsibility of monitoring the internal situation of the country, also did not express any concern about the law and order situation in the country. There was no need to suspend democratic functioning and use draconian measures like the Emergency for that. The threat was not to the unity and integrity of the country but to the ruling party and to the Prime Minister herself. It was, thus, inferred that Indira Gandhi misused a constitutional provision meant for saving the country to save her personal power.
Question 27. Suggest any three methods of .agitation, to highlight your problems and demands, which do not disturb the routine life of the people. [2 × 3 = 6]
Suggest any three methods to accommodate the regional aspirations and maintain national integration.
Answer: Protests are all about expressing one’s dissent. It comes under freedom of expression but one thing must be remembered while exercising this right is that it should not offend anyone and should fall within the law of the land. The ways of protesting depends upon to what one wants to protest. It can be a Dress code or blocking the roads or say demonstrating via making dummies. All it needs is to reach to the concerned people and create a mass opinion. Following are the three ways :
(i) Public Speeches: One can easily influence people using strong words and expressions without affecting the everyday routine of people. Words have the power of motivating and de motivating people easily. They can change the course of any movement without requiring much effort.
(ii) Signed public declaration: A sworn declaration (also called a sworn statement or a statement under penalty of perjury) is a document that recites facts pertinent to a legal proceeding. It is very similar to an affidavit, but unlike an affidavit, it is not witnessed and sealed by an official such as a notary public. Instead, the person making the declaration signs a separate endorsement paragraph at the end of the document, stating that the declaration is made under penalty of perjury. It is a very powerful method of protest.
(iii) The peaceful demonstration, candle marches and boycott of substances: During the transition between the wet to dry season of 1930 Mahatma (Mohandas) Gandhi led a peaceful protest against Britain’s imposed law dictating no Indian could collect or sell salt in the country. Followed by dozens, Gandhi walked over 240 miles leading protesters to the Arabian Sea to pick up a small handful of salt out of the muddy waters of the sea. Seventeen years later, after this peaceful yet defiant act, India gained independence from Britain.
The best way to respond to regional aspirations is through democratic negotiations rather than through suppression. Militancy had erupted in Punjab; problems were persisting in the north-east; students in Assam were agitating; while Kashmir valley was on the boil. Instead of treating these as simple law and order problems, the Government of India reached negotiated settlement with regional movements. This produced a reconciliation which reduced the tensions existing in many regions. Political settlement could resolve the issue of separatism if handled with care. It is not sufficient to have a formal democratic structure. Besides that, groups and parties from the region need to be given share in power at the State level. The regions must have a share in deciding the destiny of the nation. If regions are not given a share in the national level decision making, the feeling of injustice and alienation can spread.
Regional imlabalance in economic development contributes to the feeling of regional discrimination. Regional imbalance is a fact of India’s development experience. Naturally, the backward states or backward regions in some states feel that their backwardness should be addressed on priority basis and that the policies of the Indian government have caused this imbalance. If some states remain poor and others develop rapidly, it leads to regional imbalances and inter-regional migrations.