Ques 1: What do you understand by the term westernization?
Ans: Westernisation is the process where societies come under or adopt western culture in areas such as industry, language, clothing, etc.
Ques 2: In an industrial set-up, how can a manager make the workers produce more?
Ans: In an industrial set-up, manager can make the workers produce more by providing them the prevailing wage rate and also by motivating them to work hard.
Ques 3: Write the meaning of term infotainment.
Ans: Infotainment refers to the type of media which provides a combination of information and entertainment both.
Ques 4: In what way consumption pattern is related to status symbol?
Ans: Consumption pattern refers to the pattern through which a consumer gets influenced and status symbol is the symbol which represents our status in the society.
Thus, if a consumer has to show off his status, his consumption pattern got influenced. For e.g.: Purchase of expensive diamonds.
Ques 5: Why coastal cities were favoured by the colonial rulers?
Ans: Coastal cities were favoured by colonial rulers:
(a) For better trade.
(b) Ports were mainly linked to coastal cities.
Ques 6: What changes have been brought by the technology in newspaper industry?
Ans: The changes that have occurred in the newspaper industry are explained below:
(a) The use of paper in the newspaper industry has totally ended up on account of the automatic chain.
(b) By the end of 1980, newspapers are automatically moved on the correspondent desk to the final proof level.
Ques 7: How were silk spinners and twisters of Bihar affected by globalization?
Ans: Globalization means integration between different economies of the world. Thus, the development of new IT sector started giving competition to silk spinners and twisters of Bihar.
Ques 8: What role do pressure groups play in Indian democracy?
Ans: Pressure groups play important role in Indian democracy:
(a) They put the interests of different groups in front of the government.
(b) They also help in creating and moulding public opinion.
(c) Also, they help people during natural calamities.
Ques 9: What are counter movements? Give example.
Ans: Counter movements are social movements which are opposed to another social movement. For ex. Environmenal issues.
There are many groups who have protested against the groups who talk about growing global warming issues.
Ques 10: What are the distinct modes of protest?
Ans: Distinct modes of protest are:
Ques 11: State the main concerns of 19th Century's social reformers.
Ans: Main concerns of 19th century's social reformers are:
(a) Change in existing social and political arrangements through gradual changes. For ex.: Right to information.
(b) Attempt to radically transform social relations. For ex. Bolshevik revolution, Russia.
Ques 12: In what way advertisement in technology led to revolutionary changes in global communities?
Ans: Advertisement in technology led to revolutionary changes in global communities by following ways:
(a) Web advertisement has become more advanced and provides more opportunity to an advertiser to connect with customers.
(b) Also, the customers across the globle are responding well to advertisement in technology.
Ques 13: Give examples of INGOs.
World Vision International.
Ques 14: How mass-media is a part of our everyday life?
Ans: Mass media refers to the media such as print, radio, T.V and films which are used to communicate to a large number of people.
Mass media as a part a four everyday life:
(i) Morning edition of newspapers should arrive as soon a people awake.
(ii) People try to get jobs through the help of media.
Ques 15: Explain the politics of assimilation and integration used to establish national identity.
Ans: Integration refers to the social process by which different units of society are united.
Assimilation refers to the mixing of different units.
National identity is established because of the politics of assimilation and integration.
(a) When different units start .integrating them with each other, then it gives birth to a national identity.
(b) Also, when different units mix with each other, then a single national identity comes into existence.
Ques 16: Differentiate the sociological and economic perspective of market.
How did the advent of colonialism in India produce a major upheaval in the economy?
Ans: Difference between sociological and economic perspectives on markets.
(i) Economic approach is aimed at understanding and explaining how markets works in modern capitalist economies. While, sociological approach is based on the phenomenon of adherence of interests of society or all people to look after judicious way of an individual interest.
Adam Smith, father of economics called this phenomenon as invisible hand. Thus, sociological perspective observed markets as a social institution.
(ii) Economic perspective assumes economics/economy as a separate part of society because it has its own laws to guide. However, sociologists study such economic institutions and processes within the larger social framework.
(iii) Economic perspective do study upon individual buyers and sellers and supports leissfaire. While, social perspective states that markets are controlled by particular social groups or classes. They say economics composing markets are socially embedded.
The advent of colonialism in India produce a major upheaval in the economy in following ways:
(a) It created disruptions in production, trade and Agriculture. For ex.: Demise of handloom industry.
(b) Indian economy began to link to the capitalist economy of the world.
(c) India was left as three sources of raw materials and agricultural products and merely consumer of imported machine made goods.
(d) Marwari communities took advantage of cities like Calcutta (Kolkata) and spread their trade and money lending business throughout the country.
Ques 17: Nation-State became the dominant political form during the colonial period. Explain
Ans: The nation state became the dominant political form during the colonial period:
(i) The idea of nation state and nationalism emerged one, when colonialism had reached at its climax,
(ii) It was actually colonial period which unified all of India for the first time.
(iii) Sections of the different communities started understanding the value of unity.
(iv) Also, people in India started realising the importance of nation-state.
Ques 18: The 73rd amendment has been monumental in banging voice to the people of villages. Discuss.
Ans: 73rd amendment has paid a monumental role in bringing a voice to the people in villages in following ways:
(i) In the country, the decentralised governance was begun by the 73rd Constitutional Amendment. By this act, the Panchayati Raj institutions were given the constitutional status.
(ii) All the state which has a population of over 20 lakhs have been provided with a 3-tier system of Panchayati Raj by 73rd amendment.
(iii) Election to these local bodies have been trade mandatory and they should be conducted in every 5 years. This act has provided reservation for SC, ST and 33% seats for women in these local bodies.
(iv) The elected local bodies have been given power to control local resources by this act. Women Empowerment was also done.
Thus, 73rd amendment was able to bridge the gap between centre or state level authorities and local or rural level issues. It recognises panchayats as institutions of self-government. It entrust the rural area to prepare a plan for economic development and social justice. It also gave guidelines for powers and functions, finance and elections, etc.
Ques 19: What is the role and significance of civil society in today's world?
Encouraging cultural diversity is good policy from both the practical and the principled point of view. Justify the statement using Indians case as a nation-state.
Ans: Civil society in the aggregate of non-governmental organisations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens. Civil society includes the family and the private sphere referred to as the 3rd sector of society, distinct from government and business.
Role and significance:
(i) Civil society raise the common demands, requirements of the society.
(ii) It also highlights, praise and criticise the policies of the government.
(iii) It talked about the interests of some sections for their better living of life.
(iv) It organise social movements on behalf of the concerned section of the society.
Thus, civil society organisations are very important in to-days world.
Cultural diversity came into existence because of:
It is a good policy from practical and principled point of view because it had made Indian nation-state:
(a) More united and integrated.
(b) Culturally diverse.
(c) Feeling of oneness.
(d) Intermixing and mingling of different culture.
(e) Existence of different languages, customs and traditions.
Therefore, the statement that cultural diversity is a good policy for us is justified.
Ques 20: Discuss the changes that the Trade Unions bring out in the lives of workers.
Ans: Trade unions are the group or association of workers which put demands of workers in front of the concerned authorities from time to time.
Basically, trade unions are the major component of the system of modern industrial relations in any nation, to achieve certain set of goals or objectives.
Many workers are a part of trade unions, trade unions in India have to overcome a number of problems such as regionalism and casteism.
Trade unions also organise strikes against harsh working conditions.
Therefore, trade unions are made to manage workers and their issues.
Ques 21: In what way the new social movements are different from the old social movements?
Ans: New social movements are the ones which talk about current and new issues such as environmentalism and demands for the rights of women.
New social movements are not organised along class lines. They do not talk about old issues of economic inequality. Identity politics, cultural anxieties and aspirations are essential elements in creating social movements.
Old social movement are the ones which raised old issues like equality for all, peasant movements, anti-colonial movements, etc.
Old social movements were organised along class lines class movements and workers movements are such old movements.
Ques 22: Explain the three key principles of social stratification with examples.
Ans: Social stratification refers to the division of society into the groups of high and low, big and small. By this category, the people in society are ranked in a hierarchy.
Three key principles are:
(a) It is a society wide system that unequally distributed social resources among categories of people.
(b) It is closely linked to family and to the inheritance of social resources from one generation to the next.
(c) It is supposed by patterns of belief or ideology for e.g.: A woman from any class may face sexual violence or division of society on the basis of four Varnas.
Ques 23: Highlight the social consequences of Green Revolution.
Ans: Green Revolution: The fundamental change and phenomenal increase in food grain production in late 60's in India has earned the name of Green Revolution. The word Green here refers to the green fields of the countryside and revolution indicates a substantial change.
The social consequences of Green Revolution in India:
(1) Green revolution has certainly improved the food situation in the country.
(2) It has solved the problem of hunger and has given a strong base to the Indian economy for further growth.
(3) It has transformed the mindest of farmers.
(4) However, the impact of Green Revolution has not been equally favourable for all sections of the agrarian population.
(5) India is a poor country. The new technology and other inputs such as improved seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, water, etc. are beyond the reach of small and marginal farmers.
Ques 24: Explain the structural tensions faced by men and women in matriarchal societies.
What are the factors behind the assertion of tribal identities today?
Ans: The structural tensions faced by men and women in matriarchal societies are:
(1) Women exercise the authority and dominant role in the society.
(2) But it is just a theoretical concept, it does not allow the women real power of dominance.
(3) Also, there is no such history or historical evidence of matriarchy.
(4) Matriarchy in real sense does not exist in matrilinil families.
Therefore, men and women both face structural tensions in matriarchal societies.
Factors that are behind the assertion of Tribal identities today are:
(1) Development plans during the post-independence period had displaced advises and tribals from their natural habitat but nothing has been done so far for their rehabilitation
(2) The so-called traders and industrialists have trickly upsweep their lands; increased the trend of consumption among them but being resource less they find themselves in a helpless position.
(3) Tribal identity has got mixed with Hindu Society and Culture, therefore boundaries between tribes and castes has become porous.
(4) Economic conditions or tribal people in North-Eastern States is much more worse.
(5) The projects like Sardar Sarovar Dam on the river Narmada in Western India made tribal communities suffer a loss.
(6) Also, their population is dispersed. So it's difficult to implement policies.
Ques 25: Read the passage given below and answer the following questions:
Data from the National Sample Survey studies of 1999-2000 and from the 2001 Census of India reveal a sharp fall in the rate of employment generation (creation of new jobs) across both rural and urban areas.
This is true for the young as well. The rate of growth of employment in the 15-30 age group, which stood at around 2.4 per cent a year between 1987 and 1994 for both rural and urban men, fell to 0.7 for rural men and 0.3 per cent for urban men during 1994 to 2004. This suggests that the advantage offered by a young labour force is not being exploited.
Strategies exist to exploit the demographic window of opportunity that India has today. But Indians recent experience suggests that market forces by themselves do not ensure that such strategies would be implemented. Unless a way forward is found, we may miss out on the potential benefit that the country's changing age structure temporarily offers.
(a) What is demographic dividend?
(b) Do you think that India is indeed facing a window of opportunity created by demographic dividend?
Ans: (a) Demographic dividend refers to the period usually 20 to 30 years. When fertility rates fall due to significant reductions in child and infant mortality rates. This occurs as a result of demographic transition.
(b) Yes. I think that India is facing a window of opportunity created by demographic dividend. But India's recent experience suggests that market forces by themselves do not ensure that such strategies would be implemented.