Ques 1: What is meant by the age structure of the population?
Ans: The structure of the population in terms of age (in India 0-15→youth, 15-65 → working population, above 64 years - dependent population i.e., (old and retired population)
Ques 2: What are the two important issues which gave rise to tribal movements?
Ans: 1. An educated middle class among the tribals was created by the western education given by Christian missionaries. This educated class developed the ethnic consciousness and awareness of their identity, culture and customs.
2. A sense of marginalisation brought together the tribal population in South Bihar. They identified their common enemies dikus, migrant traders, money lenders.
Ques 3: What is meant by laissez-faire?
Ans: The French term Laissez-Faire, means Leave Alone or Let it be. This policy or norm is in favour of giving freedom to an individual. So, he is able to fulfil his desires and look after his interests.
Ques 4: State any two factors that encourage regionalism.
Ans: 1. Soon after the adoption of the Constitution, all the units of the colonial era had to be re-organised into ethnolinguistic states within the Indian Union in response to strong popular agitations.
2. The social movement of Jharkhand had a charismatic leader in Birsa Munda, who became an important icon of the movement. Stories and songs about him can found all over Jharkhand. A combination of ethnicity based on tribal identity, language, regional deprivation provided the bases.
Ques 5: Why should minorities be given constitutional protection?
Ans: 1. The minorities are given constitutional protection because minority means without any qualification, it implies a relatively small and also, disadvantaged group. No special rights are given to minorities in the constitution.
2. Minorities protection was necessary because they require special consideration in a context where the normal working of the political system places them at a disadvantage vis-s-vis the majority.
3. After independence the condition of minorities was poor.
They were considered Shudras, for uplifting them special provision was given.
Ques 6: How did colonial laws favour the owners and managers of tea plantations?
Ans: Colonial law favoured the owners and managers of tea plantation.
1. The owners and managers of the tea industry were Britishers.
2. They often used unfair means to employ labours and many a times forced them to work in tea plantation.
3. They used harsh measures against the labourers for the benefit of the tea plantation owners.
Ques 7: Explain Sanskritization as a process of change.
Ans: 1. Giving up non-veg. and becoming true to that lower castes started wearing the sacred thread and this astonished the Brahmins.
2. Started copying negative aspects of British, including dowry, child marriage etc. that is why the position of Dalit women worsened.
Ques 8: What is the role of Nyaya Panchayats in providing justice at grass root levels?
Ans: Role of Nyaya Panchayats:
1. Nyaya Panchayats have been constituted in some states. They possess the authority to hear some petty, civil and criminal cases. They can impose fines but cannot award a sentence.
2. These village courts have often been successful in bringing about an agreement among contending parties. They have been particularly effective in punishing men who harass women for dowry and perpetrate violence against them.
Ques 9: What do you understand by the idea of 'imagined communities' that Benedict Anderson wrote of?
Ans: 1. Benedict Anderson stated that printing press helped the growth of nationalism, the feeling that the people, who do not even know each other's existence feel like members of the family, can be named as imagined community.
2. It gave people who never meet each other but feel a sense of togetherness.
Ques 10: What are national dailies? Name any two.
Ans: The English newspapers, often called National Dailies, circulate across regions.
1. The vernacular newspaper has vastly increased their circulation in the cities and states.
2. In order to compete with the electronic media, newspapers, especially English language newspapers like Hindustan times and Times of India have reduced prices and brought out editions from multiple centres.
Ques 11: How has automation brought about a change in the making of the newspaper?
Ans: Automation brought a drastic change in making of newspapers:
1. New technologies like computers, new printing press have helped to boost the production-and circulation of newspapers.
2. A large number of glossy magazines with colourful prints and cover paper have also made their entry into the market. The Indian, language newspapers have adopted an advanced printed technology with attractive advertisements, pull-outs and nice booklets.
Ques 12: What do you understand by Universal Adult Franchise?
Ans: Universal Adult Franchise means that the right to vote should be given to all adult citizens without the discrimination of caste, class, colour, religion or gender.
Example-in India, above 18 years of age, every adult citizen has right to vote.
Ques 13: What were the demands of the Bombay textile workers.
Ans: The Bombay Textile strike of 1982, was led by the trade union leader, Dr. Datta Samant Their demands were:
1. The workers wanted better wages and also wanted the right to form their own union.
2. According to the Bombay Industrial Relations Act (BIRA) a union was required to be approved and the only way it could get approval was if it gave up the idea oi" strikes.
Ques 14: Differentiate between Reformative and Revolutionary Movement.
Ans: Reformist social movements strive to change the existing social and political movements through gradual incremental steps.
1. Revolutionary social movements attempt to radically transform social relations often by capturing state power.
2. Reforms are often linked with belief systems, rituals and lifestyles of concerned people.
3. It created a communist state which was effected by the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and Naxalite movements in India to seek and also to remove oppressive landlords and state officials that can be described as revolutionary movements.
Ques 15: According to demographers and sociologists, what are the reasons for the decline in child sex ratio in India?
Identify the reasons for regional variations of displacement levels in India.
Ans: According to demographers and sociologists, the reasons for the decline in child sex ratio in India are:
1. Social factors: Patriarchal society with more male-centric thoughts force one family to have male child with old beliefs like family name. Lack of education makes them unable to follow right attitude towards it.
2. Technological factors: Advent of science and technology like ultrasonography has made it possible for antenatal sex detection. It led to lowering sex-ratio.
3. Economical factors: Due to prevalent social evils like dowry, daughters are considered as economic burden for family. So family prefers to have male child as earning source as well as reducing burden.
4. Lack of awareness: Due to low contribution of females in economy of house females are not considered as important as males. They even lack basic amenities.
Reasons for regional variations of displacement:
1. After 1970, there was rapid development in India and every state has developed in different ways. The development in Kerala vastly owes to Gulf money where one or two members of a family in Kerala migrated to Gulf countries. People from Kerala used this additional money in the development of the state.
2. In several agriculturally rich regions, such as coastal Andhra Pradesh, Western Uttar Pradesh and Central Gujrat well-to-do farmers belonging to the dominant castes began to invest their profits from agriculture to other types of business and this process of diversification gave rise to new regional elites that became economically as well as politically dominant.
3. Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, due to lack of effective land reforms, peasants who did not have land of their own, migrated to other states due to increasing inequalities from 1990's. These labourers worked in construction activities, usually not paid the minimum wages.
Ques 16: 'Tribals have paid a disproportionate price for the development of the rest of Indian society'. Highlight the sources of conflict between national development and 'tribal development'.
Ans: Conflict between National, development and Tribal development:
1. National development: in the Nehmvian era, focused on the building of large dams, factories and mines etc.
2. But, because the tribal areas were rich in minerals. They paid a heavy price for the development activities, which benefitted the rest of the nation.
3. The displacement of tribes has been a result of setting up of dams and factories using the forested areas for various mining activities and other development work.
4. The idea of private property in land, also, adversely affected the tribes. Tribes who mostly had collective community-based ownership were at a disadvantage in the new system. Example: series of dams being built over the Narmada river.
5. Many tribal regions have experienced heavy in-migration of non-tribals. This threatens to disrupt their cultures and communities. Example: Jharkhand and Tripura.
Ques 17: Do you agree that all sections of people have benefitted from the liberalization policy in India? Justify your answer with an example.
Ans: Liberalisation means economic reform.
1. Liberalisation means the steady removal of the rules that regulated Indian trade and finance regulations. The basic assumption was that greater integration into the global market would be beneficial to Indian regulations.
2. The Transnational Co-operations (TNCs) are the companies that produce goods or market services in more than one country. These may be relatively small firms with one or two factories outside the county in which they are based. They could also be gigantic international ones whose operations cris-cross the globe, example: Coca-Cola, General Motors etc.
3. Banks, corporations, fund managers and individual investors are able to shift funds internationally with just one click of a mouse. Such transactions are possible only because of the communication revolution. No paperwork, no paper currency is required.
4. Globally integrated financial markets undertake billions of dollars worth transaction within the seconds in the electronic circuits. There is a 24 hours trading in capital and security markets. Cities such as New York, Tokyo and London are the key centres for financial trading. In India, Mumbai is known as the financial capital of the country.
Ques 18: Differentiate between a democratic and an authoritarian State.
What is the community identify? How have Indian politics provided national identity?
Ans: Difference between Democratic and Authoritarian states:
Main Features of Democratic State:
1. Government by the people, a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected representative under a free electro system.
2. Free and fair elections.
3. Freedom of expression but in the limit, until it does not affect the unity of our country.
4. Equal rights to everyone.
Main Features of Authoritarian State:
1. Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms. Individual freedoms are subordinate to the state and there is no constitutional accountability under an authoritarian regime.
2. In world today. North Korea, Syria, Saudi Arabia are few countries where authoritarian rules persist.
Community Identity: Community that provides us the language and the cultural values through which we comprehend the world. It is based on birth and belongings and never on some form of acquired qualification or accomplishment. Birth based identity is called ascriptive because this does not involve any choice on the part of me individuals concerned. These ascriptive identities are very hard to shake off because irrespective of our efforts to disown them, other may continue to identify us by those markers of belonging.
Indian Policies and National Identity:
1. A nation is a sort of large scale community. It is a community of various communities. States have tried to establish and enhance their political legitimacy through nation building strategies. They sought to secure the loyalty and obedience of their citizens through policies of assimilation and integration.
Attaining these objectives was not easy, especially in me context of cultural diversity where citizens, in addition to their identifications with their country with differences of ethnic, religious, linguistic and so on.
2. Policies of integration seek to assert a single national identity by attempting to eliminate the national and cultural differences from the public and political arena.
Ques 19: Historically, what role did coastal cities play in the economic areas of empires?
Ans: 1. Historically, the big cities were built near the coastal areas from the old age empire due to reasons of easy movement and worldwide trade.
2. Due to economic development, coastal cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai got importance and favour.
3. Primary commodities could be easily exported and manufactured goods could be imported at low cost.
4. These cities became prime link between economic centres throughout the world, as Goa was link to Portugal, Chennai and Kolkata with Eastern Asia, Fizi, China etc.
Ques 20: 'The varied social reform movements had common themes yet were different.' Explain.
Ans: (i) The varied social reform movements did have common themes yet there were also significant differences. For some the concerns were confined to the problems that the upper caste, middle class women and men faced. For others the injustices suffered by the discriminated castes were central questions.
(ii) For some social evils had emerged because of a decline of the true spirit of Hinduism. For others caste and gender oppression was intrinsic of dying religion.
(iii) There were movements for Muslim women. One group had argued against the practice of polygamy whereas, other group had fought for the abolishment of Triple Talaq.
(iv) Debates within communities were common in various movements. For instance, sad was opposed by the Brahmo Samaj. Orthodox members of the Hindu community in Bengal formed an organisation called Dharma Sabha and petitioned the British arguing that reformers had no right to interpret sacred texts.
Ques 21: What were the social responsibilities of the Panchayats?
Ans: According to the constitution, panchayats should be given powers and authority to function as institutions of self-government. Panchayats had following social responsibility:
1. To prepare plans and schemes for economic development: The development activities include the construction of roads, public buildings, wells, schools, small irrigation works etc.
2. To promote schemes that will enhance social justice: Nyaya Panchayats have been constituted in some states. They possess the authority to hear some petty civil, criminal and domestic violence cases. They can impose fines but cannot award a sentence against a guilty person.
3. To levy, collect and appropriate taxes, dudes, tolls, and fees: The main income of die Panchayats is from tax levied on property, animals, vehicles, tax on land revenue and rentals. The resources are further increased by the grants received through the Zila Panchayat or Zila Parishad.
4. Help in the devolution of governmental responsibilities especially that of finances to local authorities: Many government schemes like, Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) and Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) are monitored by members of panchayat.
Ques 22: Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Green Revolution.
Ans: Advantages of Green Revolution:
1. Green revolution was a government programme of agricultural modernisation. It was largely funded by international agencies that was based on high yielding variety of seeds with good pesticides, fertilisers and other inputs to farmers.
2. Green revolution programme was started in areas that had assured irrigation facilities, as sufficient water was necessary for the new seeds and method of cultivation. It basically targeted rice and wheat growing areas.
3. Agriculture productivity increased sharply because of new technologies. Thereafter India became self-sufficient in food grain production.
Disadvantages of Green Revolution:
1. Since the seeds and cultivation technology was very expensive, the small and marginal farmers could not afford to spend on new technology.
2. Since the well-to-do farmers were able to afford the costly HYV seeds, fertilizers and pesticides, they began to take back their lands from tenants and cultivate it directly because new technology cultivation was becoming more profitable. This made rich farmer better off and worsened the condition of the landless and marginal holders. The ultimate outcome of Green Revolution was a process of "Differentiation" between Rich and poor farmers.
3. In most of the green revolution areas, farmers have shifted from single crop per year to multi-crop regime, which allowed them to spread risk in case any crop fails.
Ques 23: Are global connections new to India and the world? Discuss.
Ans: Global Interconnections Not New to World and India:
(i) Since the early years-India has never been isolated from the world, example-silk, route, which centuries ago connected to the great civilisation which existed in China, Persia, Egypt and Rome.
(ii) Colonial Period (British rule):
(a) Greatest movement of people was navigation of people.
(b) Indian went abroad to study or work. India's development is due to globalisation and a creation of a new global, outlook.
(c) Not only trade but exchange of technologies also became global.
Ques 24: How are the working conditions in mines detrimental for the workers?
Ans: (i) Workers m underground mines face very dangerous conditions, due to flooding, fire, the collapse of roof and sides.
(ii) Due to lack of fresh air, emissions of gases and ventilation failure, many workers develop breathing problems and diseases like tuberculosis and silicosis.
(iii) The total lifespan of my workers is very short. Every year hundreds of workers die due to accidents in mines.
(iv) In 1952, an act called die Mines Act was passed. The government said that the owners of the mines have to follow certain Acts/rule. Still the overall conditions of mine workers have not improved much.
(v) Mine owners have to follow all safety rules mar are laid down in the Act.
(vi) Mine owners has to follow various regulations which include that workers have to be paid proper wages and each person should know the number of hours, he is working in the mines (hours should be fixed).
(vii) To highlight the mine worker problems and their condition, a Hindi movie "KALA PATHTHAR was released in 1980s.
Ques 25: Read the passage given below and answer following questions:
In India labels such as 'disability', 'handicap', 'crippled', 'blind' and 'deaf' are used synonymously. Often these terms are hurled at people as insults. In a culture that looks up to bodily 'perfection', all deviations from the 'perfect body' signify abnormality, defect and distortion. Labels such as bechara (poor thing) accentuate the victim status for the disabled person. The roots of such attitudes lie in the cultural conception that views an impaired body as a result of fate.
Destiny is seen as the culprit and disabled people are the victims. The common perception views disability retribution for past Karma (actions) from which there can be no reprieve. The dominant cultural construction in India therefore looks at disability as essentially a characteristic of the individual. The popular images in mythology portray the disabled in an extremely negative fashion.
The very term 'disabled' challenges each of these assumptions. Terms such as 'mentally challenged', visually impaired' and 'physically impaired' came to replace the triter negative terms such as 'retarded' 'crippled' or 'lame'. The disabled are rendered disabled not because they are biologically disabled but because society renders them so.
(a) Who form the disabled population in our country?
(b) Do you think disabled are rendered disabled not because they are biologically disabled but because society rendered them so? Explain.
Ans: (a) The disabled population in our country includes: The word disability, handicap, "crippled, blind and deaf are synonymous, and normally such words are hurled at people as insults.
(b) (i) The disabled are struggling not because they are physically or mentally challenged but also because society is built in a manner that does not cater to their needs.
(ii) Common features of the public perceptions of disability are:
1. Disability is understood as a biological factor.
2. Whenever a disabled person is confronted with problems, it is taken for granted that the problems originate from his/her impairment.
3. The disabled person is seen as a victim.
4. Disability is supposed to be linked with the disabled individual's self-perception.
5. The very idea of disability suggests that they are in need of help. They are labelled as Bechara.
(iii) In India, in a culture that looks up to bodily perfection, all deviations from the perfect body signify abnormality, defect and distortion.
(iv) The roots of such attitude lie in the cultural conception that views an impaired body as a result of fate. Destiny is seen as the culprit, and disabled people are the victims. The dominant cultural construction in India therefore looks at disability as essentially a characteristic of the individual. The popular images in the mythology portray the disabled in an extremely negative fashion.
(v) The very term disabled challenges each of these assumptions. The disabled are rendered disabled not because of their deformity or physical disability but because of society.