Class-9-10-Curriculum-2018-2019-Science Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Class 10 : Class-9-10-Curriculum-2018-2019-Science Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


                                                              SCIENCE 
(Code No. 086 / 090) 
 
The subject of Science plays an important role in developing well-defined abilities in 
cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in children. It augments the spirit of enquiry, 
creativity, objectivity and aesthetic sensibility. 
Upper primary stage demands that a number of opportunities should be provided to the 
students to engage them with the processes of Science like observing, recording 
observations, drawing, tabulation, plotting graphs, etc., whereas the secondary stage also 
expects abstraction and quantitative reasoning to occupy a more central place in the 
teaching and learning of Science. Thus, the idea of atoms and molecules being the building 
blocks of matter makes its appearance, as does Newton’s law of gravitation. 
The present syllabus has been designed around seven broad themes viz. Food; Materials;  
The World of The Living; How Things Work; Moving Things, People and Ideas; Natural 
Phenomenon and Natural Resources. Special care has been taken to avoid temptation of 
adding too many concepts than can be comfortably learnt in the given time frame. No 
attempt has been made to be comprehensive. 
At this stage, while science is still a common subject, the disciplines of Physics, Chemistry 
and Biology begin to emerge. The students should be exposed to experiences based on 
hands on activities as well as modes of reasoning that are typical of the subject. 
 
General Instructions: 
1. There will be an Annual examination based on entire syllabus. 
2. The annual examination will be of 80 marks and 20 marks weightage shall be for 
internal assessment. 
3. Out of 80 marks annual examination 68 marks weightage shall be for theory and 12 
marks weightage shall be for practical based questions. 
4. For internal assessment  
a. There will be three periodic tests conducted by the school. Average of the best 
two tests to be taken that will have a weightage of 10 marks towards the final 
result. 
b. Practical / Laboratory work should be done throughout the year and the student 
should maintain record of the same. Practical Assessment should be continuous. 
There will be weightage of 5 marks towards the final result. All practicals listed in 
the syllabus must be completed. 
c. Regularity, class work and home assignment completion along with neatness and 
upkeep of notebook will carry a weightage of 5 marks towards the final results. 
 
Page 2


                                                              SCIENCE 
(Code No. 086 / 090) 
 
The subject of Science plays an important role in developing well-defined abilities in 
cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in children. It augments the spirit of enquiry, 
creativity, objectivity and aesthetic sensibility. 
Upper primary stage demands that a number of opportunities should be provided to the 
students to engage them with the processes of Science like observing, recording 
observations, drawing, tabulation, plotting graphs, etc., whereas the secondary stage also 
expects abstraction and quantitative reasoning to occupy a more central place in the 
teaching and learning of Science. Thus, the idea of atoms and molecules being the building 
blocks of matter makes its appearance, as does Newton’s law of gravitation. 
The present syllabus has been designed around seven broad themes viz. Food; Materials;  
The World of The Living; How Things Work; Moving Things, People and Ideas; Natural 
Phenomenon and Natural Resources. Special care has been taken to avoid temptation of 
adding too many concepts than can be comfortably learnt in the given time frame. No 
attempt has been made to be comprehensive. 
At this stage, while science is still a common subject, the disciplines of Physics, Chemistry 
and Biology begin to emerge. The students should be exposed to experiences based on 
hands on activities as well as modes of reasoning that are typical of the subject. 
 
General Instructions: 
1. There will be an Annual examination based on entire syllabus. 
2. The annual examination will be of 80 marks and 20 marks weightage shall be for 
internal assessment. 
3. Out of 80 marks annual examination 68 marks weightage shall be for theory and 12 
marks weightage shall be for practical based questions. 
4. For internal assessment  
a. There will be three periodic tests conducted by the school. Average of the best 
two tests to be taken that will have a weightage of 10 marks towards the final 
result. 
b. Practical / Laboratory work should be done throughout the year and the student 
should maintain record of the same. Practical Assessment should be continuous. 
There will be weightage of 5 marks towards the final result. All practicals listed in 
the syllabus must be completed. 
c. Regularity, class work and home assignment completion along with neatness and 
upkeep of notebook will carry a weightage of 5 marks towards the final results. 
 
                                             COURSE STRUCTURE CLASS IX 
                                         (Annual Examination)     Marks: 80 
Unit No. Unit Marks 
I Matter - Its Nature and Behaviour 23 
II Organisation in the Living World 20 
III Motion, Force and Work 27 
IV Our Environment 06 
V Food; Food Production 04 
 Total 80 
 Internal assessment 20 
 Grand Total 100 
 
Note: Above weightage includes the weightage of questions based on practical skills.  
 
Theme: Materials (50 Periods) 
Unit I: Matter-Nature and Behaviour 
Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; 
change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by 
evaporation), condensation, sublimation. 
Nature of matter: Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and 
homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions. 
Particle nature, basic units: Atoms and molecules, Law of constant proportions, 
Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept: Relationship of mole to mass of the 
particles and numbers.  
Structure of atoms: Electrons, protons and neutrons, valency, chemical formula of 
common compounds. Isotopes and Isobars. 
Theme: The World of the Living (45 Periods) 
Unit II: Organization in the Living World 
Cell - Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, 
multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and  cell 
inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi 
apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number. 
 
Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism: 
Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in 
animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants). 
Page 3


                                                              SCIENCE 
(Code No. 086 / 090) 
 
The subject of Science plays an important role in developing well-defined abilities in 
cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in children. It augments the spirit of enquiry, 
creativity, objectivity and aesthetic sensibility. 
Upper primary stage demands that a number of opportunities should be provided to the 
students to engage them with the processes of Science like observing, recording 
observations, drawing, tabulation, plotting graphs, etc., whereas the secondary stage also 
expects abstraction and quantitative reasoning to occupy a more central place in the 
teaching and learning of Science. Thus, the idea of atoms and molecules being the building 
blocks of matter makes its appearance, as does Newton’s law of gravitation. 
The present syllabus has been designed around seven broad themes viz. Food; Materials;  
The World of The Living; How Things Work; Moving Things, People and Ideas; Natural 
Phenomenon and Natural Resources. Special care has been taken to avoid temptation of 
adding too many concepts than can be comfortably learnt in the given time frame. No 
attempt has been made to be comprehensive. 
At this stage, while science is still a common subject, the disciplines of Physics, Chemistry 
and Biology begin to emerge. The students should be exposed to experiences based on 
hands on activities as well as modes of reasoning that are typical of the subject. 
 
General Instructions: 
1. There will be an Annual examination based on entire syllabus. 
2. The annual examination will be of 80 marks and 20 marks weightage shall be for 
internal assessment. 
3. Out of 80 marks annual examination 68 marks weightage shall be for theory and 12 
marks weightage shall be for practical based questions. 
4. For internal assessment  
a. There will be three periodic tests conducted by the school. Average of the best 
two tests to be taken that will have a weightage of 10 marks towards the final 
result. 
b. Practical / Laboratory work should be done throughout the year and the student 
should maintain record of the same. Practical Assessment should be continuous. 
There will be weightage of 5 marks towards the final result. All practicals listed in 
the syllabus must be completed. 
c. Regularity, class work and home assignment completion along with neatness and 
upkeep of notebook will carry a weightage of 5 marks towards the final results. 
 
                                             COURSE STRUCTURE CLASS IX 
                                         (Annual Examination)     Marks: 80 
Unit No. Unit Marks 
I Matter - Its Nature and Behaviour 23 
II Organisation in the Living World 20 
III Motion, Force and Work 27 
IV Our Environment 06 
V Food; Food Production 04 
 Total 80 
 Internal assessment 20 
 Grand Total 100 
 
Note: Above weightage includes the weightage of questions based on practical skills.  
 
Theme: Materials (50 Periods) 
Unit I: Matter-Nature and Behaviour 
Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; 
change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by 
evaporation), condensation, sublimation. 
Nature of matter: Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and 
homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions. 
Particle nature, basic units: Atoms and molecules, Law of constant proportions, 
Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept: Relationship of mole to mass of the 
particles and numbers.  
Structure of atoms: Electrons, protons and neutrons, valency, chemical formula of 
common compounds. Isotopes and Isobars. 
Theme: The World of the Living (45 Periods) 
Unit II: Organization in the Living World 
Cell - Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, 
multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and  cell 
inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi 
apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number. 
 
Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism: 
Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in 
animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants). 
 
Biological Diversity: Diversity of plants and animals - basic issues in scientific naming, 
basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants 
(salient features) (Bacteria, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and 
Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla 
and chordates upto classes). 
Health and Diseases: Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, 
their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and 
Protozoans) and their prevention; Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio 
programmes. 
Theme: Moving Things, People and Ideas (60 Periods) 
Unit III: Motion, Force and Work 
Motion: Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a 
straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion 
and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by graphical 
method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion. 
Force and Newton’s laws : Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and 
Reaction forces, Inertia of  a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and 
Acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum. 
Gravitation: Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the 
earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall. 
 
Floatation: Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy; Elementary idea of 
Relative Density. 
 
Work, energy and power: Work done by a Force, Energy, power; Kinetic and Potential 
energy; Law of conservation of energy. 
Sound: Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of 
hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR. Structure of the 
Human Ear (Auditory aspect only). 
 
Theme: Natural Resources: Balance in nature (15 Periods) 
Unit IV: Our Environment 
Physical resources : Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating 
temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. 
Air, water and soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the 
probable damages. 
Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature: Water, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen. 
Page 4


                                                              SCIENCE 
(Code No. 086 / 090) 
 
The subject of Science plays an important role in developing well-defined abilities in 
cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in children. It augments the spirit of enquiry, 
creativity, objectivity and aesthetic sensibility. 
Upper primary stage demands that a number of opportunities should be provided to the 
students to engage them with the processes of Science like observing, recording 
observations, drawing, tabulation, plotting graphs, etc., whereas the secondary stage also 
expects abstraction and quantitative reasoning to occupy a more central place in the 
teaching and learning of Science. Thus, the idea of atoms and molecules being the building 
blocks of matter makes its appearance, as does Newton’s law of gravitation. 
The present syllabus has been designed around seven broad themes viz. Food; Materials;  
The World of The Living; How Things Work; Moving Things, People and Ideas; Natural 
Phenomenon and Natural Resources. Special care has been taken to avoid temptation of 
adding too many concepts than can be comfortably learnt in the given time frame. No 
attempt has been made to be comprehensive. 
At this stage, while science is still a common subject, the disciplines of Physics, Chemistry 
and Biology begin to emerge. The students should be exposed to experiences based on 
hands on activities as well as modes of reasoning that are typical of the subject. 
 
General Instructions: 
1. There will be an Annual examination based on entire syllabus. 
2. The annual examination will be of 80 marks and 20 marks weightage shall be for 
internal assessment. 
3. Out of 80 marks annual examination 68 marks weightage shall be for theory and 12 
marks weightage shall be for practical based questions. 
4. For internal assessment  
a. There will be three periodic tests conducted by the school. Average of the best 
two tests to be taken that will have a weightage of 10 marks towards the final 
result. 
b. Practical / Laboratory work should be done throughout the year and the student 
should maintain record of the same. Practical Assessment should be continuous. 
There will be weightage of 5 marks towards the final result. All practicals listed in 
the syllabus must be completed. 
c. Regularity, class work and home assignment completion along with neatness and 
upkeep of notebook will carry a weightage of 5 marks towards the final results. 
 
                                             COURSE STRUCTURE CLASS IX 
                                         (Annual Examination)     Marks: 80 
Unit No. Unit Marks 
I Matter - Its Nature and Behaviour 23 
II Organisation in the Living World 20 
III Motion, Force and Work 27 
IV Our Environment 06 
V Food; Food Production 04 
 Total 80 
 Internal assessment 20 
 Grand Total 100 
 
Note: Above weightage includes the weightage of questions based on practical skills.  
 
Theme: Materials (50 Periods) 
Unit I: Matter-Nature and Behaviour 
Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; 
change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by 
evaporation), condensation, sublimation. 
Nature of matter: Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and 
homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions. 
Particle nature, basic units: Atoms and molecules, Law of constant proportions, 
Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept: Relationship of mole to mass of the 
particles and numbers.  
Structure of atoms: Electrons, protons and neutrons, valency, chemical formula of 
common compounds. Isotopes and Isobars. 
Theme: The World of the Living (45 Periods) 
Unit II: Organization in the Living World 
Cell - Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, 
multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and  cell 
inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi 
apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number. 
 
Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism: 
Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in 
animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants). 
 
Biological Diversity: Diversity of plants and animals - basic issues in scientific naming, 
basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants 
(salient features) (Bacteria, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and 
Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla 
and chordates upto classes). 
Health and Diseases: Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, 
their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and 
Protozoans) and their prevention; Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio 
programmes. 
Theme: Moving Things, People and Ideas (60 Periods) 
Unit III: Motion, Force and Work 
Motion: Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a 
straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion 
and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by graphical 
method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion. 
Force and Newton’s laws : Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and 
Reaction forces, Inertia of  a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and 
Acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum. 
Gravitation: Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the 
earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall. 
 
Floatation: Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy; Elementary idea of 
Relative Density. 
 
Work, energy and power: Work done by a Force, Energy, power; Kinetic and Potential 
energy; Law of conservation of energy. 
Sound: Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of 
hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR. Structure of the 
Human Ear (Auditory aspect only). 
 
Theme: Natural Resources: Balance in nature (15 Periods) 
Unit IV: Our Environment 
Physical resources : Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating 
temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. 
Air, water and soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the 
probable damages. 
Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature: Water, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen. 
 
Theme: Food                                                                                              (10 Periods) 
Unit V: Food Production 
Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; 
Use of fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming. 
 
PRACTICALS 
                                                    (30 Periods) 
Practicals should be conducted alongside the concepts tough in theory classes.      
(LIST OF EXPERIMENTS) 
1. Preparation of : 
a) a true solution of common salt, sugar and alum 
b) a suspension of soil, chalk powder and fine sand in water 
c) a colloidal solution of starch in water and egg albumin/milk in water and 
distinguish between these on the basis of 
? transparency 
? filtration criterion 
? stability 
2. Preparation of 
a) a mixture 
b) a compound 
using iron filings and sulphur powder and distinguishing between these on the basis of: 
(i) appearance, i.e., homogeneity and heterogeneity 
(ii) behaviour towards a magnet 
(iii) behaviour towards carbon disulphide as a solvent 
(iv) effect of heat  
 
3. Separation of the components of a mixture of sand, common salt and ammonium 
chloride (or camphor). 
4. Perform the following reactions and classify them as physical or chemical changes : 
a) Iron with copper sulphate solution in water 
Page 5


                                                              SCIENCE 
(Code No. 086 / 090) 
 
The subject of Science plays an important role in developing well-defined abilities in 
cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in children. It augments the spirit of enquiry, 
creativity, objectivity and aesthetic sensibility. 
Upper primary stage demands that a number of opportunities should be provided to the 
students to engage them with the processes of Science like observing, recording 
observations, drawing, tabulation, plotting graphs, etc., whereas the secondary stage also 
expects abstraction and quantitative reasoning to occupy a more central place in the 
teaching and learning of Science. Thus, the idea of atoms and molecules being the building 
blocks of matter makes its appearance, as does Newton’s law of gravitation. 
The present syllabus has been designed around seven broad themes viz. Food; Materials;  
The World of The Living; How Things Work; Moving Things, People and Ideas; Natural 
Phenomenon and Natural Resources. Special care has been taken to avoid temptation of 
adding too many concepts than can be comfortably learnt in the given time frame. No 
attempt has been made to be comprehensive. 
At this stage, while science is still a common subject, the disciplines of Physics, Chemistry 
and Biology begin to emerge. The students should be exposed to experiences based on 
hands on activities as well as modes of reasoning that are typical of the subject. 
 
General Instructions: 
1. There will be an Annual examination based on entire syllabus. 
2. The annual examination will be of 80 marks and 20 marks weightage shall be for 
internal assessment. 
3. Out of 80 marks annual examination 68 marks weightage shall be for theory and 12 
marks weightage shall be for practical based questions. 
4. For internal assessment  
a. There will be three periodic tests conducted by the school. Average of the best 
two tests to be taken that will have a weightage of 10 marks towards the final 
result. 
b. Practical / Laboratory work should be done throughout the year and the student 
should maintain record of the same. Practical Assessment should be continuous. 
There will be weightage of 5 marks towards the final result. All practicals listed in 
the syllabus must be completed. 
c. Regularity, class work and home assignment completion along with neatness and 
upkeep of notebook will carry a weightage of 5 marks towards the final results. 
 
                                             COURSE STRUCTURE CLASS IX 
                                         (Annual Examination)     Marks: 80 
Unit No. Unit Marks 
I Matter - Its Nature and Behaviour 23 
II Organisation in the Living World 20 
III Motion, Force and Work 27 
IV Our Environment 06 
V Food; Food Production 04 
 Total 80 
 Internal assessment 20 
 Grand Total 100 
 
Note: Above weightage includes the weightage of questions based on practical skills.  
 
Theme: Materials (50 Periods) 
Unit I: Matter-Nature and Behaviour 
Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; 
change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by 
evaporation), condensation, sublimation. 
Nature of matter: Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and 
homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions. 
Particle nature, basic units: Atoms and molecules, Law of constant proportions, 
Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept: Relationship of mole to mass of the 
particles and numbers.  
Structure of atoms: Electrons, protons and neutrons, valency, chemical formula of 
common compounds. Isotopes and Isobars. 
Theme: The World of the Living (45 Periods) 
Unit II: Organization in the Living World 
Cell - Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, 
multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and  cell 
inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi 
apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number. 
 
Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism: 
Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in 
animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants). 
 
Biological Diversity: Diversity of plants and animals - basic issues in scientific naming, 
basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants 
(salient features) (Bacteria, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and 
Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla 
and chordates upto classes). 
Health and Diseases: Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, 
their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and 
Protozoans) and their prevention; Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio 
programmes. 
Theme: Moving Things, People and Ideas (60 Periods) 
Unit III: Motion, Force and Work 
Motion: Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a 
straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion 
and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by graphical 
method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion. 
Force and Newton’s laws : Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and 
Reaction forces, Inertia of  a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and 
Acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum. 
Gravitation: Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the 
earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall. 
 
Floatation: Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy; Elementary idea of 
Relative Density. 
 
Work, energy and power: Work done by a Force, Energy, power; Kinetic and Potential 
energy; Law of conservation of energy. 
Sound: Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of 
hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR. Structure of the 
Human Ear (Auditory aspect only). 
 
Theme: Natural Resources: Balance in nature (15 Periods) 
Unit IV: Our Environment 
Physical resources : Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating 
temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. 
Air, water and soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the 
probable damages. 
Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature: Water, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen. 
 
Theme: Food                                                                                              (10 Periods) 
Unit V: Food Production 
Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; 
Use of fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming. 
 
PRACTICALS 
                                                    (30 Periods) 
Practicals should be conducted alongside the concepts tough in theory classes.      
(LIST OF EXPERIMENTS) 
1. Preparation of : 
a) a true solution of common salt, sugar and alum 
b) a suspension of soil, chalk powder and fine sand in water 
c) a colloidal solution of starch in water and egg albumin/milk in water and 
distinguish between these on the basis of 
? transparency 
? filtration criterion 
? stability 
2. Preparation of 
a) a mixture 
b) a compound 
using iron filings and sulphur powder and distinguishing between these on the basis of: 
(i) appearance, i.e., homogeneity and heterogeneity 
(ii) behaviour towards a magnet 
(iii) behaviour towards carbon disulphide as a solvent 
(iv) effect of heat  
 
3. Separation of the components of a mixture of sand, common salt and ammonium 
chloride (or camphor). 
4. Perform the following reactions and classify them as physical or chemical changes : 
a) Iron with copper sulphate solution in water 
b) Burning of magnesium ribbon in air 
c) Zinc with dilute sulphuric acid 
d) Heating of copper sulphate crystals 
e) Sodium sulphate with barium chloride in the form of their solutions in water 
 
5. Preparation of stained temporary mounts of (a) onion peel, (b) human cheek cells & to 
record observations and draw their labeled diagrams. 
6. Identification of Parenchyma, collenchyma and Sclerenchyma tissues in plants, striped, 
smooth and cardiac muscle fibers and nerve cells in animals, from prepared slides. 
Draw their labeled diagrams. 
7. Determination of the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water. 
8. Verification of the Laws of reflection of sound. 
9. Determination of the density of solid (denser than water) by using a spring balance and a 
measuring cylinder. 
10. Establishing the relation between the loss in weight of a solid when fully immersed in 
a) tap water 
b) strongly salty water, with the weight of water displaced by it by taking at least 
two different solids. 
11. Determination of the speed of a pulse propagated through a stretched 
string/slinky(helical spring). 
12. Study of the characteristics of Spirogyra, Agaricus, Moss, Fern, Pinus (either with male 
or female cone) and an Angiospermic plant. Draw and give two identifying features of 
the groups they belong to. 
13. Observe the given pictures/charts/models of earthworm, cockroach, bony fish 
and bird. For each organism, draw their picture and record: 
a) one specific feature of its phylum. 
b) one adaptive feature with reference to its habitat. 
 
14. Verification of the law of conservation of mass in a chemical reaction. 
15. Study of the external features of root, stem, leaf and flower of monocot and  dicot 
plants. 
 
  
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