Ques 1: When did the French Revolution take place?
Ans: The French Revolution started in 1789.
Ques 2: What is the basic constraint in raising farm production?
Ans: As land is fixed and cannot be increased, it is the basic constraint in raising farm production.
Ques 3: Upon which factors does the quality of a population depend?
Ans: The quality of a population depends upon educational attainment indicated by literacy rate, health indicated by life expectancy and skill formation of the people.
Ques 4: What is working capital?
Ans: The part of physical capital which is to be used up in production, e.g., raw material and money in hand, is called working capital.
Ques 5: What was the Green Revolution?
Ans: The large increase in agricultural production after the years 1967-68 due to the adoption of the 'New Agricultural Strategy', which implied a simultaneous use of better and modern agricultural inputs, is known as the Green Revolution.
Ques 6: What does the term 'Constitutional Monarchy' mean?
Ans: The term 'Constitutional Monarchy' means a government headed by a king or queen whose powers are limited by the Constitution of a country.
Ques 7: Who was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
Ans: The first session of the Constituent Assembly started on 9th December, 1946, where Dr Sachidan and Sinha was chosen as the temporary chairman of the Assembly. On 11th December, 1946, Dr Rajendra Prasad was unanimously elected its permanent Chairman.
Ques 8: Name the ruler of Russia at the start of First World War.
Ans: Tsar Nicholas II was the ruler of Russia at the start of First World War.
Ques 9: Mention the length and breadth of India.
Ans: The land mass of India has an area of 3.28 million sq km. India's total area is 24% of the total geographical area of the world, India is the seventh largest country of the world. The length of India is about 3214 km from North to South between the extreme latitudes. Its breadth is 2933 km from West to East between the two extreme longitudes. India's land boundary is about 15200 km long. Total length of the coastline of the mainland is 7517 km.
Ques 10: Name two Island groups possessed by India. Write briefly three features of the Shiwaliks range which affect human life negatively.
Ans: (i) The Island groups possessed by India are Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
(ii) Lakshadweep Islands.Three features of the Shiwalik range which affect human life negatively are
(i) Since, the Shiwalik are formed of loose rock material, thus landslides occur very frequently. Landslides are one of the frequently occurring natural hazards in seismically active regions of the Shiwalik range.
(ii) The areas are prone to earthquakes (Chamoli and Uttarkashi earthquakes are still afresh in our minds).
(iii) Due to heavy rain there is soil erosion which is the main problem in the Shiwalik.
Ques 11: Give an account of the Deccan trap.
Ans: The Deccan Traps are a large igneous province located on the Deccan Plateau of West-central India and one of the largest volcanic features on earth. It is a distinct feature of the Peninsular plateau. It is composed of Igneous rocks of volcanic eruptions, occurred at the Western Ghats some 66 million years ago. According to geologists, the continuous oozing out of cracks and fissures resulted in the formation of the Deccantrap. This region is rich in black soil which is most suitable for cultivation of cotton crop.
Ques 12: Why do we call India a secular, democratic republic? Explain.
Ans: India is called a secular state because its citizens have complete freedom to follow and practice any religion of their choice. There is no state religion in India, like Islam in Pakistan. Democracy means India has a government which is formed by elected representatives of the citizens on the basis of universal adult franchisc. India is a republic because the constitution of India states that there should be a head of the state, Rastrapati or the Presider to is elected for a term of five years and the post is not hereditary.
Ques 13: Why did President Allende address the workers? Why were the landlords, the rich and the church opposed to his policies?
Ans: President Allende addressed the 'workers' because he was a socialist and the founder leader of the Socialist Party of Chile. So, after becoming the President of Chile, he had taken several policy decisions to help the poor and the workers. Some of these are
(i) Free milk for children to improve their nutritional status.
(ii) Reform of the educational system.
(iii) Redistribution of the land to the landless farmers. The rich, the landlords and the church opposed his policies because they were losing their property and their authority over the poor masses.
Ques 14: How is the right to vote granted in a democracy? Give some instances where the right to vote is denied.
Ans: In a democracy, the right to vote is granted on the basis of universal adult franchise. In India, every adult above18 years has a right to vote without any discrimination. Although the principle of universal adult franchise has been accepted in almost all the countries, there are instances of denial of equal rights to vote as mentioned below
(i) In Saudi Arabia, women did not have the right to vote. But king Abdullah of Saudi Arabia announced that women would cast their vote in 2015 municipal elections.
(ii) Estonia has made its citizenship rules in such a way that people belonging to the Russian minority find it difficult to get the right to vote.
(iii) In Fiji, the electoral system is such that the vote of an indigenous Fijian has more value than that of an Indian Fijian.
Ques 15: Suggest ways to improve economic conditions of small farmers.
Ans: More than two-thirds of our population depends on agriculture and a majority of them are small farmers. The following steps should be taken to improve their economic condition
(i) Government should provide them loans at lower rates of interest and without formalities.
(ii) Self-help groups should be formed locally to help local farmers. A self-help group is a village-based financial intermediary usually composed of 10-12 local women or men.
(iii) Farmer cooperatives should be formed and function under Gram Panchayats.
Ques 16: Why is educated unemployment a problem peculiar to India?
Ans: Educated unemployment is posing a grave threat to our country. A study showed that lakhs of educated person are unemployed. Unemployment of graduates and postgraduates has increased faster than among matriculates. A paradoxical manpower situation is witnessed, as surplus manpower in certain categories coexists with shortage of manpower in others. There is unemployment among technically qualified persons on the one hand, while there is a dearth of technical skills required for economic growth. According to the survey of NSS, the rate of unemployment among the educated was 11.9%, as compared to 6.1% for the total labour force. Thus educated, unemployment is a problem peculiar to India.
Ques 17: How do the chemical fertilisers affect the soil, groundwater, rivers and lakes? What were the effects of use of chemical fertilisers in Punjab?
Ans: Chemical fertilisers can also kill some useful bacteria and other microorganisms in the soil. This means that after their use for some-time, the soil will be less fertile than before. The consumption of chemical fertilisers in Punjab is the highest in the country. The continuous use of chemical fertilisers has led to degradation of soil health. Punjab farmers are now forced to use more and more chemical fertilisers and other inputs to achieve the same production level. This means cost of cultivation is rising very fast.
Ques 18: How did France become a Constitutional monarchy?
Ans: In 1791, the National Assembly completed the draft of the Constitution. Its main object was to limit the powers of the monarch. The powers instead of being concentrated in the hands of the monarch, were now separated and divided between the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary. The Constitution also declared that it was the duty of the state to protect each citizen's natural rights. In this way, France became a Constitutional monarchy.
Ques 19: Write a short not on Napoleon Bonaparte.
Ans: Napoleon Bonaparte was a great French General, who won many battles for revolutionary France and raised his nation's prestige. In 1804, he crowned himself Emperor of France. He set out to conquer neighboring European countries and became a terror for all European monarchs. He introduced many modern laws like the protection of private property, a uniform system of weights and measures provided by the decimal system. Initially many saw him as a liberator who would bring freedom for the people. Soon he was looked upon by the conquered European countries as an invader. Finally in 1815, Napoleon was defeated by the European allies at Waterloo.
Ques 20: 'Liberals of European states were not democratic'. Justify the statement by giving three examples. Or Describe Hitler's foreign policy before the Second World War.
Ans: Although the liberals argued for a repre-sentative, elected parliamentary government, but they were not 'democrats' because
(i) they did not believe in universal adult franchise, i.e, the right of every citizen to vote.
(ii) they felt men of property mainly should have the right to vote.
(iii) they were not in favour of women suffrage.
In foreign policy, Adolf Hitler took quick and successful steps as follows
(i) He pulled Germany out of the League of Nations in 1933.
(ii) He integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan 'one people, one empire and one leader'.
(iii) He then captured German-speaking Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia and later the entire country.
(iv) Hitler got unspoken support of England, which had considered the Versailles Treaty as too harsh.
(v) These quick successes at home and abroad helped to reverse the destiny of the country.
Ques 21: (a) On an outline physical map of India identify (1) and (2) and write their correct names 1. Hills in Deccan Plateau 2. Highest peak in the Eastern Gnats
(b) Also mark and label the following in the same map.
B. Vaigai river
Ques 22: Locate and label the following on political map of India.
(a) Southernmost point of India's mainland
(b) A dam on the Krishna river in Andhra Pradesh
(c) The highest mountain in Indian territory
(d) A dam on Kaveri river near Mysore in Karnataka.
Ques 23: Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution.
Ans: Some of the democratic rights which we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution are given in the Indian Constitution.
(i) Right to Equality The right to equality has its origin in the French Revolution. In the Indian Constitution, right to equality means equality before law, prohibition of discrimination and equality of opportunity in matters of employment.
(ii) Right to Liberty or Freedom The origin of this right can also be traced to the French. In the Preamble to the Indian Constitution, Right to Liberty or freedom means 'freedom or thought, expression, belief, faith and worship'.
(iii) Encouraging the Spirit of Fraternity The French Revolution introduced the growth of the spirit of fraternity and social welfare. In the Indian Constitution the concept of 'fraternity' abolishes untouchability local or provincial anti-social feelings.
(iv) Inspiring the Spirit of Democracy The French Revolution inspired the spirit of democracy which ensured many rights, viz., right against exploitation, right to life, right to vote, etc which we are enjoying today.
Ques 24: Explain why Nazi Propaganda was effective in creating a hatred for Jews?
Ans: Nazi propaganda was effective in creating hatred for the Jews because
(i) Nazis successfully exploited the low position of the Jews in medieval times as there was a traditional Christianhatred against the Jews,
(ii) The Jews were affluent being mainly traders and moneylenders. The economically shattered, unemployed German people easily developed hatred against them.
(iii) The Jews lived separately in marked areas called ghettos; they therefore became easy targets.
(iv) The Nazis introduced the hatred theory against the Jews from the very beginning of the child's school life so that they grew up with this hatred.
(v) Nazi ideas were spread through visual images, posters, slogans, leaflets, films, etc. This propaganda worked on the minds and emotions of the German people.
Ques 25: What was the Communist International?
Ans: After the First World War, the Communist International was organized in 1919 on the lines of the First International (1864-76) and the Second International (1889-1914). It was founded in Moscow in March, 1919 on the initiative of the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution in Russia and at a time of revolutionary upsurge in central Europe. It is also called the Third International. Its main objectives were to establish unity among the workers of the world, to fix their daily hours of work, to oppose imperialism and colonialism, to oppose oppression and wars, to promote revolution, etc. Under its guidance, various communist parties were formed in many countries of the world. The Communist International was dissolved in June, 1943.
Ques 26: Describe the Coastal plains.
Ans: The Peninsular plateau is flanked by stretches of narrow coastal strips running along the Arabian Sea on the West and Bay of Bengal on the East. The Western coastal plain is located between the Western Ghats and the Arabian ea. It is a narrow plain consisting of three sections
(i) The Northern part of the coast is called the Konkan plain.
(ii) The central stretch is called the Kannad plain.
(iii) The Southern stretch is known as the Malabar coast.
The Western coast consists of estuaries and lagoons. This area is ideal for pisciculture. On its Northern side there are two gulfs: the gulf of Khambhat and the gulf of Kutch. It has many good natural harbours. The wide levelled plain along the Bay of Bengal is called the Eastern coastal plain. Its Northern part is referred to as the Northern Circars.
The Southern part is known as the Coromandel coast. This plain is dominated by thick alluvial deposits in the deltaic tracks of the rivers flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Rivers like Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, etc have formed extensive delta on this coast.
Ques 27: Describe the main features of the Preamble of the Constitution of India.
Ans: The Preamble declares its aim, principles and ideals and the constitutional and political principles of the society in which it is implemented. Its main features are
(i) This Constitution has been drawn up and enacted by the people of India through their representatives and not handed down to them by a king or any outside power.
(ii) People have every right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. The people are sovereign. No external powers can dictate terms to the Government of India.(iii) Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society. Government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities.(iv) The government is democratic, where people enjoy equal political rights, elect their rulers and hold them accountable.
(v) The government is a republic, where the head of state, the President, is an elected person and not a hereditary position.
(vi) The state is secular, where citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. There is no official religion.
Ques 28: Discuss the growth of the education sector in India since 1951.
Ans: India has shown visible growth in the education sector since 1951. Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector with control and funding coming from three levels: Central, state and local. Education falls under the control of both the union Government and the state Government.
(i) India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education, attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately three quarters of the population. Indian literacy grew to 74.04% in 2011 from 18% in 1951.
(ii) As per the Annual status of Education Report (ASER) 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the ages of 6-14are enrolled in school. It has also increased in secondary and higher education.
(iii) The number of Universities has increased almost ten times. As of 2012, India has 152 central universities, 316state universities and 191 private universities.
(iv) The dropout rate has reduced among males and females at secondary and tertiary levels of education. But at primary level, it has above 40% dropout rate still now.
(v) The Government of India has launch a new mission 'SAAKSHAR BHARAT' specially for women.
Ques 29: How are the farmers in village Palampur able to grow more crops from the same land? Explain in five points.
Ans: The farmers of Palampur are able to grow more crops from the same land as
(i) They follow multiple cropping. They grow at least two main crops. Many of them also grow vegetables as thirdcrop.
(ii) There is a well-developed system of irrigation in Palampur that enables the farmers there to grow three different crops in a year.
(iii) Electricity came early to Palampur. It has played a pivotal role in transformation of the irrigation system in village Palampur. Soon the old and existing Persian wheels were replaced by electric run tubewells which could irrigate much larger areas of land.
(iv) Modem farming methods and Green Revolution introduced HYV seeds.
(v) Effective use of HYVs, chemical fertilisers and modern agricultural technologies resulted in better agricultural yield from same land in Palampur.
Ques 30: Highlight the role of rivers in agricultural economy like India. Write any three points.
Ans: Rivers are know as the lifeline of human civilization. The role of rivers is immense in agricultural economy like India.
(i) Water from the river is a basic natural resource, essential for various human activities. The river banks have attracted the settlers from ancient times. These settlement have also become big cities.
(ii) The river water is used for irrigation, navigation, hydropower generation is of special significance particularly to a country like India, where agriculture is the major source of livelihood for majority of its population.
(iii) Rivers are considered of great cultural significance in Indian culture. Many cultural activities like Kumbh melas are organized on river banks in every part of India. Indian rivers host many religious, cultural and picturesque tourist spots that are of great significance to tourism industry which is a great source of income to a country's economy.