Ques 1: Which countries are India's neighbors on the Western side?
Ans: Afghanistan and Pakistan are India's neighbors on the Western side.
Ques 2: Which was the only country where every adult had voting rights by 1893?
Ans: New Zealand was the only country where every adults (male and female) had voting right by 1893.
Ques 3: Which is the most important factor of production?
Ans: Human capital is the most important factor of production.
Ques 4: Who was the famous philosopher who said that there is a social contract between the ruler and the people?
Ans: Jean Jacques Rousseau was the famous philosopher who said that there is a social contract between the ruler and the people.
Ques 5: What is the variation in height in the Shiwaliks mountain range?
Ans: The height of the Shiwaliks mountain range varies from 900 to 1100 m.
Ques 6: Is running a milk collection-cum-chilling centre a trading activity?
Ans: Yes, since the milk chilling centre is buying the milk from the villagers and selling it to the dairy in the town/city, thus, it is a trading activity.
Ques 7: Begging is which category of activity?
Ans: Begging does not involve production of any goods or services and also does not add to national income. So, it is anon-economic activity.
Ques 8: Which type of economic theory was accepted by the Nazis?
Ans: The Nazis believed in National Socialism. Hitler believed that private ownership was useful as it encouraged creative competition and technical innovation and all the economic activities should be controlled by the state for national interest.
Ques 9: Distinguish between local time and standard time.
Ans: Local Time: (i) Local time is the time of a longitude or particular place.
(ii) Local time within the country varies from one longitude to another.
(iii) The longitudinal extent of India is 68°7'E to 97° 25'E. There is a corresponding time difference of one hour for every 15° of longitudinal difference. Due to this the local times of the Westernmost tip and Easternmost tip of India differ by almost 2 hours.
Standard Time: (i) The local time of the central longitude of a country, assumed to be of the whole country, is termed as standard time.
(ii) Standard time remains the same throughout the country on all longitudes.
(iii) The local time of 82°30'E (India, Standard Meridian) is Indian Standard Time (1ST).
Ques 10: Why are Himalayas called young fold mountains?
Ans: Himalayas are called young fold mountains. The movement of the tectonic plates has resulted in the formation of the Himalayas. The breaking up of Gondwana land led to the collision between the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasian plate. Due to the collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the Tethys, folded to become the mountain system of the Himalayas. These have been formed relatively recently in the earth's history, compared to older mountain ranges like the avavallis in India. Himalayas represent a youthful topography with high peaks, deep valleys and fast flowing rivers. They are known as fold mountains because the mountain extend for 2500 km in length in a series of parallel ridges or folds.
Ques 11: Why are women employed in low paid work?
Ans: Education is one of the major determinants of the earning of an individual in the market. As majority of the women in India have lesser education and lesser skill training than men due to traditional reason, they are paid less than men or are employed in low paid work. Another reason is that jobs involving physical labour are entrusted to men only due to their physique women cannot do as much physical work as men. Women also generally have an additional responsibility or bringing up their family and children and so they cannot be as regular as men in their duties. So, the are often given non-critical and low paid duties.
Ques 12: Explain any three characteristics of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta.
Ans: The largest delta of the world is the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta. It is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of Paschim Bengal. It is approximately 350 km across at the Bay of Bengal.
(i) It is the fastest growing delta. It has large Islands.
(ii) It is the most fertile and well-watered delta. A large number of rivers flow through this delta.
(iii) It is called the Sunderban delta because a peculiar variety of tree called Sundari grows here. It is also the home of the royal Bengal tiger. It is also known as the Sunderbano delta on the Bengal delta.
Ques 13: Why did the Kerenskii Government become unpopular in Russia? Or What steps were taken by Hitler to militarise Germany?
Ans: The Kerenskii Government became unpopular in Russia due to the following reasons
(i) The winter of 1917 was very cold. There had been exceptional frost and heavy snow. Conditions in the capital Petrograd were grim. Food shortages were deeply felt in the worker's quarters.
(ii) During the First World War, Russian casualties by 1917 had risen to over 7 million. As the Russian army retreated, they destroyed crops and buildings to prevent the enemy from being able to live off the land. This destruction led to over 3 million refugees in Russia. Soldier did not wish to fight the war.
(iii) Large supplies of grain were sent to feed the army. For the people in the cities foods became scarce and riots at bread shops were common.
(iv) Peasants demand of redistribution of land, worker's demand of control over industries and the demand of equal status by non-Russian nationalities were not met by the Kerenskii Government.
Hitler undertook the following steps to militarise Germany (any three)
(i) Hitler rebuilt the Army, Navy and Air Force to restore the dignity of Germany. This was contrary to the Treaty of Versailles, but none of the allied powers resisted as they were engaged in their domestic affairs.
(ii) In 1936, Hitler sent an army to acquire Rhineland.
(iii) Emboldened, Hitler integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan 'one people, one empire and one leader'.
(iv) Hitler chose war as a way out of the approaching economic crisis to amass resources.
(v) At 14 years of age, all boys had to join the Nazi youth organization, 'Hilter youth' were inspired to worship war, glorify aggression and violence, condemn democracy and hate Jews, communists, gypsies and all the' undesirables'.
(vi) After rigorous ideological and physical training they had to join the Labour Service at the age of 18 to serve in the armed forces.
Ques 14: Mention any three ways in which Louis XVI helped to contribute to the outbreak of the French Revolution.
Ans: Ways in which Louis XVI helped to contribute to the outbreak of the French Revolution are (any three)
(i) Louis XVI, the ruler of France, was a pleasure loving, extravagant ruler who believed in the divine rights of the king.
(ii) He was ignorant and indifferent to the conditions of the poor.
(iii) He was obsessed with his wife Marie Antoinette, who constantly interfered in the administration.
(iv) Both the king and the queen used to spend huge wealth not only to lead a lavish lifestyle but also to please their so called admirers. This gradually brought France to the verge of bankrupt acy.
(v) The king helped the thirteen American colonies to gain their independence from Britain. The huge expenditure of the war forced the state to increase taxes and the taxes were only paid by the third estate of the French society at that time.
Ques 15: Write a short note on the establishment of 'Dictatorship' in Ghana.
Ans: Ghana, once a British colony called Gold Coast, became independent in 1957. It was among the first countries in Africa to get independence from colonial rule. Kwame Nkrumah, who had taken an active part in the freedom struggle of the country, became its first Prime Minister and then the President of Ghana. Later on he got himself elected President for life. He justified his action by saying that 'Even a system based on a democratic constitution may need backing up in the period following independence by emergency measures of a totalitarian kind'. He was best-known politically for his strong commitment to and promotion of Pan-Africanism. He was a founding member of the organization of African unity and was the winner of the Lenin Peace Prize in 1963.Shortly, thereafter, in 1966 he was overthrown by the military. Ghana no longer remained a democracy.
Ques 16: India has Parliamentary Government. Explain.
Ans: The Indian Constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government. It is clear from the following facts
(i) In India, the President is the nominal head of the state. In actual practice, government is run by the Prime Minister and Members of the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Parliament.
(ii) Members of the Council of Ministers remain in office as long as they enjoy the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha.
(iii) Lok Sabha enjoys the power to remove the Council of Ministers by passing a vote of no-confidence against them.
Ques 17: Explain the triangular slave trade carried on during 18th and 19th century.
Ans: The triangular slave trade flourished in the 18th century and 19th century as
(i) There was a shortage of labour on the colonies in the Caribbean due to reluctance of Europeans to go and work in distant, unfamiliar place.
(ii) This problem was solved by a triangular slave trade between Europe, Africa and America. The slave trade began in the 17th century.
(iii) French merchants sailed from the ports of Bordeaux or Nantes to the African coast from where they bought slaves from local Chieftains.
(iv) The slaves were brought to Caribbean and were sold to plantation owners.
(v) The exploitation of slave labour made it possible to meet the growing demand in European markets for sugar, coffee and indigo.
Ques 18: Is it important to increase the area under irrigation? Why?
Ans: Yes, it is important to increase the area under irrigation because water is very essential for agriculture. In India, the rainfall is unevenly distributed in the country and if rainfall is less, then production will be low and the farmer will be only able to grow one crop in a season. With good irrigation, it will be possible to do multiple cropping, helping to increase the yield per hectare.
Ques 19: How does democracy improve the quality of decision-making?
Ans: Democracy is based on consultation and discussion. A democratic decision always involves many persons, discussions and meetings. Those who are not powerful have the same say in taking the decisions as those who are powerful. When many people put their heads together, they are able to point out possible mistakes or drawbacks in any decision. It takes time. But important decision should be taken after proper discussion. This process may be time-consuming, but it reduces the chances of rash or irresponsible decisions. Thus, the lengthy process of taking decisions on any important issue in democracy improves the quality of the decision.
Ques 20: Why is human resource superior to any other resource? Explain with the help of three arguments.
Ans: Human resource is considered to the best resource because
(i) It is a way of referring to country's working people in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities.
(ii) Looking at the population in form of human resource emphasises its ability to contribute to the creation of the Gross National Product.
(iii) When existing human resource is developed by becoming more educated and healthy, we call it 'human capital formation' that adds to the productive power of country just like 'physical capital' formation.
Ques 21: (a) On the given physical map of India, identify the points marked as (1) and (2) and write their correct names.
1. Islands in the Arabian Sea
2. Islands in the Bay of Bengal
(b) Mark on the map
A. Shipkila Pass
B. Tripura State
Ques 22: Locate and label the following on the map of India.
(a) Tapi River
(b) Vembanad Lake
(c) Gir Range
(d) Gulf of Mannar
Ques 23: Which was the important law that came into effect soon after the storming of the Bastille in the summer of 1789? How did it change the lives of the common people? Explain.
Ans: After the fall of Bastille in the summer of 1789, one important law that came into effect was the abolition of censorship. Before French Revolution all written material and cultural activities books, newspapers, plays could be published or performed only after they have been approved by the censors of the king. This law changed the lives of the common people in the following ways
(i) The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen proclaimed freedom of speech and expression to be a natural right.
(ii) Newspapers, pamphlets, books and printed pictures flooded the towns of France from where they could rapidly reach to the countryside.
(iii) These all discussed events and changes that took place in France.
(iv) Freedom of press meant that opposing views of events could be expressed.
(v) Plays, songs and festive procession attracted common men through which they could identify the ideas of liberty or justice of the political philosophers.
Ques 24: Explain the difficulties faced by the people in a non-democratic country?
Ans: The common difficulties faced by the people in a non-democratic country are
(i) People cannot choose or change their ruler.
(ii) People cannot question the authority of the ruler or dictator.
(iii) People do not enjoy any rights, supporters of democracy are tortured or killed. For example, in Chile more than 3000 people were killed by military.
(iv) In a non-democratic country, public protests and demonstration against the government are declared illegal. Sometimes political activists are imprisoned for indefinite time. For example, Aung San Suu Kyi in Myanmar spent a long time in under house arrest.
(v) In a non-democratic country, people do not have political equality. Universal adult Franchise is denied some times.
(vi) In a non-democratic country people may have elected their representatives, but in reality they are not really the rulers, the power of taking final decision rests with army officials. For example, in Pakistan, the real power is enjoyed by the army.
Ques 25: Highlight the social and political conditions that led to Russian Revolution?
Explain any five problems faced by the Weimar Republic in Germany.
Ans: The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolution in Russia in 1917. The Emperor was forced to abdicate and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February, 1917.In the second revolution, during October, the provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik Government. The main circumstance which were responsible for the Russian Revolution are
(i) Russia's own industries were few in numbers and the industrial workers were exploited extremely.
(ii) In Russia 85 per cent of people were agriculturists. The king, nobles and church owned large landed properties. Like the industrial workers, peasants also lived in miserable conditions.
(iii) Russia had an autocracy. Tsar Nicholas II was a deeply conservative ruler and maintained a strict authoritarian system. He cared little for the general people. He dragged the Russian into the First World War.
(iv) Kari Marx's theory of Communism appealed to the people. He said that workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of capitalists by the revolution.
(v) The popularity of Bolshevik party increased steadily under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin. The Bolsheviks had formed committees and Soviets and created conditions which eventually led to the Russian Revolution.
The problems faced by the Weimar Republic in Germany were
(i) The Weimar Republic had to sign the humiliating Treaty of Versailles.
(ii) This Republic carried the burden of war guilt and was financially crippled by being forced to pay compensation.
(iii) Hyperinflation made the German Mark valueless and caused immense hardship for the common man. This economic crisis led to widespread inflation, misery and despair.
(iv) In the Weimar Republic, both the communists and socialists became irreconcilable enemies and could not make common cause against Hitler.
(v) Both revolutionaries and militant nationalists craved for radical solutions, which was not easy. Within its short life, the Weimar Republic saw twenty different cabinets and the liberal use of Article 48. All these created apolitical crisis in Germany.
(vi) It became very unpopular among the German, because it lost the pride of the nation in the hands of Allied powers.
Ques 26: 'India emerged as an independent country amidst heavy turmoil'. Justify the statement by explaining any five challenges before the Constitution makers of India.
Ans: It is a fact that India emerged as an independent country amidst heavy turmoil. There were many challenges before the Constitution makers
(i) The making of a Constitution for a huge population with diversities was not an easy task.
(ii) People of India were emerging from the status of a subject to that of citizens.
(iii) Partition of India was a traumatic experience for the people of both India and Pakistan. At least 10 lakh people were killed on both sides of the border in partition related violence.
(iv) Another big problem was that the British had left the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent. The merger of those princely states was a difficult and uncertain task.
(v) Unlike today, the future of the nation did not look very secure. When the Constitution was being written, it was a big responsibility to draft such a Constitution that determines the relationship between its citizens and also a good relationship between the people and the government.
Ques 27: Describe any three distinct features of the Peninsular plateau of India.
Ans: The peninsular plateau is a table land composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks. It was formed due to breaking and drifting of the Gondwana land and thus making it a part of oldest landmass. This plateau has broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills. The peninsular plateau consists of broad divisions, namely, the central highlands and the Deccan plateau. Three distinct features of peninsular plateau are
A. Central Highlands: (i) The part of the peninsular plateau lying to the North of the Narmada River covering a major area of the Malwa plateau is known as the Central Highlands.
(ii) The Vindhyan range is bounded by the Central Highlands on the South and the Aravalis on the North-West. The Westward extension gradually merges with the sandy and rocky desert of Rajasthan.
(iii) The flow of the rivers draining this region namely the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and Ken is from South-West to North-East, thus indicating the slope.
(iv) The Central Highlands are wider in West, but narrower in the East.
B. Deccan Plateau: This triangular area lies South of the Narmada. The Satpura mountain range marks its broad boundary in North. The deccan plateau is higher in the West and slopes gently east wards. An extension of it is visible in the North-East. The plateau is separated from the hills in the North-East by a geological fault. The hillsare Garo, Khasi and Jaintia.
C. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats: The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats mark the Western and the Eastern edges of the deccan plateau. Western ghats lie parallel to the Western coast and they are continuous. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and stretch from Mohana valley to the Nilgivis in the South. The Western Ghats are higher than the Eastern Ghats.
Ques 28: Explain the use of salt water lakes in India with particular reference to Chilika and Sambhar lakes.
Ans: The Sambhar lake is India's largest saline lake and has made Rajasthan the third largest salt producing state in India. It produces about 2 lakh tonnes of clean salt every year. The lake is located in Nagaur and Jaipur districts and it also borders the Ajmer district. The circumference of the lake is 96 km, surrounded on all sides by the Aravali hills. Salt is produced by evaporation process of brine. This lake is also recognized as a wetland of international importance because it is a key wintering area for flamingos and other birds that migrate from Northern Asia. Chilika lake in Odisha is the largest brackish water lake in India. It is wintering ground for migratory birds on the Indian subcontinent. The lake is home to a number of threatened species of plants and animals, it is an ecosystem with large fishery resources sustaining 150000 fishermen living nearby. In 1981, Chilika lake was designated the first Indian wetland of international importance under the Ramsar convention due to its rich biodiveristy. The open air and scenic natural flora and fauna of the lack are an attraction for eco-tourism. This provides a degree of alternate employment to the local community and generates environmental awareness among local residents as well as visitors about the conservation and wise use of the lack's natural resources.
Ques 29: What is the aim of production? State any four requirements needed for production of goods and services.
Ans: The aim of production is to produce the goods and services we want. This requires four inputs which are called' factors of production'. These are
(i) Land and other natural resources like water, mineral, forest, etc are required
(ii) Labour for carrying out production activities. Some works may be done through manual labour and other works may require highly skilled or educated person.
(iii) Physical capital like machinery, building, tools, etc is called fixed capital which can be used repeatedly for along time while raw material and money in hand is called working capital. Working capital is used up during the production activity, resulting in finished goods and services required, whereas fixed capital is used again and again.
(iv) Human capital is the knowledge and expertise required to put together all the above inputs to produce the out puts which can either be sold in the market or used by the person producing the output.
Ques 30: What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?
Ans: Disguised Unemployment: (i) In case of disguised unemployment, people appear to be employed, but are actually not employed.
(ii) Sometimes in agricultural families, eight people are working in a farm, whereas only five people are needed to do that work. Thus, three persons are surplus and they are not needed on the farm. They also do not help to increase the production of the farm.
(iii) If these three extra persons are removed from the farm, the production from the farm will not decrease. There fore, these three persons appear to be employed but are actually disguisedly unemployed.
Seasonal Unemployment: (i) Seasonal unemployment happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year.
(ii) People dependent upon agriculture usually face such a kind of problem. There are certain busy seasons when sowing, harvesting, weeding and threshing are done. When the plants are growing, there is not much work.
(iii) During this period, they remain unemployed and are said to be seasonally unemployed.