Classess Interdomain Routing (CIDR)
Way of describing IP ranges sharing a common bit prefix,we write IP/length, where IP is the first address from the range,and length is the length of the common prefix
Example We want to describe IP addresses whose binary representation starts with
First IP address from the range:10011100.00010001.00000100.00100000=18.104.22.168 prefix length = 28
CIDR used mostly for describing single networks 22.214.171.124/28 denotes all the addresses between 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52
CIDR allows creating hierarchie s of networks and subnetworks Note:Top block received directly from IANA.
184.108.40.206/32= range consisting of one IPaddress = single computer, not rea lly a network.
We add/xx (called subnet mask) to all IP addresses.
220.127.116.11/28: denotes whole network 18.104.22.168/28: the first comput er in this network 22.214.171.124/28: the last computer in this network 126.96.36.199/28: broadcast addres s of this network
If you assign address 10.0.0.1 to a network card, it will be interpreted as10.0.0.1/8 Why?
Reason stems from pre-CIDR IP classes
If the first IP bit is 0, assume sub net mask /8(A class network). Example:188.8.131.52/8
If the first IP bits are 10, assume subnet mask/16(B class network). Example:184.108.40.206/16
If the first IP bits are 110, assume subnet mask/24(B classnetwork). Example:220.127.116.11/24
Interface lo (loopback)
By connecting with any computer from this network (usually with127.0.0.1), you connect with yourself. Application: it is possible to write, test and use network programs without the network.
Reserved ranges of IP addresses
Packet with such addresses should not be passed through routers.Can be used in local networks (same addresses in different networks).
10.0.0.0/8 (one A class network); 172.16.0.0/12 (16 B class networks); 192.168.0.0/16 (256 C class networks)
If computers with private IP addresses want to communicate with the outside world, the connecting router has to perform NetworkAddress Translation(NAT).