Cofactors - Biochemistry - PPT, IBT, Biotechnology, Engineering, Semester Notes | EduRev

: Cofactors - Biochemistry - PPT, IBT, Biotechnology, Engineering, Semester Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Chapter 7 (part 2)
Cofactors
Page 2


Chapter 7 (part 2)
Cofactors
Biotin
• Water soluble Vitamin
• Produced by gut microflora
which supplies ½ RDA
• Deficiencies are rare
• Consuming 6 raw eggs a day can 
cause deficiencies due to the 
presence avidin (biotin binding 
protein). 
Page 3


Chapter 7 (part 2)
Cofactors
Biotin
• Water soluble Vitamin
• Produced by gut microflora
which supplies ½ RDA
• Deficiencies are rare
• Consuming 6 raw eggs a day can 
cause deficiencies due to the 
presence avidin (biotin binding 
protein). 
Biotin cofactor
•Involved in ATP 
dependent 
carboxylation
rxns
•Covalently bound 
to enzyme 
through amide 
linkage w/lysine
•Impt. Biotin 
enzymes = 
acetyl-CoA 
carboxylase, 
pyruvate 
carboxylase
Page 4


Chapter 7 (part 2)
Cofactors
Biotin
• Water soluble Vitamin
• Produced by gut microflora
which supplies ½ RDA
• Deficiencies are rare
• Consuming 6 raw eggs a day can 
cause deficiencies due to the 
presence avidin (biotin binding 
protein). 
Biotin cofactor
•Involved in ATP 
dependent 
carboxylation
rxns
•Covalently bound 
to enzyme 
through amide 
linkage w/lysine
•Impt. Biotin 
enzymes = 
acetyl-CoA 
carboxylase, 
pyruvate 
carboxylase
Folate
• Water soluble vitamin
• Folate impt. during pregnancy to prevent neural 
tube defects in fetus (I.e. spina bifida)
• Vitamin B12 deficiencies cause folate
deficiencies
• Has a poly-glutamate tail formed by gamma-
carboxy and alpha amino groups (unusual peptide 
bond).
pterin
PABA
glutamate
Page 5


Chapter 7 (part 2)
Cofactors
Biotin
• Water soluble Vitamin
• Produced by gut microflora
which supplies ½ RDA
• Deficiencies are rare
• Consuming 6 raw eggs a day can 
cause deficiencies due to the 
presence avidin (biotin binding 
protein). 
Biotin cofactor
•Involved in ATP 
dependent 
carboxylation
rxns
•Covalently bound 
to enzyme 
through amide 
linkage w/lysine
•Impt. Biotin 
enzymes = 
acetyl-CoA 
carboxylase, 
pyruvate 
carboxylase
Folate
• Water soluble vitamin
• Folate impt. during pregnancy to prevent neural 
tube defects in fetus (I.e. spina bifida)
• Vitamin B12 deficiencies cause folate
deficiencies
• Has a poly-glutamate tail formed by gamma-
carboxy and alpha amino groups (unusual peptide 
bond).
pterin
PABA
glutamate
Tetrahydrofolate (THF)
• Folate is converted to THF by the addition of 4 
hydrogens to the pterin ring.
• Impt. in transfer of one-carbon units
• Pterin ring impt. functional group
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