Composites - PowerPoint Presentation, Mechanical engineering, Semester Notes | EduRev

: Composites - PowerPoint Presentation, Mechanical engineering, Semester Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
1 
Page 2


Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
1 
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
2 
What is a composite Material? 
A broad definition of composite is: Two or more chemically distinct 
materials which when combined have improved properties over 
the individual materials. Composites could be natural or synthetic. 
Wood is a good example of a natural composite, combination of cellulose 
fiber and lignin. The cellulose fiber provides strength and the lignin is the 
"glue" that bonds and stabilizes the fiber. 
The ancient Egyptians manufactured composites! Adobe bricks are a good 
example. The combination of mud and straw forms a composite that is 
stronger than either the mud or the straw by itself. 
Bamboo is a very efficient wood composite structure. The components 
are cellulose and lignin, as in all other wood, however bamboo is 
hollow. This results in a very light yet stiff structure. Composite fishing 
poles and golf club shafts copy this natural design. 
Page 3


Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
1 
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
2 
What is a composite Material? 
A broad definition of composite is: Two or more chemically distinct 
materials which when combined have improved properties over 
the individual materials. Composites could be natural or synthetic. 
Wood is a good example of a natural composite, combination of cellulose 
fiber and lignin. The cellulose fiber provides strength and the lignin is the 
"glue" that bonds and stabilizes the fiber. 
The ancient Egyptians manufactured composites! Adobe bricks are a good 
example. The combination of mud and straw forms a composite that is 
stronger than either the mud or the straw by itself. 
Bamboo is a very efficient wood composite structure. The components 
are cellulose and lignin, as in all other wood, however bamboo is 
hollow. This results in a very light yet stiff structure. Composite fishing 
poles and golf club shafts copy this natural design. 
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
3 
Composites 
Composites are combinations of two materials in which one of the material is 
called the reinforcing phase, is in the form of fibers, sheets, or particles, and 
is embedded in the other material called the matrix phase. 
Typically, reinforcing materials are strong with low densities while the 
matrix is usually a ductile or tough material. If the composite is designed 
and fabricated correctly, it combines the strength of the reinforcement with 
the toughness of the matrix to achieve a combination of desirable 
properties not available in any single conventional material. 
Reinforcement: fibers 
Glass 
Carbon 
Organic 
Boron 
Ceramic 
Metallic 
Matrix materials 
Polymers 
Metals 
Ceramics 
Interface 
Bonding 
surface 
Components of composite materials 
Page 4


Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
1 
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
2 
What is a composite Material? 
A broad definition of composite is: Two or more chemically distinct 
materials which when combined have improved properties over 
the individual materials. Composites could be natural or synthetic. 
Wood is a good example of a natural composite, combination of cellulose 
fiber and lignin. The cellulose fiber provides strength and the lignin is the 
"glue" that bonds and stabilizes the fiber. 
The ancient Egyptians manufactured composites! Adobe bricks are a good 
example. The combination of mud and straw forms a composite that is 
stronger than either the mud or the straw by itself. 
Bamboo is a very efficient wood composite structure. The components 
are cellulose and lignin, as in all other wood, however bamboo is 
hollow. This results in a very light yet stiff structure. Composite fishing 
poles and golf club shafts copy this natural design. 
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
3 
Composites 
Composites are combinations of two materials in which one of the material is 
called the reinforcing phase, is in the form of fibers, sheets, or particles, and 
is embedded in the other material called the matrix phase. 
Typically, reinforcing materials are strong with low densities while the 
matrix is usually a ductile or tough material. If the composite is designed 
and fabricated correctly, it combines the strength of the reinforcement with 
the toughness of the matrix to achieve a combination of desirable 
properties not available in any single conventional material. 
Reinforcement: fibers 
Glass 
Carbon 
Organic 
Boron 
Ceramic 
Metallic 
Matrix materials 
Polymers 
Metals 
Ceramics 
Interface 
Bonding 
surface 
Components of composite materials 
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
4 
Composites 
The essence of the concept of composites is that the load is applied 
over a large surface area of the matrix. Matrix then transfers the load 
to the reinforcement, which being stiffer, increases the strength of the 
composite. It is important to note that there are many matrix materials 
and even more fiber types, which can be combined in countless ways 
to produce just the desired properties.  
In the United States, composites manufacturing is a 25 billion dollar 
a year industry. There are about 6000 composites related 
manufacturing plants and materials distributors across the U.S. The 
industry employs more than 235,000 people. An additional 250,000 
people are employed in businesses that support the composites 
industry, including materials suppliers, equipment vendors, and other 
support personnel. 
About 90% of all composites produced are comprised of glass fiber and 
either polyester or vinylester resin. Composites are broadly known as 
reinforced plastics. 
Page 5


Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
1 
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
2 
What is a composite Material? 
A broad definition of composite is: Two or more chemically distinct 
materials which when combined have improved properties over 
the individual materials. Composites could be natural or synthetic. 
Wood is a good example of a natural composite, combination of cellulose 
fiber and lignin. The cellulose fiber provides strength and the lignin is the 
"glue" that bonds and stabilizes the fiber. 
The ancient Egyptians manufactured composites! Adobe bricks are a good 
example. The combination of mud and straw forms a composite that is 
stronger than either the mud or the straw by itself. 
Bamboo is a very efficient wood composite structure. The components 
are cellulose and lignin, as in all other wood, however bamboo is 
hollow. This results in a very light yet stiff structure. Composite fishing 
poles and golf club shafts copy this natural design. 
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
3 
Composites 
Composites are combinations of two materials in which one of the material is 
called the reinforcing phase, is in the form of fibers, sheets, or particles, and 
is embedded in the other material called the matrix phase. 
Typically, reinforcing materials are strong with low densities while the 
matrix is usually a ductile or tough material. If the composite is designed 
and fabricated correctly, it combines the strength of the reinforcement with 
the toughness of the matrix to achieve a combination of desirable 
properties not available in any single conventional material. 
Reinforcement: fibers 
Glass 
Carbon 
Organic 
Boron 
Ceramic 
Metallic 
Matrix materials 
Polymers 
Metals 
Ceramics 
Interface 
Bonding 
surface 
Components of composite materials 
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
4 
Composites 
The essence of the concept of composites is that the load is applied 
over a large surface area of the matrix. Matrix then transfers the load 
to the reinforcement, which being stiffer, increases the strength of the 
composite. It is important to note that there are many matrix materials 
and even more fiber types, which can be combined in countless ways 
to produce just the desired properties.  
In the United States, composites manufacturing is a 25 billion dollar 
a year industry. There are about 6000 composites related 
manufacturing plants and materials distributors across the U.S. The 
industry employs more than 235,000 people. An additional 250,000 
people are employed in businesses that support the composites 
industry, including materials suppliers, equipment vendors, and other 
support personnel. 
About 90% of all composites produced are comprised of glass fiber and 
either polyester or vinylester resin. Composites are broadly known as 
reinforced plastics. 
Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept. 
5 
Composites 
Fibers 
Matrix materials 
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