Computer Languages (CL) - Computer Fundamentals Notes | EduRev

: Computer Languages (CL) - Computer Fundamentals Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 1/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
Page 2


Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 1/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 2/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
In this chapter you will learn about:
§ Computer languages or programming languages
§ Three broad categories of programming languages –
machine, assembly, and high-level languages
§ Commonly used programming language tools such as 
assembler, compiler, linker, and interpreter
§ Concepts of object-oriented programming languages
§ Some popular programming languages such as 
FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C, C++, C#, Java, 
RPG, LISP and SNOBOL
§ Related concepts such as Subprogram, Characteristics of 
a good programming language, and factors to consider 
while selecting a language for coding an application
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
208
Page 3


Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 1/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 2/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
In this chapter you will learn about:
§ Computer languages or programming languages
§ Three broad categories of programming languages –
machine, assembly, and high-level languages
§ Commonly used programming language tools such as 
assembler, compiler, linker, and interpreter
§ Concepts of object-oriented programming languages
§ Some popular programming languages such as 
FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C, C++, C#, Java, 
RPG, LISP and SNOBOL
§ Related concepts such as Subprogram, Characteristics of 
a good programming language, and factors to consider 
while selecting a language for coding an application
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
208
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 3/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
Broad Classification of 
Computer Languages
Broad Classification of 
Computer Languages
§ Machine language
§ Assembly language
§ High-level language
209
Page 4


Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 1/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 2/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
In this chapter you will learn about:
§ Computer languages or programming languages
§ Three broad categories of programming languages –
machine, assembly, and high-level languages
§ Commonly used programming language tools such as 
assembler, compiler, linker, and interpreter
§ Concepts of object-oriented programming languages
§ Some popular programming languages such as 
FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C, C++, C#, Java, 
RPG, LISP and SNOBOL
§ Related concepts such as Subprogram, Characteristics of 
a good programming language, and factors to consider 
while selecting a language for coding an application
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
208
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 3/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
Broad Classification of 
Computer Languages
Broad Classification of 
Computer Languages
§ Machine language
§ Assembly language
§ High-level language
209
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 4/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
Machine Language
Machine Language
§ Only language of a computer understood by it 
without using a translation program
§ Normally written as strings of binary 1s and 0s
§ Written using decimal digits if the circuitry of 
the computer being used permits this
209
Page 5


Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 1/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 2/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
In this chapter you will learn about:
§ Computer languages or programming languages
§ Three broad categories of programming languages –
machine, assembly, and high-level languages
§ Commonly used programming language tools such as 
assembler, compiler, linker, and interpreter
§ Concepts of object-oriented programming languages
§ Some popular programming languages such as 
FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C, C++, C#, Java, 
RPG, LISP and SNOBOL
§ Related concepts such as Subprogram, Characteristics of 
a good programming language, and factors to consider 
while selecting a language for coding an application
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
208
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 3/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
Broad Classification of 
Computer Languages
Broad Classification of 
Computer Languages
§ Machine language
§ Assembly language
§ High-level language
209
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 4/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
Machine Language
Machine Language
§ Only language of a computer understood by it 
without using a translation program
§ Normally written as strings of binary 1s and 0s
§ Written using decimal digits if the circuitry of 
the computer being used permits this
209
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 5/59 Chapter 12: Computer Languages Ref Page 
A Typical Machine Language 
Instruction Format
A Typical Machine Language 
Instruction Format
§ OPCODE tells the computer which operation to perform 
from the instruction set of the computer
§ OPERAND tells the address of the data on which the 
operation is to be performed
OPCODE
(operation code)
OPERAND
(Address/Location)
210
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