Controlled Yielding to Reduce Lateral Earth Pressures behind Rigid Retaining Walls Notes | EduRev

: Controlled Yielding to Reduce Lateral Earth Pressures behind Rigid Retaining Walls Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


GEOSYNTHETICS AND 
REINFORCED SOIL STRUCTURES REINFORCED SOIL STRUCTURES
CONTROLLED YIELDING TO REDUCE
LATERAL EARTH PRESSURES
BEHIND RIGID RETAINING WALLS
Prof K. Rajagopal
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036
e mail: gopalkr@iitm ac in e-mail: gopalkr@iitm.ac.in
Page 2


GEOSYNTHETICS AND 
REINFORCED SOIL STRUCTURES REINFORCED SOIL STRUCTURES
CONTROLLED YIELDING TO REDUCE
LATERAL EARTH PRESSURES
BEHIND RIGID RETAINING WALLS
Prof K. Rajagopal
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036
e mail: gopalkr@iitm ac in e-mail: gopalkr@iitm.ac.in
TYPES OF EARTH PRESSURES
•at rest
ti •active
•passive
•compaction induced (critical for bridge 
abutments)
Normally, free standing walls are designed for active 
conditions assuming that outward lateral deformations g
will take place during or immediately after construction
Controlled Yielding Technique 2/64
Page 3


GEOSYNTHETICS AND 
REINFORCED SOIL STRUCTURES REINFORCED SOIL STRUCTURES
CONTROLLED YIELDING TO REDUCE
LATERAL EARTH PRESSURES
BEHIND RIGID RETAINING WALLS
Prof K. Rajagopal
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036
e mail: gopalkr@iitm ac in e-mail: gopalkr@iitm.ac.in
TYPES OF EARTH PRESSURES
•at rest
ti •active
•passive
•compaction induced (critical for bridge 
abutments)
Normally, free standing walls are designed for active 
conditions assuming that outward lateral deformations g
will take place during or immediately after construction
Controlled Yielding Technique 2/64
retaining wall
b kfill backfill
Development of active conditions Development of active conditions
Controlled Yielding Technique
3/64
Page 4


GEOSYNTHETICS AND 
REINFORCED SOIL STRUCTURES REINFORCED SOIL STRUCTURES
CONTROLLED YIELDING TO REDUCE
LATERAL EARTH PRESSURES
BEHIND RIGID RETAINING WALLS
Prof K. Rajagopal
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036
e mail: gopalkr@iitm ac in e-mail: gopalkr@iitm.ac.in
TYPES OF EARTH PRESSURES
•at rest
ti •active
•passive
•compaction induced (critical for bridge 
abutments)
Normally, free standing walls are designed for active 
conditions assuming that outward lateral deformations g
will take place during or immediately after construction
Controlled Yielding Technique 2/64
retaining wall
b kfill backfill
Development of active conditions Development of active conditions
Controlled Yielding Technique
3/64
Design Pressures
• Active conditions are used for design
• Compaction induced stresses are to be accounted for • Compaction induced stresses are to be accounted for
Compaction Induced Stresses Compaction Induced Stresses
• Locked in lateral stresses due to compaction • Locked-in lateral stresses due to compaction
• Magnitude depends on 
type of soil ----- type of soil, 
----- mode of compaction,
compaction pressures ----- compaction pressures
Controlled Yielding Technique 4/64
Page 5


GEOSYNTHETICS AND 
REINFORCED SOIL STRUCTURES REINFORCED SOIL STRUCTURES
CONTROLLED YIELDING TO REDUCE
LATERAL EARTH PRESSURES
BEHIND RIGID RETAINING WALLS
Prof K. Rajagopal
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036
e mail: gopalkr@iitm ac in e-mail: gopalkr@iitm.ac.in
TYPES OF EARTH PRESSURES
•at rest
ti •active
•passive
•compaction induced (critical for bridge 
abutments)
Normally, free standing walls are designed for active 
conditions assuming that outward lateral deformations g
will take place during or immediately after construction
Controlled Yielding Technique 2/64
retaining wall
b kfill backfill
Development of active conditions Development of active conditions
Controlled Yielding Technique
3/64
Design Pressures
• Active conditions are used for design
• Compaction induced stresses are to be accounted for • Compaction induced stresses are to be accounted for
Compaction Induced Stresses Compaction Induced Stresses
• Locked in lateral stresses due to compaction • Locked-in lateral stresses due to compaction
• Magnitude depends on 
type of soil ----- type of soil, 
----- mode of compaction,
compaction pressures ----- compaction pressures
Controlled Yielding Technique 4/64
How to get active condition?
By allowing small lateral movements of the retaining wall 
away from the soil y
Amount of lateral deformation depends on
•The Shear strength properties of the soil (c , ? )
M d l f th il •Modulus of the soil 
•Mode of wall deformation 
Translation
Rotation about toe Rotation about toe
Rotation about top
Hi ht fth t i i ll •Height of the retaining wall
Controlled Yielding Technique
5/64
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