8.1. PAIKA REBELLION
Why in news?
Recently the Minister of Human Resource Development announced that Paika Rebellion will be renamed as
“First War of Independence”.
History of Paika Bidroha
- The Paika rebellion took place in 1817 in Khurda, Odisha.
- Paikas were the peasant militias of the Gajapati rulers of Odisha who rendered military service to the kingduring times of war while taking up cultivation during times of peace.
- The armies of the East India Company overran Odisha in 1803 after establishing their sway over Bengal Province and Madras Province. The Raja of Khurda lost his primacy and the power and prestige of the Paikas went on a decline.
- But in 1817 Paikas rebelled against the British under the leadership of Baxi Jagandhu Bidyadhara, hereditary chief of militia army to throw off the British yoke.
- It ended with the surrender of Jagandbandhu in 1825.
Arguments for declaring it as first war of Independence
- Pluralistic people’s movement: The revolt initially was localised to Khurda but it later spread to Ghumusar (part of present day Ganjam and Kandhmal Districts) , Kanika, Kujang, Nayagarh and Ghumusar. Further zamindars, tribals village heads and ordinary peasants participated in the movement.
- The Paikas attacked British symbols of power, setting ablaze police stations, administrative offices and the treasury during their march towards Khurda, from where the British fled.
- Limited Geographical spread: The Paika rebellion although spectacular, is little known outside Odisha. Therewas little or no participation by people outside Odisha.
- Essentially a tribal revolt led by Jaganbandhu Bidyadhara as traditional rights of tribals and rights to rentfree lands were revoked by Britishers.
- Chronologically not the first: Even before the Paika rebellion of 1817 there had been Sanyasi revolt in Bengal in early 18th century, Chuar uprisings of Bengal and Bihar from 1766, rebellion by Dewan Velu Thampiof Travancore in 1805 and rebellion of Taluqdars of Aligarh in 1814 to name a few.
- A localised idea of Independence: The historians have not named any rebellion before 1857 as war ofindependence because the rebels did not consciously fight the British to win freedom for India. Their idea ofindependence was local as they wanted the restoration of the reign of local rulers because their ownprivileges flowed from them.
- Comparison with the 1857 revolt: Paika revolt does not match the scale and impact of 1857 revolt which spread all over North India, as also in parts of Central and Western India.
- Political interference in history writing: The gradation or creating a hierarchy of rebellions say Paika or any other due to political reasons undermines the role that other struggle’s played in India’s independence and sets a very wrong precedent.
8.2. WORLD MONUMENTS FUND NAMES 25 AT-RISK CULTURAL SITES
Why in news?
World Monuments Fund has placed 25 cultural heritage sites spanning 30 countries on its 2018 World Monuments Watch list.
|World Monument Fund (WMF) |
It is a private nonprofit organization founded in 1965 by individuals concerned about the accelerating destruction of important artistic treasures throughout the world.
Through its programme World Monuments Watch it aims to identify imperiled cultural heritage sites and direct financial and technical support for their preservation.
|Other major Post Independence architectural Marvels |
- Urban planning of Chandigarh by French architect Le Corbusier with hierarchy of roads and many Green belts
- Mass housing projects of Laurie Baker in Kerala using locally available materials and construct buildings so as to merge them with environment.
- Architectural marvels of Charles Correa which includes Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Museum at the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad, Jawahar Kala Kendra in Jaipur, New Bombay with special emphasis on prevailing resources, energy and climate as major determinants in the ordering of space.
- Putting the heritage sites on watch list means that they are currently threatened by conflict, climate change, or other dangers.
- The sites include storm-ravaged areas in the Caribbean, the Gulf, and Mexico, and the Souk in Aleppo, Syria, which has been damaged in the country’s ongoing civil war.
- From India “Post-Independence Architecture of Delhi” has been identified for preservation.
- It came to light after demolition of Hall of Nations building without even waiting for the court hearing for the same. The building was constructed in 1972 by famous architect Raj Rewal.
- Post -independence architecture in Delhi comprise government and other public buildings, corporate and institutional offices, hotels, as well as religious shrines, sports facilities, and residential buildings. They are the works of legendary Indian architects, including Achyut Kanvinde, Shivnath Prasad, Charles Correa, Kuldip Singh, and Raj Rewal, as well as foreign-born architects such as Joseph Allen Stein.
8.3. ADOPT A HERITAGE SCHEME
Why in news?
Recently seven companies were chosen for conservation of fourteen monuments under ‘Adopt a Heritage
Details of Adopt a heritage Scheme/ Apni Dharohar Apni Pehchan Project
- It is a scheme of Ministry of Tourism in collaboration with Ministry of Culture and Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).
- Under this Private Sector Companies, Public Sector Companies and Corporate individuals are invited to adopt the heritage sites.
- They would be called “Monument Mitras” and activities taken up by would be counted as a CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) initiative.
- It envisages developing monuments, heritage and tourist sites across India and making them tourist friendly to enhance their tourism potential and cultural importance to make them more sustainable.
- The scope of activities included under this are development and maintenance of world-class tourist infrastructure and amenities which includes basic civic amenities and advanced amenities like Cleanliness, Public Conveniences, Ease of access, secure environment, illumination and night viewing facilities for an overall inclusive tourist experience.
8.4. INTERNATIONAL DIALOGUE ON CIVILISATION
Why in news?
Recently, fourth International dialogue on Civilisation was conducted in New Delhi.
About the Dialogue of Civilisation
- Dialogue of Civilisation was initiated by National Geographic society in 2013 to
- encourage scholarly and public discourse about five ancient, literate civilisations of the world and
- study the impact of past on the present and future.
- Civilisations to be studied were:
- Mesopotamian Civilisation
- South Asian Civilisation
- Chinese Civilisation
- Mesoamerican Civilisation
- Formed on the banks of Tigris and Euphrates in present day Iran and Kuwait.
- Began during the Neolithic Period of around 12000BCE
- Important Mesopotamian civilisation included Sumerian, Assyrian, Akkadian, and Babylonian civilizations.
According to evidences Civilisation used technology, had established religion, literature, legal codes,
philosophy and had external trade relations.
South Asian Civilisation
- Developed on the banks of river Indus and its tributaries.
- Began to flourish during the Chalcolithic period.
- Most important South Asian civilisation was Harappan Civilisation.
- According to findings the civilisation had
- Elaborate city planning
- A well-established economy based on trade
- Advanced agriculture, pottery making, seal making etc.
- They worshipped Pasupati and mother goddess
- Believed in life after death and had elaborate burial procedure
- Developed on the banks of Yellow river in 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE and Yangtze River before 5000 BCE. (Neolithic Era)
- They worshipped nature.
- Flourished in parts of Mexico and Central America in about 21000BCE.