Culture: December 2020 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

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Current Affairs : Culture: December 2020 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


	
75	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
8.	CULTURE	
8.1.	INDIA’S	TRADITIONAL	TOYS	
Why in news? 
Recently, the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry 
has EXEMPTED HANDICRAFT and Geographical Indications (GI) TOYS from QUALITY CONTROL ORDER to fulfill 
the vision of making India a global manufacturing hub for sale & exports of toys.  
Status of Indian Toy industry 
• India’s toy market stands at around $450-500 mn around 0.5% of the world toy market which is pegged at 
around $ 90 bn.  
o Also, India has one of the largest young population in the world, owing to which, the toy industry in the 
country has witnessed a rapid growth. 
• Till the 1980s, most of the toy used in India were made in India itself. However, the opening up of the economy 
in 1991 changed this as made in China toys began to flood the market. 
• Currently, 80% of Indian toys are Chinese imports and non-branded Chinese toys account for 90% of India's 
market. 
o China manufactures almost 75% of the world’s toys. 
About India’s traditional toys  
• India is an old playground of a myriad of toys made from a variety of materials like wood, polymer, cloth, 
fibre, wood pulp, rubber and metal. 
• India has a rich culture of storytelling through its toys which show a perspective of life. 
• Historically, Indian toys date back to 5000 years. The excavated toys and dolls found in Harappa and 
Mohenjo-Daro included small carts, dancing woman, etc. 
o Some of the traditional toy manufacturing hubs are Channapatna in Karnataka, Chitrakoot in Uttar 
Pradesh, Kondapalli in Andhra Pradesh and Budni-Rewa in Madhya Pradesh. 
• Traditional toy sector is eco-friendly (they are made up of natural products like clay papers, wood, vegetable 
colours etc.) 
• Under the 'Vocal for Local' slogan and the 'Aatmanirbhar Bharat' campaign, the government is exploring 
opportunities to tap the potential of the sector. 
Name State Description 
Channapatna toy Karnataka Mysore ruler Tipu Sultan, impressed by a lacquer-coated wooden artifact he received 
as a gift from Persia in the 18th century, invited Persian artisans to India to train the 
people in his realm. 
Kinnal toys Karnataka These are wood toys depicting mostly Hindu gods and goddesses. 
Kondapalli toys Andhra 
Pradesh 
Also Known as Bommala Koluvu (Dasara dolls) are made in Kondapalli of Krishna 
district, Andhra Pradesh. The style of these toys is a mix of Islamic and Rajasthani art, 
popular for their realistic expressions. 
Etikoppaka Toys Andhra 
Pradesh 
Etikoppaka Toys are made of soft wood and lacquer color. Coloured with natural dyes 
derived from seeds, lacquer, roots and leaves. The way of toy making is also known as 
turned wood lacquer craft. 
Nirmal toys Telangana The style of Nirmal toys of Telangana is a beautiful assimilation Ajanta floral and Mughal 
miniature. 
Thanjavur Golu 
Dolls 
Tamil Nadu Thanjavur Dancing Dolls, traditionally known as Thanjavur Thalaiyatti Bommai, are a 
part of an eclectic heritage of beautiful handicrafts from Tanjore. 
Laiphadibi Manipur Laiphadibi or doll is a feminine image of god made from shabby clothes. From being a 
play thing to being an integral part of rituals, these dolls, popularly called laidhibi, are 
treated as living spirits. 
Asharikandi 
Terracotta Toys 
Assam These are similar to terracotta of Harappan civilization. They are made in Asharikandi 
(Madaikhali) craft village, Assam which is the single largest cluster where both 
Terracotta and Pottery crafts are found and practiced in traditional way. 
Page 2


	
75	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
8.	CULTURE	
8.1.	INDIA’S	TRADITIONAL	TOYS	
Why in news? 
Recently, the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry 
has EXEMPTED HANDICRAFT and Geographical Indications (GI) TOYS from QUALITY CONTROL ORDER to fulfill 
the vision of making India a global manufacturing hub for sale & exports of toys.  
Status of Indian Toy industry 
• India’s toy market stands at around $450-500 mn around 0.5% of the world toy market which is pegged at 
around $ 90 bn.  
o Also, India has one of the largest young population in the world, owing to which, the toy industry in the 
country has witnessed a rapid growth. 
• Till the 1980s, most of the toy used in India were made in India itself. However, the opening up of the economy 
in 1991 changed this as made in China toys began to flood the market. 
• Currently, 80% of Indian toys are Chinese imports and non-branded Chinese toys account for 90% of India's 
market. 
o China manufactures almost 75% of the world’s toys. 
About India’s traditional toys  
• India is an old playground of a myriad of toys made from a variety of materials like wood, polymer, cloth, 
fibre, wood pulp, rubber and metal. 
• India has a rich culture of storytelling through its toys which show a perspective of life. 
• Historically, Indian toys date back to 5000 years. The excavated toys and dolls found in Harappa and 
Mohenjo-Daro included small carts, dancing woman, etc. 
o Some of the traditional toy manufacturing hubs are Channapatna in Karnataka, Chitrakoot in Uttar 
Pradesh, Kondapalli in Andhra Pradesh and Budni-Rewa in Madhya Pradesh. 
• Traditional toy sector is eco-friendly (they are made up of natural products like clay papers, wood, vegetable 
colours etc.) 
• Under the 'Vocal for Local' slogan and the 'Aatmanirbhar Bharat' campaign, the government is exploring 
opportunities to tap the potential of the sector. 
Name State Description 
Channapatna toy Karnataka Mysore ruler Tipu Sultan, impressed by a lacquer-coated wooden artifact he received 
as a gift from Persia in the 18th century, invited Persian artisans to India to train the 
people in his realm. 
Kinnal toys Karnataka These are wood toys depicting mostly Hindu gods and goddesses. 
Kondapalli toys Andhra 
Pradesh 
Also Known as Bommala Koluvu (Dasara dolls) are made in Kondapalli of Krishna 
district, Andhra Pradesh. The style of these toys is a mix of Islamic and Rajasthani art, 
popular for their realistic expressions. 
Etikoppaka Toys Andhra 
Pradesh 
Etikoppaka Toys are made of soft wood and lacquer color. Coloured with natural dyes 
derived from seeds, lacquer, roots and leaves. The way of toy making is also known as 
turned wood lacquer craft. 
Nirmal toys Telangana The style of Nirmal toys of Telangana is a beautiful assimilation Ajanta floral and Mughal 
miniature. 
Thanjavur Golu 
Dolls 
Tamil Nadu Thanjavur Dancing Dolls, traditionally known as Thanjavur Thalaiyatti Bommai, are a 
part of an eclectic heritage of beautiful handicrafts from Tanjore. 
Laiphadibi Manipur Laiphadibi or doll is a feminine image of god made from shabby clothes. From being a 
play thing to being an integral part of rituals, these dolls, popularly called laidhibi, are 
treated as living spirits. 
Asharikandi 
Terracotta Toys 
Assam These are similar to terracotta of Harappan civilization. They are made in Asharikandi 
(Madaikhali) craft village, Assam which is the single largest cluster where both 
Terracotta and Pottery crafts are found and practiced in traditional way. 
	
76	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
Other traditional 
toys  
 
 • Odisha’s Sambalpur toys and paper mache and stone toys;  
• Bihar’s Kanyaputri Dolls and Sikki work;   
• Uttar Pradesh’s Wooden toys of Varanasi;  
• West Bengal’s Natungram Dolls. 
• Tamil Nadu’s Choppu saman  
• Gujarat’s Thigda dhingla  
• Punjab’s chankana (a toy with a whistle), ghuggu (rattle box for babies), lattoo 
(spinning top), handwai (kitchen sets)  
• Maharashtra’s Bhatukali miniature kitchen sets and Sawantwadi toys 
What are the factors that have diminished India’s toy Industry?  
• Competition from Chinese toys: The assembly line production of Chinese toys makes them far less expensive 
than the traditional toys, which are hand-crafted and hand painted. Even though traditional toys are said to 
be more durable and safer for children (as they are coloured with vegetable dyes), the Chinese varieties rule 
the market. 
o Also procurement of raw material like lacquer is very costly. 
• Fractured industry: Indian toy industry is fractured, with just 3% of the 4,000-odd manufacturers being large-
scale players, about 75% are micro units and 22% small and medium enterprises. 
• Lack of innovation:  Traditional artisans, generally, produce the same set of toys without any innovation. As 
a result the new and attractive designs and colours of the Chinese products score over these toys. 
• Inability to deliver the bulk order: Traditional artisans lack the capacity for bulk production which usually 
come with a short notification. 
• High Tax: Traditional toys attract 12% Goods and Services Tax (GST). This makes it very difficult to scale up 
the production. 
• Quality issue: Making traditional toy is not only labour intensive but also time consuming. But, to save time, 
some artisan compromise with quality. Moreover, a few artisans also use chemical dyes, which are 
considered harmful for children, instead of vegetable colours.  As a result, some consignments fail to make 
the export quality grade. 
• Impact of COVID-19 pandemic: The lockdown worsened the woes of the toy makers. Merchants who used 
to come from different parts of the country are not showing up. Even exhibitions and fairs across the country 
remain closed. As a result demand has slumped to almost zero. 
What needs to be done to revive toy industry 
of India?  
• Workshops on design innovation: This 
need to be carried out to ensure artisan 
make products which have demand in the 
market. Also it should be ensured that 
designs introduced by the handicrafts 
department authorities and the prototypes 
approved by them translate into a market 
for the artisans. 
• Recalibrate the approach of skill 
development for the artisans: Artisans say 
that they are given short-term training by 
the skill development corporation. Training 
for 15 days to three months is not 
sufficient. At least a year of training is 
required for professional expertise in the 
craft. 
• Financial support and policy changes: 
Subsidies, interest-free loans, scientific 
development of the industry, market 
What other steps are being taken by the government to revive toy 
industry of India? 
• Nudging people for ‘Made in India’ toy: Recently, Prime 
Minister pitched for using “Made in India toys” to make 
country AtmaNirbhar by harnessing the economic potential 
of India’s toy Industry and making India a manufacturing hub 
for toys.  
• Toycathon-2021: It was recently launched which is a special 
kind of hackathon organised by the Centre.  
o It aims to promote indigenous toy industry and reduce 
imports.  
o It provides students and teachers, design experts, toy 
experts and start-ups a platform to get together to crowd 
source ideas for developing toys and games that are 
based on Indian culture, ethos, folklores, heroes and 
value systems. 
• National Education Policy (NEP) 2020: As part of the school 
curriculum, toy- making will be introduced to students from 
the sixth standard onwards. This will be done through 
workshops, visits to manufacturing factories as well as 
through local craftsmen. 
• Centre is working on a comprehensive plan to boost 
development, production and sale of indigenous toys. 
 
Page 3


	
75	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
8.	CULTURE	
8.1.	INDIA’S	TRADITIONAL	TOYS	
Why in news? 
Recently, the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry 
has EXEMPTED HANDICRAFT and Geographical Indications (GI) TOYS from QUALITY CONTROL ORDER to fulfill 
the vision of making India a global manufacturing hub for sale & exports of toys.  
Status of Indian Toy industry 
• India’s toy market stands at around $450-500 mn around 0.5% of the world toy market which is pegged at 
around $ 90 bn.  
o Also, India has one of the largest young population in the world, owing to which, the toy industry in the 
country has witnessed a rapid growth. 
• Till the 1980s, most of the toy used in India were made in India itself. However, the opening up of the economy 
in 1991 changed this as made in China toys began to flood the market. 
• Currently, 80% of Indian toys are Chinese imports and non-branded Chinese toys account for 90% of India's 
market. 
o China manufactures almost 75% of the world’s toys. 
About India’s traditional toys  
• India is an old playground of a myriad of toys made from a variety of materials like wood, polymer, cloth, 
fibre, wood pulp, rubber and metal. 
• India has a rich culture of storytelling through its toys which show a perspective of life. 
• Historically, Indian toys date back to 5000 years. The excavated toys and dolls found in Harappa and 
Mohenjo-Daro included small carts, dancing woman, etc. 
o Some of the traditional toy manufacturing hubs are Channapatna in Karnataka, Chitrakoot in Uttar 
Pradesh, Kondapalli in Andhra Pradesh and Budni-Rewa in Madhya Pradesh. 
• Traditional toy sector is eco-friendly (they are made up of natural products like clay papers, wood, vegetable 
colours etc.) 
• Under the 'Vocal for Local' slogan and the 'Aatmanirbhar Bharat' campaign, the government is exploring 
opportunities to tap the potential of the sector. 
Name State Description 
Channapatna toy Karnataka Mysore ruler Tipu Sultan, impressed by a lacquer-coated wooden artifact he received 
as a gift from Persia in the 18th century, invited Persian artisans to India to train the 
people in his realm. 
Kinnal toys Karnataka These are wood toys depicting mostly Hindu gods and goddesses. 
Kondapalli toys Andhra 
Pradesh 
Also Known as Bommala Koluvu (Dasara dolls) are made in Kondapalli of Krishna 
district, Andhra Pradesh. The style of these toys is a mix of Islamic and Rajasthani art, 
popular for their realistic expressions. 
Etikoppaka Toys Andhra 
Pradesh 
Etikoppaka Toys are made of soft wood and lacquer color. Coloured with natural dyes 
derived from seeds, lacquer, roots and leaves. The way of toy making is also known as 
turned wood lacquer craft. 
Nirmal toys Telangana The style of Nirmal toys of Telangana is a beautiful assimilation Ajanta floral and Mughal 
miniature. 
Thanjavur Golu 
Dolls 
Tamil Nadu Thanjavur Dancing Dolls, traditionally known as Thanjavur Thalaiyatti Bommai, are a 
part of an eclectic heritage of beautiful handicrafts from Tanjore. 
Laiphadibi Manipur Laiphadibi or doll is a feminine image of god made from shabby clothes. From being a 
play thing to being an integral part of rituals, these dolls, popularly called laidhibi, are 
treated as living spirits. 
Asharikandi 
Terracotta Toys 
Assam These are similar to terracotta of Harappan civilization. They are made in Asharikandi 
(Madaikhali) craft village, Assam which is the single largest cluster where both 
Terracotta and Pottery crafts are found and practiced in traditional way. 
	
76	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
Other traditional 
toys  
 
 • Odisha’s Sambalpur toys and paper mache and stone toys;  
• Bihar’s Kanyaputri Dolls and Sikki work;   
• Uttar Pradesh’s Wooden toys of Varanasi;  
• West Bengal’s Natungram Dolls. 
• Tamil Nadu’s Choppu saman  
• Gujarat’s Thigda dhingla  
• Punjab’s chankana (a toy with a whistle), ghuggu (rattle box for babies), lattoo 
(spinning top), handwai (kitchen sets)  
• Maharashtra’s Bhatukali miniature kitchen sets and Sawantwadi toys 
What are the factors that have diminished India’s toy Industry?  
• Competition from Chinese toys: The assembly line production of Chinese toys makes them far less expensive 
than the traditional toys, which are hand-crafted and hand painted. Even though traditional toys are said to 
be more durable and safer for children (as they are coloured with vegetable dyes), the Chinese varieties rule 
the market. 
o Also procurement of raw material like lacquer is very costly. 
• Fractured industry: Indian toy industry is fractured, with just 3% of the 4,000-odd manufacturers being large-
scale players, about 75% are micro units and 22% small and medium enterprises. 
• Lack of innovation:  Traditional artisans, generally, produce the same set of toys without any innovation. As 
a result the new and attractive designs and colours of the Chinese products score over these toys. 
• Inability to deliver the bulk order: Traditional artisans lack the capacity for bulk production which usually 
come with a short notification. 
• High Tax: Traditional toys attract 12% Goods and Services Tax (GST). This makes it very difficult to scale up 
the production. 
• Quality issue: Making traditional toy is not only labour intensive but also time consuming. But, to save time, 
some artisan compromise with quality. Moreover, a few artisans also use chemical dyes, which are 
considered harmful for children, instead of vegetable colours.  As a result, some consignments fail to make 
the export quality grade. 
• Impact of COVID-19 pandemic: The lockdown worsened the woes of the toy makers. Merchants who used 
to come from different parts of the country are not showing up. Even exhibitions and fairs across the country 
remain closed. As a result demand has slumped to almost zero. 
What needs to be done to revive toy industry 
of India?  
• Workshops on design innovation: This 
need to be carried out to ensure artisan 
make products which have demand in the 
market. Also it should be ensured that 
designs introduced by the handicrafts 
department authorities and the prototypes 
approved by them translate into a market 
for the artisans. 
• Recalibrate the approach of skill 
development for the artisans: Artisans say 
that they are given short-term training by 
the skill development corporation. Training 
for 15 days to three months is not 
sufficient. At least a year of training is 
required for professional expertise in the 
craft. 
• Financial support and policy changes: 
Subsidies, interest-free loans, scientific 
development of the industry, market 
What other steps are being taken by the government to revive toy 
industry of India? 
• Nudging people for ‘Made in India’ toy: Recently, Prime 
Minister pitched for using “Made in India toys” to make 
country AtmaNirbhar by harnessing the economic potential 
of India’s toy Industry and making India a manufacturing hub 
for toys.  
• Toycathon-2021: It was recently launched which is a special 
kind of hackathon organised by the Centre.  
o It aims to promote indigenous toy industry and reduce 
imports.  
o It provides students and teachers, design experts, toy 
experts and start-ups a platform to get together to crowd 
source ideas for developing toys and games that are 
based on Indian culture, ethos, folklores, heroes and 
value systems. 
• National Education Policy (NEP) 2020: As part of the school 
curriculum, toy- making will be introduced to students from 
the sixth standard onwards. This will be done through 
workshops, visits to manufacturing factories as well as 
through local craftsmen. 
• Centre is working on a comprehensive plan to boost 
development, production and sale of indigenous toys. 
 
	
77	 																																																																														www.visionias.in																																																																								©Vision	IAS		
interventions, low taxation regime and official supply of the costly raw material would ensure the industry’s 
growth and competitiveness.  
• Branding: Toys made of plastic and other hazardous material are being replaced by wooden toys and toys 
made of other non-hazardous material. This provides wooden toy-makers a great opportunity. Good 
marketing and branding will go a long way in reviving traditional toy industry.  
Conclusion 
India is home to 25% of the world’s children aged between 0 and 12 years. Domestic demand is, therefore, huge. 
There is a huge potential for penetration in the global market as well. India has a rich history and culture when it 
comes to toy making. Time is right to capitalize on its wide variety of traditional and unique toys. 
8.2.	JYOTIBA	PHULE	
Why in news? 
Recently 130
th
 death anniversary was observed. 
About Jyotiba phule 
• Jyotirao ‘Jyotiba’ Govindrao Phule was a prominent social reformer and thinker of the nineteenth century 
India. He was born in Satara district of Maharastra in 1827. His family belonged to 'mali' caste of gardeners 
and vegetable farmers.  
• At the age of thirteen years, Jyotirao was married to Savitribai. 
• After reading Thomas Paine's famous book 'The Rights of Man'(1791), Jyotirao was greatly influenced by his 
ideas. He believed that enlightenment of the women and lower caste people were the only solution to 
combat the social evils. 
• He was bestowed with the title of Mahatma by Vithalrao Krishnaji Vandekar in 1988 and passed away in 
1890. 
• Efforts Towards social reform 
o Education: Phule suggested compulsory, universal and creative education.  
§ He and his wife Savitrirao Phule opened the first-ever school for Dalit girls at Bhide Wada, Pune, in 
1848. 
ü The curriculum of the school was based on western education and included mathematics, science 
and social studies. 
ü Savitribai took a teachers' training course and became a qualified teacher in 1847. 
o Women empowerment: Jyotiba believed in the equality of men and women. He stressed on women's 
education and emancipation of women. He brought women in public life. He strongly opposed social evils 
like Child marriage and Female infanticide. 
§ In 1863, Jyotirao and Savitribai started the first-ever infanticide prohibition home in India called 
Balhatya Pratibandhak Griha. It helped pregnant Brahmin widows and rape victims deliver children. 
o Widow Remarriage: Jyotiba realised the pathetic conditions of widows and established an ashram for 
young widows and eventually became advocate of the idea of Widow Remarriage. 
o Against Caste System: In the 19th century, Jyotiba Phule was the most radical opponent of untouchability 
and the caste system as he called for the complete demolition of its oppressive structure.  
§ He was the first person to coin the term ‘Dalits’ to apply to all people considered lower caste and 
untouchables.  
§ He condemned the Vedas and held Brahmins responsible for framing exploitative and inhuman laws 
in order to maintain their social superiority. 
§ He was a source of inspiration for Maharshi Shinde, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, Gadgebaba and Sahu 
Maharaj. 
• Association: In 1873, he formed the Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth) in Pune. It was a social 
reform society that fought for equal rights for the depressed classes. The community included Muslims, non-
Brahmins, Brahmins and government officials.  
• Literary work: He wrote 16 books that contributed to the social awakening of the dowtrodden masses who 
were subject to the atrocities of the upper castes and the British administrators at that time. His notable 
published works are Brahmanacha Kasab (1969), Gulamgiri (1873), Shetkaryancha Asud (1883), Sarvajanik 
Satyadharma Pustak (1891), Asprushyanchi Kaifiyat (1893) 
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