Culture: January 2021 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly

Current Affairs : Culture: January 2021 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
76                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
8. CULTURE 
8.1. CAVE PAINTINGS 
Why in news? 
Recently, World’s oldest known cave painting (painted at least 45,500 years ago) was found in the limestone cave 
of Leang Tedongnge, Indonesia.  
More about News 
• This cave painting uncovered in South Sulawesi consists of a life-sized depiction of a warty pig.   
• The previously oldest dated rock art ‘scene’ at least 43,900 years old, was a depiction of hybrid human-animal 
beings hunting Sulawesi warty pigs and dwarf bovids. 
Cave paintings in India 
• In India the earliest paintings have been reported from the Upper Paleolithic times.  
o These cave paintings are manifestations of the cognitive development of the hominins. Most are 
Mesolithic cave 
paintings. 
o There is no concrete 
information if Lower 
Paleolithic people 
ever produced any 
art objects. 
• The first discovery of rock 
paintings was made in 
India in 1867–68 by 
Archibold Carlleyle at Sohagihat in the Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh.  
o The caves of Bhimbetka were discovered in 1957–58 by eminent archaeologist V.S. Wakankar. 
• Distribution of prehistoric cave paintings: Such Cave paintings sites have been reported throughout India in 
different geological, geographical and climatic zone s. But the richest paintings are reported from the Vindhya 
ranges of Madhya Pradesh and their Kaimurean extensions into Uttar Pradesh.  
o These hill ranges are full of Palaeolithic and Mesolithic remains.  
o The colours of these paintings have remained intact because of the chemical reaction of the oxide present 
on the surface of the rocks. 
• Techniques used in paintings:  
o In pre-historic paintings, the rock of mineral was first ground into a powder. This may then have been 
mixed with water and also with some thick or sticky substance such as animal fat or gum or resin from 
trees. Brushes were made of plant fibre. 
o In the later historic paintings, mainly the Fresco-secco technique was used. Here, pigments mixed with 
an organic binder and/or lime are applied onto a dry plaster (in Fresco-buno, pigments are applied in a 
wet wall. This technique was adopted in Italy). 
Salient features of prehistoric cave painting 
• The paintings here can be divided into three categories man, animal and geometric. There are more animal figures 
than human figures.  
o Humans are represented in stick-like forms. Wavy lines, rectangle-filled geometric designs, and groups of dots 
can also be seen. 
• Depiction of day-to-day life like hunting, dancing was the main theme of these paintings. 
• Various shades of white, yellow, orange, red ochre, purple, brown, green and black colours were used. 
• A few are wash paintings but mostly they are filled with geometric patterns. 
• There is some superimposition of paintings. It might be possible that these caves were painted one above the other 
for generations. 
• Because of their richness, varied themes, forms, styles and antiquity, the rock paintings of central India have become 
the synonym of Indian rock paintings. 
Page 2


 
76                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
8. CULTURE 
8.1. CAVE PAINTINGS 
Why in news? 
Recently, World’s oldest known cave painting (painted at least 45,500 years ago) was found in the limestone cave 
of Leang Tedongnge, Indonesia.  
More about News 
• This cave painting uncovered in South Sulawesi consists of a life-sized depiction of a warty pig.   
• The previously oldest dated rock art ‘scene’ at least 43,900 years old, was a depiction of hybrid human-animal 
beings hunting Sulawesi warty pigs and dwarf bovids. 
Cave paintings in India 
• In India the earliest paintings have been reported from the Upper Paleolithic times.  
o These cave paintings are manifestations of the cognitive development of the hominins. Most are 
Mesolithic cave 
paintings. 
o There is no concrete 
information if Lower 
Paleolithic people 
ever produced any 
art objects. 
• The first discovery of rock 
paintings was made in 
India in 1867–68 by 
Archibold Carlleyle at Sohagihat in the Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh.  
o The caves of Bhimbetka were discovered in 1957–58 by eminent archaeologist V.S. Wakankar. 
• Distribution of prehistoric cave paintings: Such Cave paintings sites have been reported throughout India in 
different geological, geographical and climatic zone s. But the richest paintings are reported from the Vindhya 
ranges of Madhya Pradesh and their Kaimurean extensions into Uttar Pradesh.  
o These hill ranges are full of Palaeolithic and Mesolithic remains.  
o The colours of these paintings have remained intact because of the chemical reaction of the oxide present 
on the surface of the rocks. 
• Techniques used in paintings:  
o In pre-historic paintings, the rock of mineral was first ground into a powder. This may then have been 
mixed with water and also with some thick or sticky substance such as animal fat or gum or resin from 
trees. Brushes were made of plant fibre. 
o In the later historic paintings, mainly the Fresco-secco technique was used. Here, pigments mixed with 
an organic binder and/or lime are applied onto a dry plaster (in Fresco-buno, pigments are applied in a 
wet wall. This technique was adopted in Italy). 
Salient features of prehistoric cave painting 
• The paintings here can be divided into three categories man, animal and geometric. There are more animal figures 
than human figures.  
o Humans are represented in stick-like forms. Wavy lines, rectangle-filled geometric designs, and groups of dots 
can also be seen. 
• Depiction of day-to-day life like hunting, dancing was the main theme of these paintings. 
• Various shades of white, yellow, orange, red ochre, purple, brown, green and black colours were used. 
• A few are wash paintings but mostly they are filled with geometric patterns. 
• There is some superimposition of paintings. It might be possible that these caves were painted one above the other 
for generations. 
• Because of their richness, varied themes, forms, styles and antiquity, the rock paintings of central India have become 
the synonym of Indian rock paintings. 
 
77                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
Distinctions and similarities both exist in the cave paintings of various regions. For example: Hand-linked dancing human 
figures are notable depictions in both Lakhudiyar and Bhimbetka caves. 
Salient features of historic paintings 
• Paintings have typological variations in these caves. Main themes include religious, mythological, palace scenes. 
Floral motifs near the ceiling, geometric designs were also painted for decorations.  
• Movements in the figures are very rhythmic. Supple limbs, expression on the faces, swaying movement, all speak of 
the artists’ skill in creative imagination in visualising the forms.  
• Vibrant and luminous colours were used. The principal colours in use were red ochre, vivid red (vermilion), yellow 
ochre, indigo blue, lapis lazuli, lamp black (Kajjal), chalk white, terraverte and green. Various skin colours were also 
used in the paintings such as brown, yellowish brown, greenish, yellow ochre, etc.  
• Brown thick dark lines are used as contours. Lines are forceful and full of energy. Attempts are also made to give 
highlights in the figural compositions.  
  
Evolution of the prehistoric cave paintings 
Upper Paleolithic Mesolithic Cave paintings  Neolithic Cave paintings  
• Simple iconic animal and 
human forms appear for 
the first time.  
• Animals were shown in 
their natural outlines and 
humans always in the 
dynamic action of hunting 
or dancing executed in 
abstract form.   
• These paintings have also 
been characterized by 
perfect ‘S’ shaped human 
figures depicting activities 
that look as if they are 
hunting, dancing and 
running.  
• It seems that during this 
period it was the upper 
part of the rocks in the 
shelter that was mostly 
painted. 
• Explosion of creativity in the form of numerous 
motifs, designs. The figures have been done 
mostly in gently flowing fine lines reflecting 
dynamic action. 
• The hunters are shown wearing simple clothes 
and ornaments, elaborate head-dresses and 
masks could also be seen occasionally. 
• Animal forms are naturalistic depictions while 
human figures are static and abstract.  
• Male figures are stick like while the women are 
bulky box shaped with intricate body designs as 
infilling consisting of spiral or honey-comb.  
• Mythical stories depicting huge defied animals 
chasing diminutive human beings, medical 
treatment and burial like activity. 
• Dance, pregnant women, childbirth and a 
mother with a child are also drawn.   
• Example: Lakhajoar (Fishing scene, family 
feasting in a hut), Bhimbetka (Magical treatment 
of an ill person), Chaturbhujnath Nala (dynamic 
archers). 
• The paintings lose their 
sense of movement, 
figures are repetitive 
signs, humans and 
animals start becoming 
more and more 
schematic and stylized.  
• Size, in general, goes on 
reducing, though a few 
big figures are also there.  
• Hunting scenes are there, 
but hunting as an act of a 
large group is absent. 
From now onwards, the 
solitary hunter is shown. 
• Example: Chaturbhujnath 
Nala (Chariots appeared), 
Kupgallu, Piklihal and 
Tekkalkota 
 
Other examples of cave paintings 
• Ajanta Caves: Ajanta is the only surviving example 
of painting of the first century BCE. The subject 
matter of these paintings is almost exclusively 
Buddhist except for decorative patterns on the 
ceilings and the pillars. The first Buddhist cave 
monuments at Ajanta date from the 2
nd
 and 1
st
 
centuries BCE. During the Gupta period (5
th
- 6
th
 
centuries A.D.), many more richly decorated caves 
were added to the original group.  
• Bagh Caves: Located on the far banks of the Baghini 
river, these Caves contain Buddhist paintings and 
relics dating back to 5
th
-7
th
 century. Most significant 
is Cave No. 4, commonly known as the Rang Mahal 
(the Palace of Colours).  
• Badami Caves: Badami was capital of the early 
Chalukyan dynasty (543 to 598 CE). These cave 
paintings are dedicated to Lord Shiva and have 
earliest Brahmanical paintings (belonging to the 6th 
century A.D.) known so far.  
Page 3


 
76                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
8. CULTURE 
8.1. CAVE PAINTINGS 
Why in news? 
Recently, World’s oldest known cave painting (painted at least 45,500 years ago) was found in the limestone cave 
of Leang Tedongnge, Indonesia.  
More about News 
• This cave painting uncovered in South Sulawesi consists of a life-sized depiction of a warty pig.   
• The previously oldest dated rock art ‘scene’ at least 43,900 years old, was a depiction of hybrid human-animal 
beings hunting Sulawesi warty pigs and dwarf bovids. 
Cave paintings in India 
• In India the earliest paintings have been reported from the Upper Paleolithic times.  
o These cave paintings are manifestations of the cognitive development of the hominins. Most are 
Mesolithic cave 
paintings. 
o There is no concrete 
information if Lower 
Paleolithic people 
ever produced any 
art objects. 
• The first discovery of rock 
paintings was made in 
India in 1867–68 by 
Archibold Carlleyle at Sohagihat in the Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh.  
o The caves of Bhimbetka were discovered in 1957–58 by eminent archaeologist V.S. Wakankar. 
• Distribution of prehistoric cave paintings: Such Cave paintings sites have been reported throughout India in 
different geological, geographical and climatic zone s. But the richest paintings are reported from the Vindhya 
ranges of Madhya Pradesh and their Kaimurean extensions into Uttar Pradesh.  
o These hill ranges are full of Palaeolithic and Mesolithic remains.  
o The colours of these paintings have remained intact because of the chemical reaction of the oxide present 
on the surface of the rocks. 
• Techniques used in paintings:  
o In pre-historic paintings, the rock of mineral was first ground into a powder. This may then have been 
mixed with water and also with some thick or sticky substance such as animal fat or gum or resin from 
trees. Brushes were made of plant fibre. 
o In the later historic paintings, mainly the Fresco-secco technique was used. Here, pigments mixed with 
an organic binder and/or lime are applied onto a dry plaster (in Fresco-buno, pigments are applied in a 
wet wall. This technique was adopted in Italy). 
Salient features of prehistoric cave painting 
• The paintings here can be divided into three categories man, animal and geometric. There are more animal figures 
than human figures.  
o Humans are represented in stick-like forms. Wavy lines, rectangle-filled geometric designs, and groups of dots 
can also be seen. 
• Depiction of day-to-day life like hunting, dancing was the main theme of these paintings. 
• Various shades of white, yellow, orange, red ochre, purple, brown, green and black colours were used. 
• A few are wash paintings but mostly they are filled with geometric patterns. 
• There is some superimposition of paintings. It might be possible that these caves were painted one above the other 
for generations. 
• Because of their richness, varied themes, forms, styles and antiquity, the rock paintings of central India have become 
the synonym of Indian rock paintings. 
 
77                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
Distinctions and similarities both exist in the cave paintings of various regions. For example: Hand-linked dancing human 
figures are notable depictions in both Lakhudiyar and Bhimbetka caves. 
Salient features of historic paintings 
• Paintings have typological variations in these caves. Main themes include religious, mythological, palace scenes. 
Floral motifs near the ceiling, geometric designs were also painted for decorations.  
• Movements in the figures are very rhythmic. Supple limbs, expression on the faces, swaying movement, all speak of 
the artists’ skill in creative imagination in visualising the forms.  
• Vibrant and luminous colours were used. The principal colours in use were red ochre, vivid red (vermilion), yellow 
ochre, indigo blue, lapis lazuli, lamp black (Kajjal), chalk white, terraverte and green. Various skin colours were also 
used in the paintings such as brown, yellowish brown, greenish, yellow ochre, etc.  
• Brown thick dark lines are used as contours. Lines are forceful and full of energy. Attempts are also made to give 
highlights in the figural compositions.  
  
Evolution of the prehistoric cave paintings 
Upper Paleolithic Mesolithic Cave paintings  Neolithic Cave paintings  
• Simple iconic animal and 
human forms appear for 
the first time.  
• Animals were shown in 
their natural outlines and 
humans always in the 
dynamic action of hunting 
or dancing executed in 
abstract form.   
• These paintings have also 
been characterized by 
perfect ‘S’ shaped human 
figures depicting activities 
that look as if they are 
hunting, dancing and 
running.  
• It seems that during this 
period it was the upper 
part of the rocks in the 
shelter that was mostly 
painted. 
• Explosion of creativity in the form of numerous 
motifs, designs. The figures have been done 
mostly in gently flowing fine lines reflecting 
dynamic action. 
• The hunters are shown wearing simple clothes 
and ornaments, elaborate head-dresses and 
masks could also be seen occasionally. 
• Animal forms are naturalistic depictions while 
human figures are static and abstract.  
• Male figures are stick like while the women are 
bulky box shaped with intricate body designs as 
infilling consisting of spiral or honey-comb.  
• Mythical stories depicting huge defied animals 
chasing diminutive human beings, medical 
treatment and burial like activity. 
• Dance, pregnant women, childbirth and a 
mother with a child are also drawn.   
• Example: Lakhajoar (Fishing scene, family 
feasting in a hut), Bhimbetka (Magical treatment 
of an ill person), Chaturbhujnath Nala (dynamic 
archers). 
• The paintings lose their 
sense of movement, 
figures are repetitive 
signs, humans and 
animals start becoming 
more and more 
schematic and stylized.  
• Size, in general, goes on 
reducing, though a few 
big figures are also there.  
• Hunting scenes are there, 
but hunting as an act of a 
large group is absent. 
From now onwards, the 
solitary hunter is shown. 
• Example: Chaturbhujnath 
Nala (Chariots appeared), 
Kupgallu, Piklihal and 
Tekkalkota 
 
Other examples of cave paintings 
• Ajanta Caves: Ajanta is the only surviving example 
of painting of the first century BCE. The subject 
matter of these paintings is almost exclusively 
Buddhist except for decorative patterns on the 
ceilings and the pillars. The first Buddhist cave 
monuments at Ajanta date from the 2
nd
 and 1
st
 
centuries BCE. During the Gupta period (5
th
- 6
th
 
centuries A.D.), many more richly decorated caves 
were added to the original group.  
• Bagh Caves: Located on the far banks of the Baghini 
river, these Caves contain Buddhist paintings and 
relics dating back to 5
th
-7
th
 century. Most significant 
is Cave No. 4, commonly known as the Rang Mahal 
(the Palace of Colours).  
• Badami Caves: Badami was capital of the early 
Chalukyan dynasty (543 to 598 CE). These cave 
paintings are dedicated to Lord Shiva and have 
earliest Brahmanical paintings (belonging to the 6th 
century A.D.) known so far.  
 
78                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• Sittannavasal: It is a rock-cut Jain temple of the Pandyan era (9
th
 century) near Pudukkottai. These cave paintings 
are dedicated to the Jain themes and symbolism.  
• Ellora Cave: These caves show an uninterrupted sequence of monuments dating from A.D. 600 to 1000. They 
harbour Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples. Main theme of these paintings is also centered on these 3 religions.  
• Elephanta/Gharapuri Caves: These Caves were constructed about the mid-5th to 6th centuries AD. They harbour 
Hindu and Buddhist temples. The remains of the Buddhists Stupas in Elephanta probably belong to the early phase 
of Buddhism dating 2nd century BC. 
8.2. NETAJI SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE 
Why in News 
On 23
rd
 January, 2021, India celebrated the 125th birth anniversary of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose as ‘Parakram 
Divas.’ 
Political Career 
• His work under political leader 
Chittaranjan Das in early 
1920s: 
o In 1921, Bose edited the 
newspaper ‘Forward’ and 
later started his newspaper ‘Swaraj’. 
o He also served as the Chief Executive Officer of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation, with Das as mayor 
of Calcutta.  
• His role as a youth leader in INC in late 1920s: 
o  He had been a leader of the younger, radical wing of the INC. 
o He was arrested countless times, and deported to Burma (Myanmar) in 1925 as he was suspected of 
connections with secret revolutionary movements.  
o He authored the book ‘The Indian Struggle’, which covered the country’s independence movement in the 
years 1920–1934. 
• His role as the President of INC in 1930s 
o He took over as the elected President of Haripura session of INC in 1938 in Bardoli district of Gujarat.  
? He mentioned the need of a comprehensive scheme of industrial development under state-
ownership and state-control.  
? The National Planning Committee was set up under the Chairmanship of Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru. It is 
in this session where his ideological differences with Gandhiji emerged.  
o In 1939 at Tripuri session, he was again elected as the President defeating Pattabhi Sitaramayya who had 
been supported by Gandhiji himself. This was the first time when Gandhiji’s authority had been challenged 
within the INC.  Netaji did not want the national movement to look divided and preferred to withdraw.  
o Then, he formed the All India Forward Bloc, a faction within the INC aimed at consolidating the political 
left. However, he was expelled from the INC because of his extreme left, anti-imperialist stand. 
• His exile from India 
o Alarmed by Netaji’s radical activities the British Indian Govt put him under house arrest.  
o Netaji believed that India could not be liberated unless a military campaign was launched from outside 
India.  
o He knew also that facilities could be obtained for such a campaign only from Britain's enemies and 
not from Britain's allies during the course of World War II.  
o With these basic ideas, in 1942 he made well his escape from India and proceeded first to Germany 
and thence to Japan. 
• His military activities during World War II 
o After reaching Germany in 1942, he started ‘Azad Hind Radio’ and established ‘Free India Centre’ (a 
precursor of the Azad Hind Government).  
o He arrived in Singapore in July 1943 and took charge of the Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauj 
and expanded it to three divisions. INA was established by Mohan Bose. Rash Behari Bose, a veteran 
nationalist exiled in Japan came to aide Netaji. 
Related information 
• He cleared the Indian Civil Service examination in 1920. However, he 
resigned during the probation period in April 1921.  
• Along with Chittaranjan Das, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose 
served as the President of All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC). 
• He was inspired by Bhagvad Gita and teachings of Swami Vivekananda and 
Sri Aurobindo Ghosh.  
Page 4


 
76                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
8. CULTURE 
8.1. CAVE PAINTINGS 
Why in news? 
Recently, World’s oldest known cave painting (painted at least 45,500 years ago) was found in the limestone cave 
of Leang Tedongnge, Indonesia.  
More about News 
• This cave painting uncovered in South Sulawesi consists of a life-sized depiction of a warty pig.   
• The previously oldest dated rock art ‘scene’ at least 43,900 years old, was a depiction of hybrid human-animal 
beings hunting Sulawesi warty pigs and dwarf bovids. 
Cave paintings in India 
• In India the earliest paintings have been reported from the Upper Paleolithic times.  
o These cave paintings are manifestations of the cognitive development of the hominins. Most are 
Mesolithic cave 
paintings. 
o There is no concrete 
information if Lower 
Paleolithic people 
ever produced any 
art objects. 
• The first discovery of rock 
paintings was made in 
India in 1867–68 by 
Archibold Carlleyle at Sohagihat in the Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh.  
o The caves of Bhimbetka were discovered in 1957–58 by eminent archaeologist V.S. Wakankar. 
• Distribution of prehistoric cave paintings: Such Cave paintings sites have been reported throughout India in 
different geological, geographical and climatic zone s. But the richest paintings are reported from the Vindhya 
ranges of Madhya Pradesh and their Kaimurean extensions into Uttar Pradesh.  
o These hill ranges are full of Palaeolithic and Mesolithic remains.  
o The colours of these paintings have remained intact because of the chemical reaction of the oxide present 
on the surface of the rocks. 
• Techniques used in paintings:  
o In pre-historic paintings, the rock of mineral was first ground into a powder. This may then have been 
mixed with water and also with some thick or sticky substance such as animal fat or gum or resin from 
trees. Brushes were made of plant fibre. 
o In the later historic paintings, mainly the Fresco-secco technique was used. Here, pigments mixed with 
an organic binder and/or lime are applied onto a dry plaster (in Fresco-buno, pigments are applied in a 
wet wall. This technique was adopted in Italy). 
Salient features of prehistoric cave painting 
• The paintings here can be divided into three categories man, animal and geometric. There are more animal figures 
than human figures.  
o Humans are represented in stick-like forms. Wavy lines, rectangle-filled geometric designs, and groups of dots 
can also be seen. 
• Depiction of day-to-day life like hunting, dancing was the main theme of these paintings. 
• Various shades of white, yellow, orange, red ochre, purple, brown, green and black colours were used. 
• A few are wash paintings but mostly they are filled with geometric patterns. 
• There is some superimposition of paintings. It might be possible that these caves were painted one above the other 
for generations. 
• Because of their richness, varied themes, forms, styles and antiquity, the rock paintings of central India have become 
the synonym of Indian rock paintings. 
 
77                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
Distinctions and similarities both exist in the cave paintings of various regions. For example: Hand-linked dancing human 
figures are notable depictions in both Lakhudiyar and Bhimbetka caves. 
Salient features of historic paintings 
• Paintings have typological variations in these caves. Main themes include religious, mythological, palace scenes. 
Floral motifs near the ceiling, geometric designs were also painted for decorations.  
• Movements in the figures are very rhythmic. Supple limbs, expression on the faces, swaying movement, all speak of 
the artists’ skill in creative imagination in visualising the forms.  
• Vibrant and luminous colours were used. The principal colours in use were red ochre, vivid red (vermilion), yellow 
ochre, indigo blue, lapis lazuli, lamp black (Kajjal), chalk white, terraverte and green. Various skin colours were also 
used in the paintings such as brown, yellowish brown, greenish, yellow ochre, etc.  
• Brown thick dark lines are used as contours. Lines are forceful and full of energy. Attempts are also made to give 
highlights in the figural compositions.  
  
Evolution of the prehistoric cave paintings 
Upper Paleolithic Mesolithic Cave paintings  Neolithic Cave paintings  
• Simple iconic animal and 
human forms appear for 
the first time.  
• Animals were shown in 
their natural outlines and 
humans always in the 
dynamic action of hunting 
or dancing executed in 
abstract form.   
• These paintings have also 
been characterized by 
perfect ‘S’ shaped human 
figures depicting activities 
that look as if they are 
hunting, dancing and 
running.  
• It seems that during this 
period it was the upper 
part of the rocks in the 
shelter that was mostly 
painted. 
• Explosion of creativity in the form of numerous 
motifs, designs. The figures have been done 
mostly in gently flowing fine lines reflecting 
dynamic action. 
• The hunters are shown wearing simple clothes 
and ornaments, elaborate head-dresses and 
masks could also be seen occasionally. 
• Animal forms are naturalistic depictions while 
human figures are static and abstract.  
• Male figures are stick like while the women are 
bulky box shaped with intricate body designs as 
infilling consisting of spiral or honey-comb.  
• Mythical stories depicting huge defied animals 
chasing diminutive human beings, medical 
treatment and burial like activity. 
• Dance, pregnant women, childbirth and a 
mother with a child are also drawn.   
• Example: Lakhajoar (Fishing scene, family 
feasting in a hut), Bhimbetka (Magical treatment 
of an ill person), Chaturbhujnath Nala (dynamic 
archers). 
• The paintings lose their 
sense of movement, 
figures are repetitive 
signs, humans and 
animals start becoming 
more and more 
schematic and stylized.  
• Size, in general, goes on 
reducing, though a few 
big figures are also there.  
• Hunting scenes are there, 
but hunting as an act of a 
large group is absent. 
From now onwards, the 
solitary hunter is shown. 
• Example: Chaturbhujnath 
Nala (Chariots appeared), 
Kupgallu, Piklihal and 
Tekkalkota 
 
Other examples of cave paintings 
• Ajanta Caves: Ajanta is the only surviving example 
of painting of the first century BCE. The subject 
matter of these paintings is almost exclusively 
Buddhist except for decorative patterns on the 
ceilings and the pillars. The first Buddhist cave 
monuments at Ajanta date from the 2
nd
 and 1
st
 
centuries BCE. During the Gupta period (5
th
- 6
th
 
centuries A.D.), many more richly decorated caves 
were added to the original group.  
• Bagh Caves: Located on the far banks of the Baghini 
river, these Caves contain Buddhist paintings and 
relics dating back to 5
th
-7
th
 century. Most significant 
is Cave No. 4, commonly known as the Rang Mahal 
(the Palace of Colours).  
• Badami Caves: Badami was capital of the early 
Chalukyan dynasty (543 to 598 CE). These cave 
paintings are dedicated to Lord Shiva and have 
earliest Brahmanical paintings (belonging to the 6th 
century A.D.) known so far.  
 
78                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• Sittannavasal: It is a rock-cut Jain temple of the Pandyan era (9
th
 century) near Pudukkottai. These cave paintings 
are dedicated to the Jain themes and symbolism.  
• Ellora Cave: These caves show an uninterrupted sequence of monuments dating from A.D. 600 to 1000. They 
harbour Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples. Main theme of these paintings is also centered on these 3 religions.  
• Elephanta/Gharapuri Caves: These Caves were constructed about the mid-5th to 6th centuries AD. They harbour 
Hindu and Buddhist temples. The remains of the Buddhists Stupas in Elephanta probably belong to the early phase 
of Buddhism dating 2nd century BC. 
8.2. NETAJI SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE 
Why in News 
On 23
rd
 January, 2021, India celebrated the 125th birth anniversary of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose as ‘Parakram 
Divas.’ 
Political Career 
• His work under political leader 
Chittaranjan Das in early 
1920s: 
o In 1921, Bose edited the 
newspaper ‘Forward’ and 
later started his newspaper ‘Swaraj’. 
o He also served as the Chief Executive Officer of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation, with Das as mayor 
of Calcutta.  
• His role as a youth leader in INC in late 1920s: 
o  He had been a leader of the younger, radical wing of the INC. 
o He was arrested countless times, and deported to Burma (Myanmar) in 1925 as he was suspected of 
connections with secret revolutionary movements.  
o He authored the book ‘The Indian Struggle’, which covered the country’s independence movement in the 
years 1920–1934. 
• His role as the President of INC in 1930s 
o He took over as the elected President of Haripura session of INC in 1938 in Bardoli district of Gujarat.  
? He mentioned the need of a comprehensive scheme of industrial development under state-
ownership and state-control.  
? The National Planning Committee was set up under the Chairmanship of Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru. It is 
in this session where his ideological differences with Gandhiji emerged.  
o In 1939 at Tripuri session, he was again elected as the President defeating Pattabhi Sitaramayya who had 
been supported by Gandhiji himself. This was the first time when Gandhiji’s authority had been challenged 
within the INC.  Netaji did not want the national movement to look divided and preferred to withdraw.  
o Then, he formed the All India Forward Bloc, a faction within the INC aimed at consolidating the political 
left. However, he was expelled from the INC because of his extreme left, anti-imperialist stand. 
• His exile from India 
o Alarmed by Netaji’s radical activities the British Indian Govt put him under house arrest.  
o Netaji believed that India could not be liberated unless a military campaign was launched from outside 
India.  
o He knew also that facilities could be obtained for such a campaign only from Britain's enemies and 
not from Britain's allies during the course of World War II.  
o With these basic ideas, in 1942 he made well his escape from India and proceeded first to Germany 
and thence to Japan. 
• His military activities during World War II 
o After reaching Germany in 1942, he started ‘Azad Hind Radio’ and established ‘Free India Centre’ (a 
precursor of the Azad Hind Government).  
o He arrived in Singapore in July 1943 and took charge of the Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauj 
and expanded it to three divisions. INA was established by Mohan Bose. Rash Behari Bose, a veteran 
nationalist exiled in Japan came to aide Netaji. 
Related information 
• He cleared the Indian Civil Service examination in 1920. However, he 
resigned during the probation period in April 1921.  
• Along with Chittaranjan Das, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose 
served as the President of All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC). 
• He was inspired by Bhagvad Gita and teachings of Swami Vivekananda and 
Sri Aurobindo Ghosh.  
 
79                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
o In Singapore, he formed an Indian government-in-exile ‘the Azad Hind Government’. This provisional 
government also had its own currency, court, civil code, Army (the INA) and national anthem. 
o In 1943, as the Head of the State of the Provisional Government, he declared war on Britain for the 
liberation of India. 
o The INA under the clarion call of “Chalo Delhi” reached Moirang in Manipur and shook the British 
confidence.  
? The INA was able to win back Rangoon, Imphal and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 
? Netaji renamed Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Island as Shaheed and Swaraj. In 2018, the Ross Island, 
Neil Island and Havelock Island of (A&N) Islands were renamed as Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Dweep, 
Shaheed Dweep and Swaraj Dweep respectively.  
o The great salutation every Army personnel uses today, ‘Jai Hind’, was coined by Netaji’s aide Abid Hasan. 
How ideologies of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose differed from the ideology of Gandhiji and Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru? 
Netaji, despite his departure from congress, saw his efforts and INA as complementing the mainstream 
freedom struggle led by Gandhiji, Nehruji and the Congress. This was because ideologically, he shared more 
similar values with both the leaders than their 
differences 
• Similarities in ideologies 
o Their dedication to the national cause: All had a 
vision of freeing India not only from British but 
also from social evils like castes, untouchability, 
poverty etc. They were loved by the masses and 
feared by the British Raj. Bhagat Singh wrote an 
article in 1928 titled “NAYE NETAON KE ALAG-
ALAG VICHAAR” (‘Varied thoughts of new 
leaders’) in which he compared Nehruji and 
Netaji and hailed them as great patriots and 
rising stars of the freedom movement. 
o Liberal and believer in women’s equality: 
Netaji stood his ground against the conservative Japanese Generals and convinced them to let him 
build an all-women unit of INA, Rani of Jhansi Regiment. This regiment was led by Captain Lakshmi 
Sahgal. Gandhiji and Nehruji also worked for women empowerment including their work for ensuring 
quality education to women. 
o Shared the vision of unity in Diversity of the country: All the three leaders respected cultural diversity 
of India including religious differences. Gandhiji incessantly worked against untouchability and for 
ensuring communal harmony. ‘Jana-Gana-Mana’ was chosen by Netaji because of its secular 
composition. Indian Constitutions is a testimony of Pt. Nehru’s vision for India. 
• Differences in ideologies  
o Samyavad political system of Netaji: Netaji wanted justice, equality, love, which are the basis of socialism 
to be combined with the efficiency and the discipline of Fascism. A fusion termed as Samyavad by him. 
Nehruji and Gandhiji did not endorse it due to their stern opposition to Fascism.  
? Fascism is commonly associated with German Nazi and Italian regimes that came to power after 
World War I. Fascism promoted the idea of a forcibly monolithic, regimented nation under the 
control of an autocratic ruler. 
o Netaji believed that non-violence could be an ideology but not a creed: This is where he differed not 
only from Gandhiji but also from Nehruji. Netaji believed that the national movement should be free from 
violence but, if need be, people could resort to arms.  
o Netaji wanted the country to grow through industrialisation. Gandhiji was against Industrialisation. 
Gandhi was in favour of the self-sufficient village economy. Nehruji shared same ideology with Netaji and 
he his ideals are reflected in the models of economic growth India chose post Independent.  
o His political objective was undiluted independence and was not satisfied with Gandhiji's substance of 
independence. He preferred uncompromising national struggle as the means for attaining his objectives. 
Netaji’s ideology on socialism 
• He was a socialist who dissociated himself from 
communism.  
o Primary distinction between communists and 
socialists is their respective emphasis on 
internationalism vis a vis nationalism.  
o Netaji had ridiculed the internationalism of the 
communists and had disparaged them for 
attacking the concept of nationalism. 
• He wanted to promote collective affiliation of 
workers’ and peasants’ organisations so that the 
state could act as the servant of the people. 
• He wanted to liberate people from all the forms of 
bondages. 
Page 5


 
76                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
8. CULTURE 
8.1. CAVE PAINTINGS 
Why in news? 
Recently, World’s oldest known cave painting (painted at least 45,500 years ago) was found in the limestone cave 
of Leang Tedongnge, Indonesia.  
More about News 
• This cave painting uncovered in South Sulawesi consists of a life-sized depiction of a warty pig.   
• The previously oldest dated rock art ‘scene’ at least 43,900 years old, was a depiction of hybrid human-animal 
beings hunting Sulawesi warty pigs and dwarf bovids. 
Cave paintings in India 
• In India the earliest paintings have been reported from the Upper Paleolithic times.  
o These cave paintings are manifestations of the cognitive development of the hominins. Most are 
Mesolithic cave 
paintings. 
o There is no concrete 
information if Lower 
Paleolithic people 
ever produced any 
art objects. 
• The first discovery of rock 
paintings was made in 
India in 1867–68 by 
Archibold Carlleyle at Sohagihat in the Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh.  
o The caves of Bhimbetka were discovered in 1957–58 by eminent archaeologist V.S. Wakankar. 
• Distribution of prehistoric cave paintings: Such Cave paintings sites have been reported throughout India in 
different geological, geographical and climatic zone s. But the richest paintings are reported from the Vindhya 
ranges of Madhya Pradesh and their Kaimurean extensions into Uttar Pradesh.  
o These hill ranges are full of Palaeolithic and Mesolithic remains.  
o The colours of these paintings have remained intact because of the chemical reaction of the oxide present 
on the surface of the rocks. 
• Techniques used in paintings:  
o In pre-historic paintings, the rock of mineral was first ground into a powder. This may then have been 
mixed with water and also with some thick or sticky substance such as animal fat or gum or resin from 
trees. Brushes were made of plant fibre. 
o In the later historic paintings, mainly the Fresco-secco technique was used. Here, pigments mixed with 
an organic binder and/or lime are applied onto a dry plaster (in Fresco-buno, pigments are applied in a 
wet wall. This technique was adopted in Italy). 
Salient features of prehistoric cave painting 
• The paintings here can be divided into three categories man, animal and geometric. There are more animal figures 
than human figures.  
o Humans are represented in stick-like forms. Wavy lines, rectangle-filled geometric designs, and groups of dots 
can also be seen. 
• Depiction of day-to-day life like hunting, dancing was the main theme of these paintings. 
• Various shades of white, yellow, orange, red ochre, purple, brown, green and black colours were used. 
• A few are wash paintings but mostly they are filled with geometric patterns. 
• There is some superimposition of paintings. It might be possible that these caves were painted one above the other 
for generations. 
• Because of their richness, varied themes, forms, styles and antiquity, the rock paintings of central India have become 
the synonym of Indian rock paintings. 
 
77                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
Distinctions and similarities both exist in the cave paintings of various regions. For example: Hand-linked dancing human 
figures are notable depictions in both Lakhudiyar and Bhimbetka caves. 
Salient features of historic paintings 
• Paintings have typological variations in these caves. Main themes include religious, mythological, palace scenes. 
Floral motifs near the ceiling, geometric designs were also painted for decorations.  
• Movements in the figures are very rhythmic. Supple limbs, expression on the faces, swaying movement, all speak of 
the artists’ skill in creative imagination in visualising the forms.  
• Vibrant and luminous colours were used. The principal colours in use were red ochre, vivid red (vermilion), yellow 
ochre, indigo blue, lapis lazuli, lamp black (Kajjal), chalk white, terraverte and green. Various skin colours were also 
used in the paintings such as brown, yellowish brown, greenish, yellow ochre, etc.  
• Brown thick dark lines are used as contours. Lines are forceful and full of energy. Attempts are also made to give 
highlights in the figural compositions.  
  
Evolution of the prehistoric cave paintings 
Upper Paleolithic Mesolithic Cave paintings  Neolithic Cave paintings  
• Simple iconic animal and 
human forms appear for 
the first time.  
• Animals were shown in 
their natural outlines and 
humans always in the 
dynamic action of hunting 
or dancing executed in 
abstract form.   
• These paintings have also 
been characterized by 
perfect ‘S’ shaped human 
figures depicting activities 
that look as if they are 
hunting, dancing and 
running.  
• It seems that during this 
period it was the upper 
part of the rocks in the 
shelter that was mostly 
painted. 
• Explosion of creativity in the form of numerous 
motifs, designs. The figures have been done 
mostly in gently flowing fine lines reflecting 
dynamic action. 
• The hunters are shown wearing simple clothes 
and ornaments, elaborate head-dresses and 
masks could also be seen occasionally. 
• Animal forms are naturalistic depictions while 
human figures are static and abstract.  
• Male figures are stick like while the women are 
bulky box shaped with intricate body designs as 
infilling consisting of spiral or honey-comb.  
• Mythical stories depicting huge defied animals 
chasing diminutive human beings, medical 
treatment and burial like activity. 
• Dance, pregnant women, childbirth and a 
mother with a child are also drawn.   
• Example: Lakhajoar (Fishing scene, family 
feasting in a hut), Bhimbetka (Magical treatment 
of an ill person), Chaturbhujnath Nala (dynamic 
archers). 
• The paintings lose their 
sense of movement, 
figures are repetitive 
signs, humans and 
animals start becoming 
more and more 
schematic and stylized.  
• Size, in general, goes on 
reducing, though a few 
big figures are also there.  
• Hunting scenes are there, 
but hunting as an act of a 
large group is absent. 
From now onwards, the 
solitary hunter is shown. 
• Example: Chaturbhujnath 
Nala (Chariots appeared), 
Kupgallu, Piklihal and 
Tekkalkota 
 
Other examples of cave paintings 
• Ajanta Caves: Ajanta is the only surviving example 
of painting of the first century BCE. The subject 
matter of these paintings is almost exclusively 
Buddhist except for decorative patterns on the 
ceilings and the pillars. The first Buddhist cave 
monuments at Ajanta date from the 2
nd
 and 1
st
 
centuries BCE. During the Gupta period (5
th
- 6
th
 
centuries A.D.), many more richly decorated caves 
were added to the original group.  
• Bagh Caves: Located on the far banks of the Baghini 
river, these Caves contain Buddhist paintings and 
relics dating back to 5
th
-7
th
 century. Most significant 
is Cave No. 4, commonly known as the Rang Mahal 
(the Palace of Colours).  
• Badami Caves: Badami was capital of the early 
Chalukyan dynasty (543 to 598 CE). These cave 
paintings are dedicated to Lord Shiva and have 
earliest Brahmanical paintings (belonging to the 6th 
century A.D.) known so far.  
 
78                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• Sittannavasal: It is a rock-cut Jain temple of the Pandyan era (9
th
 century) near Pudukkottai. These cave paintings 
are dedicated to the Jain themes and symbolism.  
• Ellora Cave: These caves show an uninterrupted sequence of monuments dating from A.D. 600 to 1000. They 
harbour Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples. Main theme of these paintings is also centered on these 3 religions.  
• Elephanta/Gharapuri Caves: These Caves were constructed about the mid-5th to 6th centuries AD. They harbour 
Hindu and Buddhist temples. The remains of the Buddhists Stupas in Elephanta probably belong to the early phase 
of Buddhism dating 2nd century BC. 
8.2. NETAJI SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE 
Why in News 
On 23
rd
 January, 2021, India celebrated the 125th birth anniversary of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose as ‘Parakram 
Divas.’ 
Political Career 
• His work under political leader 
Chittaranjan Das in early 
1920s: 
o In 1921, Bose edited the 
newspaper ‘Forward’ and 
later started his newspaper ‘Swaraj’. 
o He also served as the Chief Executive Officer of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation, with Das as mayor 
of Calcutta.  
• His role as a youth leader in INC in late 1920s: 
o  He had been a leader of the younger, radical wing of the INC. 
o He was arrested countless times, and deported to Burma (Myanmar) in 1925 as he was suspected of 
connections with secret revolutionary movements.  
o He authored the book ‘The Indian Struggle’, which covered the country’s independence movement in the 
years 1920–1934. 
• His role as the President of INC in 1930s 
o He took over as the elected President of Haripura session of INC in 1938 in Bardoli district of Gujarat.  
? He mentioned the need of a comprehensive scheme of industrial development under state-
ownership and state-control.  
? The National Planning Committee was set up under the Chairmanship of Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru. It is 
in this session where his ideological differences with Gandhiji emerged.  
o In 1939 at Tripuri session, he was again elected as the President defeating Pattabhi Sitaramayya who had 
been supported by Gandhiji himself. This was the first time when Gandhiji’s authority had been challenged 
within the INC.  Netaji did not want the national movement to look divided and preferred to withdraw.  
o Then, he formed the All India Forward Bloc, a faction within the INC aimed at consolidating the political 
left. However, he was expelled from the INC because of his extreme left, anti-imperialist stand. 
• His exile from India 
o Alarmed by Netaji’s radical activities the British Indian Govt put him under house arrest.  
o Netaji believed that India could not be liberated unless a military campaign was launched from outside 
India.  
o He knew also that facilities could be obtained for such a campaign only from Britain's enemies and 
not from Britain's allies during the course of World War II.  
o With these basic ideas, in 1942 he made well his escape from India and proceeded first to Germany 
and thence to Japan. 
• His military activities during World War II 
o After reaching Germany in 1942, he started ‘Azad Hind Radio’ and established ‘Free India Centre’ (a 
precursor of the Azad Hind Government).  
o He arrived in Singapore in July 1943 and took charge of the Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauj 
and expanded it to three divisions. INA was established by Mohan Bose. Rash Behari Bose, a veteran 
nationalist exiled in Japan came to aide Netaji. 
Related information 
• He cleared the Indian Civil Service examination in 1920. However, he 
resigned during the probation period in April 1921.  
• Along with Chittaranjan Das, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose 
served as the President of All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC). 
• He was inspired by Bhagvad Gita and teachings of Swami Vivekananda and 
Sri Aurobindo Ghosh.  
 
79                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
o In Singapore, he formed an Indian government-in-exile ‘the Azad Hind Government’. This provisional 
government also had its own currency, court, civil code, Army (the INA) and national anthem. 
o In 1943, as the Head of the State of the Provisional Government, he declared war on Britain for the 
liberation of India. 
o The INA under the clarion call of “Chalo Delhi” reached Moirang in Manipur and shook the British 
confidence.  
? The INA was able to win back Rangoon, Imphal and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 
? Netaji renamed Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Island as Shaheed and Swaraj. In 2018, the Ross Island, 
Neil Island and Havelock Island of (A&N) Islands were renamed as Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Dweep, 
Shaheed Dweep and Swaraj Dweep respectively.  
o The great salutation every Army personnel uses today, ‘Jai Hind’, was coined by Netaji’s aide Abid Hasan. 
How ideologies of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose differed from the ideology of Gandhiji and Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru? 
Netaji, despite his departure from congress, saw his efforts and INA as complementing the mainstream 
freedom struggle led by Gandhiji, Nehruji and the Congress. This was because ideologically, he shared more 
similar values with both the leaders than their 
differences 
• Similarities in ideologies 
o Their dedication to the national cause: All had a 
vision of freeing India not only from British but 
also from social evils like castes, untouchability, 
poverty etc. They were loved by the masses and 
feared by the British Raj. Bhagat Singh wrote an 
article in 1928 titled “NAYE NETAON KE ALAG-
ALAG VICHAAR” (‘Varied thoughts of new 
leaders’) in which he compared Nehruji and 
Netaji and hailed them as great patriots and 
rising stars of the freedom movement. 
o Liberal and believer in women’s equality: 
Netaji stood his ground against the conservative Japanese Generals and convinced them to let him 
build an all-women unit of INA, Rani of Jhansi Regiment. This regiment was led by Captain Lakshmi 
Sahgal. Gandhiji and Nehruji also worked for women empowerment including their work for ensuring 
quality education to women. 
o Shared the vision of unity in Diversity of the country: All the three leaders respected cultural diversity 
of India including religious differences. Gandhiji incessantly worked against untouchability and for 
ensuring communal harmony. ‘Jana-Gana-Mana’ was chosen by Netaji because of its secular 
composition. Indian Constitutions is a testimony of Pt. Nehru’s vision for India. 
• Differences in ideologies  
o Samyavad political system of Netaji: Netaji wanted justice, equality, love, which are the basis of socialism 
to be combined with the efficiency and the discipline of Fascism. A fusion termed as Samyavad by him. 
Nehruji and Gandhiji did not endorse it due to their stern opposition to Fascism.  
? Fascism is commonly associated with German Nazi and Italian regimes that came to power after 
World War I. Fascism promoted the idea of a forcibly monolithic, regimented nation under the 
control of an autocratic ruler. 
o Netaji believed that non-violence could be an ideology but not a creed: This is where he differed not 
only from Gandhiji but also from Nehruji. Netaji believed that the national movement should be free from 
violence but, if need be, people could resort to arms.  
o Netaji wanted the country to grow through industrialisation. Gandhiji was against Industrialisation. 
Gandhi was in favour of the self-sufficient village economy. Nehruji shared same ideology with Netaji and 
he his ideals are reflected in the models of economic growth India chose post Independent.  
o His political objective was undiluted independence and was not satisfied with Gandhiji's substance of 
independence. He preferred uncompromising national struggle as the means for attaining his objectives. 
Netaji’s ideology on socialism 
• He was a socialist who dissociated himself from 
communism.  
o Primary distinction between communists and 
socialists is their respective emphasis on 
internationalism vis a vis nationalism.  
o Netaji had ridiculed the internationalism of the 
communists and had disparaged them for 
attacking the concept of nationalism. 
• He wanted to promote collective affiliation of 
workers’ and peasants’ organisations so that the 
state could act as the servant of the people. 
• He wanted to liberate people from all the forms of 
bondages. 
 
80                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
In spite of all the differences in 
ideologies, they admired and 
respected each other. After 
Netaji’s death Gandhiji called 
him “the Prince among the 
patriots” and one whose 
“patriotism was second to 
none.” Netaji in a radio 
broadcast from Rangoon in 
1944, called Mahatma Gandhi 
“The Father of Our Nation.” 
When captured officers of INA 
were being tried for treason 
by the British in late 1945, 
Nehruji was among the four 
lawyers who defended them 
in court.  
8.3. PRABUDDHA BHARAT JOURNAL 
Why in News? 
Recently, Prabuddha Bharata’ journal celebrated its 125th anniversary. 
About Prabuddha Bharata 
• Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India is an english-language monthly journal of the Ramakrishna Mission. 
• Prabuddha Bharata was founded in 1896 by P. Aiyasami, B. R. Rajam Iyer, G. G. Narasimhacharya, and B. V. 
Kamesvara Iyer, in Madras (now Chennai), at the behest of Swami Vivekananda. 
• It is the "longest-running" monthly English magazine of the country. 
• It carries articles on social sciences and humanities comprising historical, psychological, cultural and social 
sciences themes. 
• Luminaries like Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Sister Nivedita, Sri Aurobindo, Sarvepalli 
Radhakrishnan etc. wrote in the journal. 
• Other publications from Ramakrishna mission:  
o Udbodhan, Bengali Monthly started by Swami Vivekananda in January 1899, 
o Vedanta Kesari is cultural and spiritual magazines in English. It was started in 1914 
• Sri Ramakrishna Vijayam, the Tamil monthly magazine started in 1921 
About Ramakrishna Mission 
• Ramakrishna Mission was founded near Calcutta (now Kolkata) by Vivekananda in 1897 with a twofold purpose:  
o to spread the teachings of Vedanta as embodied in the life of the Hindu saint Ramakrishna (1836–86) and 
o to improve the social conditions of the Indian people. 
• It is a philanthropic and volunteer organisation.  
• Mission Motto is Atmano Mokshartham Jagad Hitaya Cha, “For one’s own salvation and for the welfare of the world”.  
It was formulated by Swami Vivekananda. 
• Organization is based on the three core ideals: Work as worship, potential divinity of the soul, and harmony of 
religions. 
8.4. INCLUSION OF INDIGENOUS SPORTS IN KHELO INDIA YOUTH GAMES 
2021 
Why in News? 
Recently, Sports Ministry has approved the inclusion of four Indigenous Games to be a part of Khelo India Youth 
Games (KIYG) 2021. The games include: Gatka, Kalaripayattu, Thang-Ta and Mallakhamba, along with Yogasana. 
 
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