Culture: October 2020 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

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Current Affairs : Culture: October 2020 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
71                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
8. CULTURE 
8.1. EVIDENCE OF DAIRY PRODUCTION IN THE INDUS VALLEY 
CIVILIZATION (IVC)  
Why in news?  
The year 2020 marks 100 years of discovery of IVC or also known as Harappan Civilization., and a new study has 
shown that dairy products were being produced by the Harappans as far back as 2500 BCE. 
Key findings  
• Earliest evidence of industrial level of dairy production: These were based on analysis of the absorbed lipid 
residues in unglazed ceramic vessels.  
• Evidence of dairy processing: that is, the preservation of 
milk through fermentation and other techniques. 
o The results are based on molecular chemical analysis 
of residue of pottery found at Kotada Bhadli, in 
Gujarat. 
o Even in the present day, Gujarat is still a major 
producer of dairy products in India. 
• Animal used for dairy production: They studied the tooth 
enamel from fossils of cattle, water buffalo, goat and sheep 
found in the area. Cows and water buffalo were found to 
consume millets, while sheep and goats ate nearby grass 
and leaves. 
o The large herd indicates that milk was produced in 
surplus so that it could be exchanged and there could have been some kind of trade between settlements. 
• Hence, these finding throws a light 
on rural economy of IVC. 
What is the relevance of IVC in present 
times?  
• Town structure: Towns were built 
on a grid pattern with main roads 
cutting lanes and alleys 
perpendicularly.  
o This pattern is the most 
accepted in planned cities. 
• Segregation of public and private 
spheres: Towns were roughly 
divided into two blocks- one for 
public activities- ritual, political and 
festivity, and the other for domestic 
houses.  
o This is followed even now with 
office and public buildings 
separated but in close 
proximity to residencies.  
• Soft diplomacy: Harappan sites are 
found throughout a large area of 
over 1000 sq km, with artefacts also located in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait and the 
UAE. These connections can be used for soft diplomacy today. 
• Trade: Most of the IVC sites had traded items. Indus valley people traded with the Mesopotamians and other 
people from far-away places and that helped diversify the living conditions. It also helped bring in gold and 
About Indus Valley Civilization                                       
• It is one of the four earliest civilizations of the world along with the 
Mesopotamia, Egypt and China. 
• IVC was a cultural and political entity which flourished in the northern 
region of the Indian subcontinent between c. 7000 - c. 600 BCE.  
• Dayaram Sahni first discovered Harappa in 1921. 
• Its modern name derives from its location in the valley of the Indus 
River, but it is also commonly referred to as the Indus-Saraswati 
Civilization (after the Saraswati River mentioned in Vedic sources which 
flowed adjacent to the Indus) and the Harappan Civilization.  
• It remains unclear how the Indus civilization came to an end.  
• The civilization’s southernmost parts may have continued until Iron 
Age civilization developed in India about 1000 BCE.  
Recent IVC related discoveries  
• According to a recent study shifting monsoon patterns linked to 
climate change likely caused the rise and fall of IVC. 
• Bhirrana, Haryana is now considered the oldest discovered IVC site, 
dating back to 7500 BCE. 
o Previously, Mehrgarh, in Pakistan (7000 BCE) was considered the 
oldest site. 
• DNA sample of skeletal remains excavated from Rakhigarhi has claimed 
that inhabitants of IVC were a distinct indigenous people and 
challenges theory of an Aryan invasion ending Harrapan culture. 
Page 2


 
71                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
8. CULTURE 
8.1. EVIDENCE OF DAIRY PRODUCTION IN THE INDUS VALLEY 
CIVILIZATION (IVC)  
Why in news?  
The year 2020 marks 100 years of discovery of IVC or also known as Harappan Civilization., and a new study has 
shown that dairy products were being produced by the Harappans as far back as 2500 BCE. 
Key findings  
• Earliest evidence of industrial level of dairy production: These were based on analysis of the absorbed lipid 
residues in unglazed ceramic vessels.  
• Evidence of dairy processing: that is, the preservation of 
milk through fermentation and other techniques. 
o The results are based on molecular chemical analysis 
of residue of pottery found at Kotada Bhadli, in 
Gujarat. 
o Even in the present day, Gujarat is still a major 
producer of dairy products in India. 
• Animal used for dairy production: They studied the tooth 
enamel from fossils of cattle, water buffalo, goat and sheep 
found in the area. Cows and water buffalo were found to 
consume millets, while sheep and goats ate nearby grass 
and leaves. 
o The large herd indicates that milk was produced in 
surplus so that it could be exchanged and there could have been some kind of trade between settlements. 
• Hence, these finding throws a light 
on rural economy of IVC. 
What is the relevance of IVC in present 
times?  
• Town structure: Towns were built 
on a grid pattern with main roads 
cutting lanes and alleys 
perpendicularly.  
o This pattern is the most 
accepted in planned cities. 
• Segregation of public and private 
spheres: Towns were roughly 
divided into two blocks- one for 
public activities- ritual, political and 
festivity, and the other for domestic 
houses.  
o This is followed even now with 
office and public buildings 
separated but in close 
proximity to residencies.  
• Soft diplomacy: Harappan sites are 
found throughout a large area of 
over 1000 sq km, with artefacts also located in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait and the 
UAE. These connections can be used for soft diplomacy today. 
• Trade: Most of the IVC sites had traded items. Indus valley people traded with the Mesopotamians and other 
people from far-away places and that helped diversify the living conditions. It also helped bring in gold and 
About Indus Valley Civilization                                       
• It is one of the four earliest civilizations of the world along with the 
Mesopotamia, Egypt and China. 
• IVC was a cultural and political entity which flourished in the northern 
region of the Indian subcontinent between c. 7000 - c. 600 BCE.  
• Dayaram Sahni first discovered Harappa in 1921. 
• Its modern name derives from its location in the valley of the Indus 
River, but it is also commonly referred to as the Indus-Saraswati 
Civilization (after the Saraswati River mentioned in Vedic sources which 
flowed adjacent to the Indus) and the Harappan Civilization.  
• It remains unclear how the Indus civilization came to an end.  
• The civilization’s southernmost parts may have continued until Iron 
Age civilization developed in India about 1000 BCE.  
Recent IVC related discoveries  
• According to a recent study shifting monsoon patterns linked to 
climate change likely caused the rise and fall of IVC. 
• Bhirrana, Haryana is now considered the oldest discovered IVC site, 
dating back to 7500 BCE. 
o Previously, Mehrgarh, in Pakistan (7000 BCE) was considered the 
oldest site. 
• DNA sample of skeletal remains excavated from Rakhigarhi has claimed 
that inhabitants of IVC were a distinct indigenous people and 
challenges theory of an Aryan invasion ending Harrapan culture. 
 
72                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
precious items. This shows that trade is vital for economy and for earning foreign exchange. It also highlights 
that trade has been an integral part of economic structure in society. 
• Drainage system: Harappans built large cities with very intricate irrigation and sanitation systems using 
technology that can still be found in rural India today. 
• Weights and Measurements: Standardized weights and measures and standard brick size, these are well-
accepted for ease in transactions and building uniformity and have continued to be used from the Indus 
civilization.  
• Ornaments: These were widely used by the people. They wore necklaces, armlets, rings etc. Earrings, girdles 
were also worn by women. Beads were quite popular as is evident from factories found in Chanhudaro and 
Lothal. People were conscious of fashion.  
o In today’s times as well people are conscious of fashion and different styles of jewellery, hairstyles, clothes 
etc are still in vogue. 
• Seals: The standard Harappan seal was a square plaque 2 x 2 sq. inches usually made from the soft river stone 
steatite.   
o It appears that the seals were also used as amulets, carried on the persons of their owners, perhaps as 
modern day identity cards 
• Religion: The people in IVC were polytheistic evidences of Pashupati seal is found. It has been widely suggested 
that the Harappans worshipped a mother goddess who symbolized fertility.  
o The worship of deities and nature is still found in the contemporary religions.  
Places Locations Archaeological Findings 
Harappa Pakistan, River Ravi   Six Granaries, stone symbol of Lingam and Yoni, Mother Goddess figure, 
Sculpture of dog chasing a deer in bronze metal, a Red sandstone male torso. 
Mohenjodaro Pakistan, River Ravi Citadel, the Great Bath, Sculpture of bearded priest, the Great Granary, the 
famous bronze statue of the Dancing Girl and Pashupati seal.  
Dholavira Gujarat, India Giant water reservoir, unique water harnessing system. 
Lothal Gujarat, India Dockyard, fire altars, terracotta figure of horse and ship  
Rakhigarhi Haryana Largest site of Indus Valley civilization, Granary, Terracotta bricks 
Ropar Punjab, India located on 
River Sutlej 
Dog buried with human oval pit burials, Copper axe  
 
Balathal and 
Kalibangan 
Rajasthan, India Bangle factory, toy carts, bones of Camel, decorated bricks, Citadel and 
lower town, fire altar  
Surkotada Gujarat, India  First actual remains of Horse bones 
Banawali Haryana, India on dried up 
River Saraswati 
Beads of semi-precious stones, terracotta, steatite and bangles of clay, shell, 
faience and copper.  
Well-planned fortified township laid in a radial pattern 
Alamgirpur Meerut, Uttar Pradesh on 
River Yamuna 
Eastern most site of IVC, blade made of Copper, Ceramic items 
Mehrgarh Pakistan Precursor to IVC, Pottery and Copper tools have been found 
8.2. 350
TH
 JAYANTI OF BABA BANDA SING BAHADUR 
Why in news? 
The Prime Minister recently paid tribute to Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Ji on his 350th Jayanti. 
About Baba Banda Singh Bahadur (1670-1716) 
• He was a Sikh warrior known for his struggle against the Mughal Empire in the early eighteenth century after 
meeting with Sri Guru Gobind Singh. 
• He was also called Lachman Das, Lachman Dev, or Madho Das and was born in a Minhas Rajput family.  
o He established a monastery at Nanded (in present day Maharashtra), on the bank of river Godavari, 
where in 1708 he was visited by, and became a disciple of, Guru Gobind Singh, who gave him the new 
name of Banda Bahadur. 
• After the fortress town of Gurdas Nangal fell to the Mughals in 1715, Baba Banda Singh was captured and 
brought to Delhi where he was tortured to death in 1716 in the reign of Mohammad Farrukhsiyar. 
Page 3


 
71                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
8. CULTURE 
8.1. EVIDENCE OF DAIRY PRODUCTION IN THE INDUS VALLEY 
CIVILIZATION (IVC)  
Why in news?  
The year 2020 marks 100 years of discovery of IVC or also known as Harappan Civilization., and a new study has 
shown that dairy products were being produced by the Harappans as far back as 2500 BCE. 
Key findings  
• Earliest evidence of industrial level of dairy production: These were based on analysis of the absorbed lipid 
residues in unglazed ceramic vessels.  
• Evidence of dairy processing: that is, the preservation of 
milk through fermentation and other techniques. 
o The results are based on molecular chemical analysis 
of residue of pottery found at Kotada Bhadli, in 
Gujarat. 
o Even in the present day, Gujarat is still a major 
producer of dairy products in India. 
• Animal used for dairy production: They studied the tooth 
enamel from fossils of cattle, water buffalo, goat and sheep 
found in the area. Cows and water buffalo were found to 
consume millets, while sheep and goats ate nearby grass 
and leaves. 
o The large herd indicates that milk was produced in 
surplus so that it could be exchanged and there could have been some kind of trade between settlements. 
• Hence, these finding throws a light 
on rural economy of IVC. 
What is the relevance of IVC in present 
times?  
• Town structure: Towns were built 
on a grid pattern with main roads 
cutting lanes and alleys 
perpendicularly.  
o This pattern is the most 
accepted in planned cities. 
• Segregation of public and private 
spheres: Towns were roughly 
divided into two blocks- one for 
public activities- ritual, political and 
festivity, and the other for domestic 
houses.  
o This is followed even now with 
office and public buildings 
separated but in close 
proximity to residencies.  
• Soft diplomacy: Harappan sites are 
found throughout a large area of 
over 1000 sq km, with artefacts also located in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait and the 
UAE. These connections can be used for soft diplomacy today. 
• Trade: Most of the IVC sites had traded items. Indus valley people traded with the Mesopotamians and other 
people from far-away places and that helped diversify the living conditions. It also helped bring in gold and 
About Indus Valley Civilization                                       
• It is one of the four earliest civilizations of the world along with the 
Mesopotamia, Egypt and China. 
• IVC was a cultural and political entity which flourished in the northern 
region of the Indian subcontinent between c. 7000 - c. 600 BCE.  
• Dayaram Sahni first discovered Harappa in 1921. 
• Its modern name derives from its location in the valley of the Indus 
River, but it is also commonly referred to as the Indus-Saraswati 
Civilization (after the Saraswati River mentioned in Vedic sources which 
flowed adjacent to the Indus) and the Harappan Civilization.  
• It remains unclear how the Indus civilization came to an end.  
• The civilization’s southernmost parts may have continued until Iron 
Age civilization developed in India about 1000 BCE.  
Recent IVC related discoveries  
• According to a recent study shifting monsoon patterns linked to 
climate change likely caused the rise and fall of IVC. 
• Bhirrana, Haryana is now considered the oldest discovered IVC site, 
dating back to 7500 BCE. 
o Previously, Mehrgarh, in Pakistan (7000 BCE) was considered the 
oldest site. 
• DNA sample of skeletal remains excavated from Rakhigarhi has claimed 
that inhabitants of IVC were a distinct indigenous people and 
challenges theory of an Aryan invasion ending Harrapan culture. 
 
72                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
precious items. This shows that trade is vital for economy and for earning foreign exchange. It also highlights 
that trade has been an integral part of economic structure in society. 
• Drainage system: Harappans built large cities with very intricate irrigation and sanitation systems using 
technology that can still be found in rural India today. 
• Weights and Measurements: Standardized weights and measures and standard brick size, these are well-
accepted for ease in transactions and building uniformity and have continued to be used from the Indus 
civilization.  
• Ornaments: These were widely used by the people. They wore necklaces, armlets, rings etc. Earrings, girdles 
were also worn by women. Beads were quite popular as is evident from factories found in Chanhudaro and 
Lothal. People were conscious of fashion.  
o In today’s times as well people are conscious of fashion and different styles of jewellery, hairstyles, clothes 
etc are still in vogue. 
• Seals: The standard Harappan seal was a square plaque 2 x 2 sq. inches usually made from the soft river stone 
steatite.   
o It appears that the seals were also used as amulets, carried on the persons of their owners, perhaps as 
modern day identity cards 
• Religion: The people in IVC were polytheistic evidences of Pashupati seal is found. It has been widely suggested 
that the Harappans worshipped a mother goddess who symbolized fertility.  
o The worship of deities and nature is still found in the contemporary religions.  
Places Locations Archaeological Findings 
Harappa Pakistan, River Ravi   Six Granaries, stone symbol of Lingam and Yoni, Mother Goddess figure, 
Sculpture of dog chasing a deer in bronze metal, a Red sandstone male torso. 
Mohenjodaro Pakistan, River Ravi Citadel, the Great Bath, Sculpture of bearded priest, the Great Granary, the 
famous bronze statue of the Dancing Girl and Pashupati seal.  
Dholavira Gujarat, India Giant water reservoir, unique water harnessing system. 
Lothal Gujarat, India Dockyard, fire altars, terracotta figure of horse and ship  
Rakhigarhi Haryana Largest site of Indus Valley civilization, Granary, Terracotta bricks 
Ropar Punjab, India located on 
River Sutlej 
Dog buried with human oval pit burials, Copper axe  
 
Balathal and 
Kalibangan 
Rajasthan, India Bangle factory, toy carts, bones of Camel, decorated bricks, Citadel and 
lower town, fire altar  
Surkotada Gujarat, India  First actual remains of Horse bones 
Banawali Haryana, India on dried up 
River Saraswati 
Beads of semi-precious stones, terracotta, steatite and bangles of clay, shell, 
faience and copper.  
Well-planned fortified township laid in a radial pattern 
Alamgirpur Meerut, Uttar Pradesh on 
River Yamuna 
Eastern most site of IVC, blade made of Copper, Ceramic items 
Mehrgarh Pakistan Precursor to IVC, Pottery and Copper tools have been found 
8.2. 350
TH
 JAYANTI OF BABA BANDA SING BAHADUR 
Why in news? 
The Prime Minister recently paid tribute to Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Ji on his 350th Jayanti. 
About Baba Banda Singh Bahadur (1670-1716) 
• He was a Sikh warrior known for his struggle against the Mughal Empire in the early eighteenth century after 
meeting with Sri Guru Gobind Singh. 
• He was also called Lachman Das, Lachman Dev, or Madho Das and was born in a Minhas Rajput family.  
o He established a monastery at Nanded (in present day Maharashtra), on the bank of river Godavari, 
where in 1708 he was visited by, and became a disciple of, Guru Gobind Singh, who gave him the new 
name of Banda Bahadur. 
• After the fortress town of Gurdas Nangal fell to the Mughals in 1715, Baba Banda Singh was captured and 
brought to Delhi where he was tortured to death in 1716 in the reign of Mohammad Farrukhsiyar. 
 
73                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• Contribution of Banda Bahadur 
o He was known for the abolition of the zamindari 
system, and granting proprietary rights to the actual 
tillers of the land. 
o He minted coins in the names of Guru Nanak Dev and 
Guru Gobind Singh and issued orders under his seal.  
o The name of Mukhlisgarh in Haryana was changed to 
Lohgarh (Fort of Steel), and it became the capital of the 
first Sikh state. 
8.3. NOBEL PRIZE IN LITERATURE 
Why in news? 
The Nobel Prize in Literature 2020 was awarded to Louise Glück "for her unmistakable poetic voice that with 
austere beauty makes individual existence universal." 
About Louise Glück  
• The Nobel Prize in Literature is given by 
Royal Swedish Academy for a writer’s 
entire body of work and is regarded as 
perhaps the world’s most prestigious 
literary award. 
• Glück is the first female poet to win the 
prize since Polish writer Wislawa 
Szymborska won in 1996. 
• Born in New York City in 1943, Glück has 
written 12 collections of poetry and 2 
books of essays.  
• She has also won the Pulitzer Prize for 
Poetry in 1993 for her work ‘The Wild Iris’ 
written in 1992. 
• Her themes include childhood, family life, trauma, death and healing. 
 
Contemporaries of Baba Banda Singh Bahadur 
• Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708) – He was 
10
th
 Sikh Guru who transformed Sikhs into 
a martial race and established Khalsa (Pure) 
Panth. 
• Shah Alam (1643-1712) – He was 7
th
 Mughal 
Emperor and son of Aurangzeb. 
About Nobel Prize 
• Nobel Prizes, as designated in the will of Alfred Nobel, are in 
physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and 
peace. 
• It is not awarded posthumously and is awarded to maximum 
of three person for single category. 
• Alfred Nobel specifically designated the institutions 
responsible for the prizes he wished to be established:  
o The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for the Nobel 
Prize in Physics and Chemistry,  
o Karolinska Institute for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or 
Medicine,  
o The Royal Swedish Academy for the Nobel Prize in 
Literature 
o Committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian 
Parliament (Storting) for the Nobel Peace Prize. 
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