December 2020: Current Affairs History Notes | EduRev

Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly

UPSC : December 2020: Current Affairs History Notes | EduRev

The document December 2020: Current Affairs History Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly.
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International Bharati Festival 2020

➤ Context

The Prime Minister recently addressed the 2020 virtual International Bharati Festival, organized by the Tamil Nadu Cultural Centre of Vanavil.

  1. The event celebrates the 138th anniversary of the birth (11 December 2020) of Mahakavi Subramanya Bharati, a Tamil poet and author.
  2. Scholar Seeni Viswanathan has received the Bharathi Award for 2020.
    • Bharathi Award was instituted in 1994 by Vanavil Cultural Centre.
    • It is conferred annually on eminent individuals who have performed laudable service in any field of social relevance and thus worked towards the fulfilment of the dreams of Bharati.

➤ Major Points

  1. Born on 11th December 1882, in Ettayapuram, Madras Presidency. 
  2. Profile:
    • The "Father of Modern Tamil Style" is considered an outstanding Indian writer of the Nationalist period (1885-1920). 
    • He is known as 'Mahakavi Bharathiyar' as well. 
    • He was driven to fight for self-determination by his strong sense of social justice.
  3. Role During the Nationalist Period:
    • After 1904, he joined Swadesamitran, the Tamil newspaper, which led to his involvement in the Indian National Congress (INC) party's extremist wing.
    • To proclaim its revolutionary passion, Bharathi had the weekly newspaper named 'India' printed in red paper.
  4. It was the first paper to publish political cartoons in Tamil Nadu. 
    • He has also published and edited a few other "Vijaya" journals as well. 
    • He attended INC's annual sessions and spoke with extremist leaders such as Bipin Chandra Pal, B.G. Tilak and V.V.S. Iyer about national issues. 
  5. Due to his patriotic enthusiasm, his involvement and activities in the Benaras Session (1905) and Surat Session (1907) impressed many national leaders.
  6. He published " Sudesa Geethangal" in 1908.
  7. He was forced to flee to Puducherry (earlier known as Pondicherry), a French colony, where he lived in exile from 1910 to 1919.
  8. Rabindranath's reaction to the Russian revolutions of 1917 is a praiseworthy example of his political philosophy.

 Important Works:

  1. Kannan pattu (1917; Songs to Krishna), Panchali sapatham (1912; Panchali's Vow), Kuyil pattu (1912; Kuyil's Song), Pudiya Russia and Gnanaratham (Chariot of Wisdom).
  2. He also published some of his works in his Agni and Other Poems and Translations and Essays and Other Prose Fragments  (1937).

Died on 11th September 1921

Significance:

Poet's definition of progress was very important for women. 

  • He wrote that it's good for women to walk with their heads held high, looking people in the eye. 
  • The government is inspired by this vision and is moving forward. 
  • He showed a careful balance between the ancient and the modern.

Hampi Stone Chariot

➤ Context

The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has taken several steps to preserve the stone chariot from Delhi.

  • ASI is the premier organization for archaeological research and the protection of the nation's cultural heritage under the Ministry of Culture.

➤ Major Points

Hampi Chariot: 

  1. In India, it is one of three fabulous stone chariots, the other two being Konark (Odisha) and Mahabalipuram (Tamil Nadu).
  2. It was built in the 16th century on the orders of the Vijayanagara ruler, King Krishnadevaraya.
  • Vijayanagara rulers reigned from 14th to 17th century CE.
  • It is a shrine dedicated to Garuda, Lord Vishnu's official vehicle.

➤ Vittala Temple:

  • It was built in the 15th century during Devaraya II, one of the Vijayanagara Empire rulers.
  • It is dedicated to Vittala and is also known as the Temple of Vijaya Vittala.
  • Vittala is said to be an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. 
  • The Dravidian style adorns the complex's construction, which is further reinforced with elaborate carvings.

➤ Hampi:

  • It consists mainly of the remnants of the Vijayanagara Empire's capital city. It is situated in central Karnataka in the Tungabhadra basin. 
  • Harihara and Bukka founded it in 1336. 
  • Classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site (1986), it is also the world's largest open-air museum. 
  • Krishna Temple Complex, Narasimha, Ganesa, Hemakuta Temple Group, Achyutaraya Temple Complex, Vitthala Temple Complex, Pattabhirama Temple Complex, Lotus Mahal Complex, etc.
  • The Battle of Talikota (1565 CE) resulted in its physical fabric being massively destroyed.
  • The Battle of Talikota, a confrontation between the forces of the Hindu King of Vijayanagar and the four Allied Muslim sultans of Bijapur, Bidar, Ahmadnagar and Golconda in the Deccan region of southern India. 

Vijayanagara Empire

  • The name of both a city and an empire was Vijayanagara, or "city of victory." 
  • The empire was founded by Harihara and Bukka of the Sangama dynasty in the fourteenth century (1336 AD). 
  • From the Krishna River in the north to the extreme south of the peninsula.

Four important dynasties ruled Vijayanagar Empire, and they are:

  1. Sangama 
  2. Saluva
  3. Tuluva
  4. Aravidu
  • The most famous Vijayanagar ruler was Krishnadevaraya (reigned 1509-29) of the Tuluva dynasty. The expansion and consolidation characterized his rule.
  • Building some fine temples and adding impressive gopurams to many important South Indian temples are credited to him. He also established, after his mother, a suburban township near Vijayanagar called Nagalapuram. 
  • In Telugu, he composed a work on statecraft known as  Just like Amuktamalyada.

Dravidian architecture, spread through the Vijayanagara rulers' patronage, survives in the rest of South India.  In secular buildings such as the Queen's Bath and the Elephant Stables, Vijayanagara architecture is also known for its adoption of Indo Islamic Architecture elements, representing a highly evolved multi-religious and multi-ethnic society.

List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity UNESCO

➤ Context:

Singapore's Hawker Culture was inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity at the 15th online meeting of the Intergovernmental Committee (IGC).

➤ Major points:

Hawker Culture in Singapore: 

  • It is a living heritage shared in community dining spaces called hawker centres by those who prepare hawker food and dine and mingle over hawker food.
  • It represents Singapore's multicultural identity as a people and nation and resonates strongly with all races and social strata of Singaporeans.

UNESCO's List of Intangible Cultural Heritage: 

  1. This coveted list comprises those elements of intangible heritage that help demonstrate cultural heritage diversity and raise awareness of its importance.
  2. The list was established in 2008 when the Convention for Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage came into effect.
  3. India's National List of Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) draft has also been launched by the Ministry of Culture.
    • The National ICH List attempts to recognize the diversity of Indian culture embedded in its intangible heritage. 
    • This initiative is also a part of the Vision 2024 of the Ministry of Culture.

Other Initiatives of UNESCO 

  1. Man and Biosphere Programme: 
    • Biosphere Reserves focus on the harmonized management of biological and cultural diversity. 
    • India has 12 biosphere reserves out of 18 reported biosphere reserves under the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR), the Panna Biosphere Reserve's most recent.
  2. World Heritage Programme:
    • World Heritage Sites promote the conservation of natural and cultural sites of outstanding universal value. 
    • India has 38 sites of world heritage, including 30 cultural estates, 7 natural estates and 1 mixed site. Jaipur city, Rajasthan, is the latest one included.
  3. UNESCO Global Geopark Network:
    • UNESCO Global Geoparks are recognized internationally for sites that support the importance and importance of protecting the Earth's geodiversity by engaging actively with local communities.
    • India does not have any UNESCO Global geopark. 
  4. UNESCO's Network of Creative Cities:
  5. In 2004, the UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) was established to foster cooperation between and with cities that identified creativity as a strategic factor for sustainable urban development.
  6. Seven creative fields are covered by the Network: craft and folk arts, media arts, film, design, gastronomy, literature and music.

➤ There are five Indian cities in UCCN as follows: 

  1. Hyderabad-Gastronomy (2019). 
  2. Mumbai-Film (2019). 
  3. Chennai-Creative city of Music (2017). 
  4. Jaipur-Crafts and Folk Arts (2015). 
  5. Varanasi-Creative city of Music (2015)
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