Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Business Mathematics and Statistics

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B Com : Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

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Definite Integrals

Integration can be used to find areas, volumes, central points and many useful things. But it is often used to find the area under the graph of a function like this:

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

The area can be found by adding slices that approach zero in width:

And there are Rules of Integration that help us get the answer.

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Notation

he symbol for "Integral" is a stylish "S"
 (for "Sum", the idea of summing slices):

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev
 

After the Integral Symbol we put the function we want to find the integral of (called the Integrand),

and then finish with dx to mean the slices go in the x direction (and approach zero in width).

Definite Integral

Definite Integral has start and end values: in other words there is an interval (a to b).

The values are put at the bottom and top of the "S", like this:

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

We can find the Definite Integral by calculating the Indefinite Integral at points a and b, then subtracting:

Example:

The Definite Integral, from 1 to 2, of 2x dx:
Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Subtract:

(22 + C) − (12 + C)

22 + C − 12 − C

4 − 1 + C − C = 3

And "C" gets cancelled out ... so with Definite Integrals we can ignore C.

In fact we can give the answer directly like this:

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Check: with such a simple shape, let's also try calculating the area by geometry:
Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Yes, it does have an area of 3.

(Yay!)

Let's try another example:

Example:

The Definite Integral, from 0.5 to 1.0, of cos(x) dx:

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

(Note: x must be in radians)

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev
 The Indefinite Integral is:Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev
 We can ignore C when we do the subtraction (as we saw above):

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

And another example to make an important point:

Example:

The Definite Integral, from 1 to 3, of cos(x) dx

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Notice that some of it is positive, and some negative.
 The definite integral will work out the net area.

The Indefinite Integral is:cos(x) dx = sin(x) + C

So let us do the calculationsDefinite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

 

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

So there is more negative than positive parts, with the net result of −0.700....

Example: What is the area between y = cos(x) and the x-axis from x = 1 to x = 3?

This is like the example we just did, but all area is positive (imagine you had to paint it).

So now we have to do the parts separately:

  • One for the area above the x-axis
  • One for the area below the x-axis

The curve crosses the x-axis at x = π/2 so we have:

From 1 to π/2:

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev
 From π/2 to 3:

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

That last one comes out negative, but we want it to be positive, so:

Total area = 0.159... + 0.859... = 1.018...

This is very different from the answer in the previous example.

Continuous

Oh yes, the function we are integrating must be Continuous between a and b: no holes, jumps or vertical asymptotes (where the function heads up/down towards infinity).

Example:

A vertical asymptote between a and b affects the definite integral.  Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Properties

Reversing the interval

Reversing the direction of the interval gives the negative of the original direction. Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Interval of zero length   Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

When the interval starts and ends at the same place, the result is zero:

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Adding intervals   Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

We can also add two adjacent intervals together:

Definite integration, Business Mathematics & Statistics B Com Notes | EduRev

Summary
The Definite Integral between a and b is the Indefinite Integral at b minus the Indefinite Integral ata.

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