Many FM detector circuits exist. One common method for recovering the information signal is through a Foster-Seeley discriminator. A phase-lock loop can be used as an FM demodulator. Slope detection demodulates an FM signal by using a tuned circuit, which has its resonant frequency slightly offset from the carrier frequency. As the frequency rises and falls, the tuned circuit provides a changing amplitude of response, converting FM to AM. AM receivers may detect some FM transmissions by this means, though it does not provide an efficient method of detection for FM broadcasts
APPLICATIONS: MAGNETIC TAPE STORAGE:
FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by all analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record both the luminance (black and white) and the chrominance portions of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video to and retrieving video from Magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of frequency components — from a few hertz to several megahertz, too wide for equalizers to work with due to electronic noise below −60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, and therefore acts as a form of noise reduction, and a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output, and the FM capture effect removes print-through and pre-echo. A continuous pilot-tone, if added to the signal — as was done on V2000 and many Hi-band formats — can keep mechanical jitter under control and assist time base correction. These FM systems are unusual in that they have a ratio of carrier to maximum modulation frequency of less than two; contrast this with FM audio broadcasting where the ratio is around 10,000. Consider for example a 6 MHz carrier modulated at a 3.5 MHz rate; by Bessel analysis the first sidebands are on 9.5 and 2.5 MHz, while the second sidebands are on 13 MHz and −1 MHz The result is a sideband of reversed phase on +1 MHz; on demodulation, this results in an unwanted output at 6−1 = 5 MHz The system must be designed so that this is at an acceptable level.
FM is also used at audio frequencies to synthesize sound. This technique, known as FM synthesis, was popularized by early digital synthesizers and became a standard feature for several generations of personal computer sound cards.
RADIO: The wideband FM (WFM) requires a wider signal bandwidth than amplitude modulation by an equivalent modulating signal, but this also makes the signal more robust against noise and interference. Frequency modulation is also more robust against simple signal amplitude fading phenomena. As a result, FM was chosen as the modulation standard for high frequency, high fidelity radio transmission: hence the term "FM radio" (although for many years the BBC called it "VHF radio", because commercial FM broadcasting uses a well-known part of the VHF band—the FM broadcast band). FM receivers employ a special detector for FM signals and exhibit a phenomenon called capture effect, where the tuner is able to clearly receive the stronger of two stations being broadcast on the same frequency. Problematically however, frequency drift or lack of selectivity may cause one station or signal to be suddenly overtaken by another on an adjacent channel. Frequency drift typically constituted a problem on very old or inexpensive receivers, while inadequate selectivity may plague any tuner.
An FM signal can also be used to carry a stereo signal: see FM stereo. However, this is done by using multiplexing and demultiplexing before and after the FM process. The rest of this article ignores the stereo multiplexing and demultiplexing process used in "stereo FM", and concentrates on the FM modulation and demodulation process, which is identical in stereo and mono processes. A high-efficiency radio-frequency switching amplifier can be used to transmit FM signals (and other constant-amplitude signals). For a given signal strength (measured at the receiver antenna), switching amplifiers use less battery power and typically cost less than a linear amplifier. This gives FM another advantage over other modulation schemes that require linear amplifiers, such as AM and QAM
FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for highfidelity broadcasts of music and speech (see FM broadcasting). Normal (analog) TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A narrow band form is used for voice communications in commercial and amateur radio settings. In broadcast services, where audio fidelity is important, wideband FM is generally used. In two-way radio, narrowband FM (NBFM) is used to conserve bandwidth for land mobile radio stations, marine mobile, and many other radio services.amplifier.
VARACTOR FM MODULATOR:
schemes that require linear amplifiers, such as AM and QAM.
Varactor FM Modulator
Another fm modulator which is widely used in transistorized circuitry uses a voltage-variable capacitor (VARACTOR). The varactor is simply a diode, or pn junction, that is designed to have a certain amount of capacitance between junctions. View (A) of figure 2 shows the varactor schematic symbol. A diagram of a varactor in a simple oscillator circuit is shown in view (B).This is not a working circuit, but merely a simplified illustration. The capacitance of a varactor, as with regular capacitors, is determined by the area of the capacitor plates and the distance between the plates. The depletion region in the varactor is the dielectric and is located between the p and n elements, which serve as the plates. Capacitance is varied in the varactor by varying the reverse bias which controls the thickness of the depletion region. The varactor is so designed that the change in www.VidyarthiPlus.in www.VidyarthiPlus.in capacitance is linear with the change in the applied voltage. This is a special design characteristic of the varactor diode. The varactor must not be forward biased because it cannot tolerate much current flow. Proper circuit design prevents the application of forward bias.