Detailed Notes: Human Body and Nutrition(Part - 4) Class 5 Notes | EduRev

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Class 5 : Detailed Notes: Human Body and Nutrition(Part - 4) Class 5 Notes | EduRev

The document Detailed Notes: Human Body and Nutrition(Part - 4) Class 5 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 5 Course Science Class 5.
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Vitamins
Vitamins are required for the healthy functioning of the body. Vitamins are required in very small quantity by our bodies. If required quantities of vitamins are not present in our diet, then one can fall ill. The various vitamins required by our body are vitamin A, B-complex, C, D, E and K. Vitamin B-complex includes vitamin B1, B2, B6 and B12.

Detailed Notes: Human Body and Nutrition(Part - 4) Class 5 Notes | EduRev

Fig: Vitamins

Our body gets vitamins from outside sources such as plants. Vitamin D can be manufactured in the body, when the body comes in the contact of sunlight.

Vitamin

Source

Function

Deficiency Disease

A

Spinach, carrots, pumpkins, butter, sweet potatoes, fish-liver oil,

Keping eyes, hair and skin healthy

Poor vision, night blindness, low resistance to disease

B1

Eggs meat, all cereals, yeast, milk

Helps in proper functioning of digestive and nervous system

Weakness and beriberi

B2

Eggs, peas, beans, milk, green vegetables, fish, meat

Keeping skin and mouth healthy

Poor growth, bad skin, sons in mouth

B6

Wheat, other cereals, potatoes, tomatoes, meat, fish, peanuts

Keeping skin, nervous and digestive systems healthy

Pellagra

B12

Animal products such as meat, fish, liver, eggs, milk

Helps in the formation of blood and proper growth

Anaemia

C

All fresh fruits, especially citrus fruits, guava, amla tomatoes

Keeping gums and joints healthy and building resistance to infections

A disease called scurvy bleeding gums, loose teeth and aching joints

D

Fish-liver oil, milk, butter. Sunlight helps the body to produce this vitamin

Building strong bones and teeth

Rickets in children and soft bones in adults

K

Green vegetables, tomaties, yolk of

Clotting of blood

Excessive bleeding after injury


Minerals
Minerals are also required in small quantities by our body. Various minerals are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, iron, fluorine, sulphur, phosphorus and iodine. Food consists of compounds that contain these elements. For example, common salt contains sodium, chloride and iodine. Calcium is present in milk, green vegetables and beans. Calcium is required for the growth and maintenance of bones and muscles. Iron is present in cereals, pulses, meat, leafy vegetables and eggs. Iron is essential for the formation of blood.

Water
Most of the weight of a person is due to water content in the body. Water is very essential for the existence of organisms. Water carries the digested food around the body. Water is the constituent of blood and carries chemicals and gases throughout the body. Water is responsible for regulating the body temperature.
Roughage
Roughage or fibre is required for the smooth functioning of digestive system. Roughage swells up in the intestine by absorbing water and helps in smooth movement of digested food in intestine. Fibre is present in whole grain flour, whole pulses/green peas, leafy vegetables and fruits.
Balanced Diet
Diet is the food that we eat. A diet that contains all the nutrients required by the body in the right proportion is called a balanced diet. A balanced diet is required by our body for its proper functioning. Thus for proper health of the body, foods that provide sufficient amount of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins must be included in the diet. Both fats and carbohydrates provide energy to body, more amount of carbohydrates and less amount of fats should be included in diet. This is because the fats are difficult to digest and fat deposition causes obesity and many other diseases. In addition, one must drink sufficient amount of water. The diet should also include roughage.
Deficiency Diseases
If there is not a proper intake of food then a person suffers from malnutrition. The malnourished body does not function properly, and the person can suffer from diseases. Children suffering from malnutrition have slow mental and physical growth and catches infection easily.

Human Body & Food

Detailed Notes: Human Body and Nutrition(Part - 4) Class 5 Notes | EduRevFig: Essential food for Human Body


FUNDAMENTAL
Human body is a complex machine, made up of different organs and organ systems, 

HUMAN BODY:
Different organ systems perform a specified function of the body in co-ordination with each other. 

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
It is concerned with carrying oxygen from air to the tissue level for functioning. 

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: 
Breaks the complex food into smaller substances after digestion which can be used for producing energy. 

NERVOUS SYSTEMS:
 It controls and co-ordinates different organ systems with input from sensory organs. 

MUSCULAR SYSTEMS:
Helps in movement. 

CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS:
Helps in transportation of nutrients and other substances.

EXECRATORY SYSTEMS:
End products or toxic products removal from the body.

SKELETAL SYSTEMS:
Frame work of bones which gives support to the human body. Skeleton has 206 bones in adult. 

SKULL:
Skull consists of 28 bones which protects the brain. All bones of skull are immovable except the lower jaw which helps in eating and talking. In lower and upper jaw, we have teeth for cutting and chewing food

Detailed Notes: Human Body and Nutrition(Part - 4) Class 5 Notes | EduRevFig: Skull of a Human


RIB CAGE:
It is formed by the vertebral column, ribs, and sternum and encloses the heart and lungs. In humans, the rib cage, also known as the thoracic cage, is a bony and cartilaginous structure which  surrounds the thoracic cavity and supports the pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle), forming a core portion of the human skeleton.

Detailed Notes: Human Body and Nutrition(Part - 4) Class 5 Notes | EduRevFig: Structure of Rib Cage

BACK BONES

It protects the spinal cord. It is not a single bone but made up of 33 small bones, called vertebral column. Higher animal e.g., Tiger, Frog, etc. have back bone and called vertebrates. Whereas lower animal e.g., snails and earthworms do not have a backbones and are called invertebrates Thigh bone (Femur) is the largest bone of the body.

STAPES:
Stapes is the smallest bone of the body which is found in ear. 

JOINTS:
The place where two bones meet is called a joint. Joint can be movable or immovable. Except the lower jaw all other skull bones are connected through immovable joint. Movable joints provide a wide variety of movement at the joint. There are four kinds of joints in our body.

  • Hinge joint: - These joints work like the hinge in the door. This kind of joint only allows back and forth movement in different directions. Bones in the knee, elbow, fingers and toes have these types of joints.
  • Pivot joint: - This type of joint is found between the first two vertebrae of our back bone. It allows moving the head up, down and sideways.
  • Ball and socket joint- This type of joint allows movement in different directions. The shoulder joint and the hip joint are examples of ball and socket joint.
  • Gliding joint: - This type of joint is found in the bone of the wrist and the ankles. It allows these bones to slide against each other in a sliding/gliding motion.

NERVOUS SYSTEM: 
It consists of the brain, the spinal cord and the network of nerves. Neuron is the nervous cell

  • Brain: Brain is the controlling centre of all the activities that takes place in our body. It receives information from all parts of the body and sends instruction to muscles.
  • Brain consists of the Cerebrum, Cerebellum and Medulla or Brain stem.
  • Cerebrum: It is the largest part of the brain and is associated with learning, memory intelligence and logic.
  • Cerebellum: It is situated below and behind the cerebrum and is responsible for muscle co-ordination and balance of the body.
  • Medulla or Brain stem: It controls involuntary activities such as heartbeat, respiration, swallowing and sneezing.

Detailed Notes: Human Body and Nutrition(Part - 4) Class 5 Notes | EduRevMajor Parts of Nervous System

SPINAL CORD:
It is the external prolonged of the brain, which is protected by vertebral column. It is responsible for the transfer of information between brain and the rest of the body. It even controls the actions without involving the brain through reflex action.
NERVES:
Network of nerves runs throughout the body. Sensory nerves pass through the spinal cord and carry messages to the brain. Motor nerves carry message back from the brain.
REFLEX ACTION:
Are automatic reaction of the body, that doesn't need thinking (involvement of brain) and deals at spinal level.

NUTRITION:
Nutrition is the process through which organism takes in and utilizes materials to support growth and repair of the body parts.
FOOD:
Food contains chemical substance known as nutrients that are required by all living organisms. Our body requires carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins. In addition to the five nutrients our body also requires water and roughage (fibers).

BALANCE DIET:
A diet that contains adequate amount of different component in right proportion is called a balanced diet.

Detailed Notes: Human Body and Nutrition(Part - 4) Class 5 Notes | EduRevFig: A Balanced Diet


Food Components Functions and Sources and their Functions

Food Components

Functions

Sources

Carbohydrates

Energy giving foods

Rice, wheat, sugar, potato                                    

Fats

Energy giving foods

Oil, butter, ghee, milk, cheese

Protiens

Body building foods

Eggs, meat, fish, milk, pulses

Vitamins

Protective foods

Fruits and Vegetables

Minerals

Protective foods

Fruits, vegetables, milk, eggs

Roughage

Prevent constipation

Cereals, fresh vegetables, fruits and salad


CARBOHYDRATE:
Consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are major food source and key form of energy for most of the organisms. When combined together to form polymers chains), carbohydrates can function as long-term food storage molecules, as protective membranes for organisms and cells, and as the main structural support for plants.

FATS:

Fat also contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but its produces more than double energy than carbohydrates or protein.

PROTEIN:
It contains nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. These are made up of amino-acids. Proteins are required for growth and repair of our body.

VITAMIN:
Vitamins are required in very small quantity but are very much required for healthy function of the body and their deficiency may lead to different disease.

Different vitamins, their sources and deficiency/disease.

Vitamin

Function

Source

Deficiency/Disease

A

Keeps eyes, hair and skin healthy

Spinach, carrots, pumpkins butter, sweet, potatoes, fish-liver oil,

Poor vision, night blindness

B1

Helps in proper functioning of digestive and nervous system

Egg, meat, all cereals, yeast, milk

Weakness, beriberi

B2

Keeps skin and mouth healthy

Egg, peas, beans, milk, green vegetables, fish, meat

Poor growth, bad skin mouth ulcer

B6

Keeps skin nourishing and digestive system healthy

Wheat and other cereals, potatoes tomatoes, meat, fish, peanuts

Pellagra

B12

Helps in the formation of blood and proper growth

Animal product such as meat, fish, liver, eggs, milk

Anemia

C

Keeping gums and joints healthy and building resistance to infections

All fresh fruits, especially citrus fruits, guava, amla, tomatoes

A disease called scurvy, bleeding gums, loose teeth and aching joints

D

Building strong bones and teeth

Fish-liver oil, milk, butter. Sunlight helps the body to produce this vitamin

Rickets in children  and soft bones in adults

K

Clothing of blood

Green vegetables, tomatoes, yolk of egg

Excessive bleeding after injury



MINERALS:

Minerals are made of elements. Elements are simple substances that cannot be broken down into any other substance. The name of an element is written down as a combination of letters called symbol, e.g., sodium is Na; chlorine is Cl. Salt, a combination of sodium and chlorine is written as NaCl.

WATER:  

It is very important constituent as it provides medium in which chemical reaction happen in the body.

ROUGHAGE:

 It is required for smooth functioning of the digestive system. It retains water in intestine.

DISEASE:

Disease is a state in which a function or part of the body is no longer in a healthy condition. Disease could be of different type depending upon their causes. 

DEFICIENCY DISEASE:                                    

Due to deficiency of a particular food components   such as protein, energy giving vitamins or   minerals, e.g.,

Kwashiorkor, Marasmus, Pellagra, Goiter, Anemia. 

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

These are the disease which can spread from one    person to another. They are spread by germs. (e.g., bacteria, virus etc.)

NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE

These diseases don't spread from one person to another person, e.g., Hypertensions, Diabetes, etc.

Table showing disease caused by germs and their mode of transmission 


Types of germs

Modes of transmission

Disease caused

Bacteria

Water

Cholera, typhoid

 

Air

Tuberculosis

Viruses

Air

Common cold, flu, viral fever, measles and mumps

 

Water

Dysentry

Protozoa

Insect bites

Malaria

Fungus

 

Ringworm


We can protect ourselves by taking vaccines, important vaccines available are-

 

Vaccines

Related Disease

Oral Polio vaccine

Polio

BCG vaccine

Tuberculosis

DPT vaccine

Diphtherias, Pertusis, Tetanus

Measles vaccine

Measles

MMR

Measles, Mumps, Rubella

Oral Typhoid vaccine

Typhoid

Anti-Rabies vaccine

Rabies

  • Proper sanitation and cleanliness protect us from diseases
  • Mosquito bites should be prevented as it spreads malaria, dengue, and chikungunya and filarial. We can stop mosquito breeding by checking water collection and sanitation of nearby areas.
  • Those whose suffer from diarrhea should be given solution of water, sugar and salt. (ORS solution) which prevents lack of water (dehydration) in the body.
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