Determinacy & Indeterminacy of Structures Notes | EduRev

Structural Analysis

GATE : Determinacy & Indeterminacy of Structures Notes | EduRev

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Static and Kinematic Indeterminacy

  1. Statically Determinate Structures
    Conditions of equilibrium are sufficient to analyse the structure. Bending moment and shear force is independent of the cross-sectional area of the components and flexural rigidity of the members. No stresses are caused due to temperature change. No stresses are caused due to lack of fit or differential settlement.
  2. Statically Indeterminate Structures
    Additional compatibility conditions are required. Bending moment and shear force depends upon the cross-sectional area and flexural rigidity of the members. Stresses are caused due to temperature variation. Stresses are caused due to lack of fit or differential settlement.Determinacy & Indeterminacy of Structures Notes | EduRev
  3. Static Indeterminacy
    If a structure cannot be analyzed for external and internal reactions using static equilibrium conditions alone then such a structure is called indeterminate structure.(i) DS = DSe + DSi
    Where,
    DS = Degree of staticindeterminacy
    DSe = External static indeterminacy
    DSi = Internal static indeterminacy
    External static indeterminacy: It is related with the support system of the structure and it is equal to number of external reaction components in addition to number of static equilibrium equations.
    (ii) DSe = re - 3 For 2D
    DSe = re – 6 For 3D
    Where, re = total external reactions
    Internal static indeterminacy: It refers to the geometric stability of the structure. If after knowing the external reactions it is not possible to determine all internal forces/internal reactions using static equilibrium equations alone then the structure is said to be internally indeterminate.
    For geometric stability sufficient number of members are required to preserve the shape of rigid body without excessive deformation.
    (iii) DSi = 3C - rr …… For 2D
    DSi = 6C - r…… For 3D
    where, C = number of closed loops.
    and
    rr = released reaction
    (iv) rr = ∑(mj - 1) …… For 2D
    rr = 3∑(mj - 1) ……. For 3D
    where mj = number of member connecting with J number of joints.
    and J = number of hybrid joint.
    (v) Ds = m + r­e – 2j ….. For 2D truss
    DSe = re - 3 & DSi = m – (2j – 3)
    (vi) DS = m + re – 3j ….. For 3D truss
    DSe = re – 6 & DSi = m – (3j - 6)
    (vii) DS = 3m + re – 3j - rr ….. 2D Rigid frame
    (viii) Ds = 6m + r­e – 6j - rr ….. 3D rigid frame
    (ix) D= (re – 6) + (6C – rr) ….. 3D rigid frame
  4. Kinematic Indeterminacy
    It the number of unknown displacement components are greater than the number of compatibility equations, for these structures additional equations based on equilibrium must be written in order to obtain sufficient number of equations for the determination of all the unknown displacement components. The number of these additional equations necessary is known as degree of kinematic indeterminacy or degree of freedom of the structure.
    A fixed beam is kinematically determinate and a simply supported beam is kinematically indeterminate.
    (i) Each joint of plane pin jointed frame has 2 degree of freedom.
    (ii) Each joint of space pin jointed frame has 3 degree of freedom.
    (iii) Each joint of plane rigid jointed frame has 3 degree of freedom.
    (iv) Each joint of space rigid jointed frame has 6 degree of freedom.
    Degree of kinematic indeterminacy is given by:
    Dk = 3j - re ………. For 2D Rigid frame when all members are axially extensible.
    Dk = 3j - re - m ………. For 2D Rigid frame if 'm' members are axially rigid / inextensible.
    Dk = 3(j + j’) - re – m + rr …… For 2D Rigid frame when J' = Number of Hybrid joints is available.
    Dk = 6(j + j’) - re – m + rr ….. For 3D Rigid frame
    Dk = 2(j + j’) - re – m + rr ….. For 2D Pin jointed truss.
    Dk = 3(j + j’) - re – m + rr …… For 3D Pin jointed truss.

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