Direct and indirect speech Class 7 Notes | EduRev

Class 7 : Direct and indirect speech Class 7 Notes | EduRev

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Direct speech
When we give exact words used by the speaker this is called direct speech or narration              
Ex- Rama said ,"Harry is an idle boy".
Note- in the first sentence said is a reporting verb and Harry Is an Idle boy is called the reporting speech
Indirect speech
When we do not give the exact words of the speaker but give only the substance of what he said this is called indirect speech or narration
Ex- Rama said that Harry was an idle boy.
From sentence one we learnt that in the direct speech
1. The exact words of the speaker are put within an inverted commas
2. The first word of the reported speech begins with a capital letter
3. A comma is placed after the reporting verb to separate it from the second part of the sentence
From sentence to be learn that in the indirect speech
1. Reported words are not placed within an inverted comma
2. No comma is placed after said
3. The reported speech is introduced by the conjunction that
The reported verb is is changed into was as the tense of the verb in the reported speech is changed from present to the past
Rules for changing direct speech into indirect
Rule 1 -if the reporting verb is in the present or future tense the verb is in the reported speech is not changed at all for example  
Direct-Tom says,"there is no ink in the inkpot".
Indirect-Tom says that there is no ink in the inkpot
Rule 2 if the reporting verb is in the past tense the verb in the reported speech is also changed to the past tense
1. The simple present becomes simple past
2. The present continuous becomes the past continuous
3. The present perfect become the past perfect
4. May is changed into might can is changed into could
5. The simple past becomes the past perfect
6. The past continuous becomes the past perfect continuous
7. Shall is changed into should will is changed into would

Rule 3 if the reported speech contains some Universal or habit side fat then the simple present in the reported speech is not changed into corresponding simple past but remains unchanged
                     Changes in pronouns
Rule 4 pronoun of the first person indirect speech are changed in indirect speech to the same person as the subject of introductory verb
Rule 5 pronoun of the second person in indirect speech are change in indirect speech to the same person as the noun or pronoun which comes after the introductory verb
Rule 6 pronouns of the third person indirect speech remain the same in the indirect speech but no change of person is made when the speech is reported to the person to whom it was first addressed

Note- in all the above rules the verb said in the direct speech becomes told in indirect and the preposition to is omitted (rule 5 and 6)
Rule 7 when the turning a sentence from direct into indirect speech words showing nearest are changed into words showing distance
Now becomes then
This becomes that
These becomes those
And so on please see in the following table to know more:-

                                                                Questions

In reporting the question in the indirect speech
1 the introductory verb is changed to ask, enquire ,demand, or some other word having a similar meaning
2 weather or if are used after such an introductory work when the direct question has yes or no for an answer
3 the interrogative form is changed into the declarative form
4 the same word is used to introduce the reported speech if the question begins with an interrogative pronoun or adverb such as what, who, which, whom, when, where, how and why

                  Command and Request

In reporting a commando a request in the indirect speech
1 the introductory verb is changed to request, order, command, beseech, device or some other word suiting the sense
2 the poem in the reported speech is put in the infinitive
                   

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