Doc: Road and Road Transport, Ports , Railways and Civil Aviation UPSC Notes | EduRev

Geography for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

UPSC : Doc: Road and Road Transport, Ports , Railways and Civil Aviation UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Doc: Road and Road Transport, Ports , Railways and Civil Aviation UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course Geography for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims.
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Road and Road Transport

  • India has more than 4.86 million km. of road network, making it one of the largest in the world. 
  • National highways and expressways that are the prime arterial route span about 92,851 km. throughout the country and cater to about 40 per cent of the total road transport demand.
  • The National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) was constituted under the National Highway Authority of India Act, 1988 and was made operational in February 1995. 
  • Initially it was entrusted with the task of implementing five externally aided NH improvement projects. Subsequently, it was asked to implement several other projcets including some BOT projects on National Highways.
  • NHAI has been mandated to implement National Highway Development Program (NHDP) which constitutes 4/6 laning of Golden Quadrilateral Connecting Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai-Calcutta-Delhi and North-South and East-West Corridors connecting Kashmir to Kanyakumari and Silchar to Saurashtra respectively and Salem to Cochin. 
  • Border Roads Organisation come into sxistence in 1960.
  • Currently 87.4% of passangers movement and about 60% of freight movement depend on roads.
  • For every one lakh population these are 61 km of road.

Ports

  • India has a very long coastline. There are 12 major ports, and about 200 minor operable ports along the coastline. 
  • The major ports handle approximately 90 per cent of the all-India port throughput. 
  • A new major port at Ennore, 25 kms, North of Chennai is being constructed with the help of ADB Loan with a capacity to handle 16 million Tonnes of Coal at an estimated revised cost of Rs. 927 crore. 
  • The total traffic handled at the major ports has increased from 20 million tonnes in 1951 to 504.75 MTPA as on March 31, 2007. Plan to 463.84 MT in 2006-07 out of which the container traffic was 73.48 MT.
  • The Shipping Corporation of India Ltd. was formed on 2 October, 1961.
  • Approximately, 95 per cent of the country’s trade by volume (70 per cent in terms of value) is moved by sea to organise the training for the mercheunt navy flect of the country in the year 1927 the training ship Dufferin was established.
  • A Tariff Authority for Major Ports (TAMP) set up under the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963 to fix and revise various port charges to be collected by private providers of port facilities has started functioning from April, 1997. 
  • Although the development of minor ports is the responsibility of State Governments, it is also receiving the attention of the Union Ministry of Surface Transport. 
  • To have an integrate approach towards development of major and minor ports, the Maritime State Development Council (MSDC) has been formed.
  • It is likely to emerge as a forum for framing an integrated policy for the entire Indian Port Sector, including the minor ports. 
  • The State Governments of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh have embarked upon ambitious port development programs through private participation.

Railways

  • The Indian Railways consist of an extensive network spread over 64,600 kms, comprising Broad Gauge (55,956 km), Meter Gauge (6347 km) and Narrow gauge (2297 km). Electrified networks of 25,816 km length account for 42 per cent of the total route kilometer.
  • The Railways are the largest employer among Public undertakings in the country. The first train steamed off from Mumbai to thane in 1853, a distance of 34 km.
  • The railways have been discharging a unique and difficult role as both a commercial undertaking as well as a provider of a pubicutility service. 
  • The role of being a public utility service involves a measure of cross-subsidization of passenger service by freight revenues as well as operating certain uneconomic services like those in certain suburban sections and branch lines in order to provide cheap and affordable transport to the public at large.
  • However, the ratio of rail fares for freight to passengers is tilted against the former and is well above the international norms. The high fares for rail freight also divert traffic to roads. 
  • The Railways have also launched a number of schemes to mobilise extra-budgetary resources to meet the needs of growth and development. 
  • In addition to Build-Own-Lease-Transfer (BOLT) and Own Your Wagon Scheme (OYWS) other initiatives to attract private participation include setting up a private terminal and public-private partnership to provide railway connectivity to the new, upcoming ports. Parcel Services of Indian Railways are also being revamped with leasing of space in all front brake vans of passenger trains. 
  • With fast growth in cargo in private sector, it has become possible to other better quality of service by guaranteed clearance of cargo through regular train services. 
  • To augment parcel services, round trip parcel vans are also offered to private cargo carriers.
  • Since 1924-25 railway finances remain Separated from general revenue.
  • Calcutta Metro was started in 1984-85. Now it runs from DamDam to Tollyganj.
  • Delhi Metro was inaugurated by Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the former P.M., on December 24, 2002.
  • The network consists of 6 lines with a total length of 193 km.

Civil Aviation

  • The Civil Aviation sector provides services, which can be categorized as, operational, infrastructural and regulatory-cum-developmental. Domestic and international air services in the country are provided byAir India and private airlines (scheduled and non-scheduled). 
  • Pawan Hans helicopters Ltd. from 1985 basically provides helicopters support services to the petroleum sector including ONGC and Oil India Limited and connects remote and inaccessible areas of the North-Eastern region of the country.
  • It also provides air support services to several customers which include Government of Punjab, Arunachal Pradesh, Lakshadweep Administration, Gas Authority of India Ltd. and in addition also caters to the helicopter requirements of the private sector. Infrastructure facilities are taken care of by the Airports Authority of India (AAI).
  • A part from Air India, Alliance air and Air India charters Ltd, there are at present eight private scheduled operators, vis. 
  • The Airports Authority of India was formed on 1 April, 1995.
  • GPS Aided Geo Augmented Aavigation ‘Gagan’ is an augmentation system to enhance the accuracy and integrity of GPS signals to meet precision approach of requirements in civil Aviation  and is being implemented timothy by AAI and ISRO in three phases.
  • Greenfield airport project at Devanhalli near Bangalor is being implemented on a Build Own Operate and Transfer basis for 30 years with Public Private Participation at a revised cost to Rs. 1930 crores.
  • A Greenfield arirport is being similarly diveloped at shamhabad near Hyderabad.
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