Doc: Water Resources UPSC Notes | EduRev

Geography for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

UPSC : Doc: Water Resources UPSC Notes | EduRev

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  • The average annual water availability of the  country is assessed as 1869 billion cubic matres (BCM). of this, total utilizable water resource is assessed as 1123 BCM, surface water 690 BCM and ground water as 433 BCM.

National Water Management Project

  • National Water Management Project (NWMP) was designed to supplement the resources of the states to promote the process of improved water management through upgradation of the main systems of the selected irrigation schemes. 
  • The basic objective of the project was to improve irrigation coverage and agricultural productivity and thereby increase incomes of farmers in the command through a  more reliable, predictable and equitable irrigation service.
  • The Project being a pilot programme, has been modestly successful. Irrigation management has improved significantly in the schemes completed under NWMP.

Command Area Development Programme

  • A Centrally-sponsored Command Area Development Programme was launched in 1974-75 with the main objective of improving utilisation of irrigation potential and optimising agricultural production and productivity from the irrigated areas by negotiating all functions related with irrigated agriculture.
  • Beginning with 60 major and medium irrigation projects in 1974, the Programme includes 314 irrigation projects at the end of 2006-07 with Culturable Command Area (CCA) of 28.68 mha has spread over 23 states and two union territories.
  • Form 1st April 1, 2004 Water management is included in it.

Minor Irrigation

  • All ground water and surface schemes having CCA upto 2,000 ha individually are classified as minor irrigation schemes. 
  • The development of ground water is mostly done through individual and cooperative efforts of the farmers with the help of generally funded from public sector outlay.

Flood Management

  • Of the country's total geographical area of 329 mha, 40 mha, has been assessed to be the area prone to floods, out of which 32 mha can be taken to be predictable.
  • So far, an area of 18.22 mha has been provided with reasonable degree of flood protecition by means of constructing embankments (16, 199 km), drainage channels (32,003 km), town protection works (906) and by raising villages (4,721).
  • Non-structural measures like flood plain zoning, flood proofing and flood forecasting are now being given priority to mitigate the losses from floods.

Yamuna Water Accord

  • The co-basin states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and National Capital Territory of Delhi reached an agreement in May 1994 for sharing of Yamuna water upto Okhla.
  • Haryana has been allocated 5.730 billion cubic metres (bcm), Uttar Pradesh 4,032 bcm, Rajasthan 1.119 bcm, Himachal Pradesh 0.378 bcm and NCT of Delhi 0.724 bcm of Yamuna water annually.
  • The upper Yamuna River Board was constituted by the Government of India on 11 March 1995 to regulate allocation of available flow of Yamuna upto Okhla among the beneficiary states.
  • Draft agreements among the basin states were also finalised on the following projects :
  • Construction of Hathnikund Barrage Project in Haryana; 
  • Construction of Renuka Dam Project in Himachal Pradesh, 
  • Construction of Kisau Dam Project in Uttar Pradesh.

Central Water Commission

  • Set up in 1945, the Central Water Commission (CWC) is the apex national organisation in the field of development of water resources. 
  • It shoulders the general responsibility of initiating, coordinating and furthering in consultaton with the state governments concerned, schemes for the control, conservation and utilisation of water resources for purposes of flood management, irrigation,. navigation and water power generation throughout the country.
  • The Commission, if so required, also undertakes the construction and execution of any such schemes. 
  • Over the years the Commission has developed considerable technological know-how in planning and investigation and expertise in plan formulation, appraisal, design of major hydraulic structure and water resources development projects and is sharing this knowledge with other developing countries of the world.
  • CWC operates a national network of 877 hydrological observation stations maintained by its field offices on various inter-state and international river basins.
  • At present Hydrology Project assisted by World Bank is being implemented in Peninular river basins in India with participation by seven state governments agency and CWC, CGWB, NIH, CWPRS and IMD, IDA credit is SDR 90.1 million (US $ 142.0 million equivalent).
  • One of the important activity of CWC is Flood Forecasting Services through the network of 157 Flood Forecasting Stations spread over eight major river systems which includes 62 river basins covering most of the inter-state rivers of the country including inflow forecast for 25 reservoirs.
  • Government of India has declared the Year 2007 as “Water Year.” The world water day was celebrated on 22nd March, 2007.

Central Soil and Materials Research Station

  • The Central Soil and Materials Research Station (CSMRS), New Delhi deals with field exploration, laboratory investigations and basic and applied research in the field of geomechanics and construction materials relevant to river valley projects. 
  • The Research Station primarily functions as adviser and consultant to various departments of Government of India, state governments and Government of India undertaking/enterprises. 
  • Activities of the Research Station cover the disciplines of soil mechanics, foundation engineering, concrete technology, construction materials technology, instrumentation geophysical investigations and chemical analysis and geosynthesis.

Central Ground Water Board

  • Central Ground Water Board is the national apex organisation, vested with the responsibilities of carrying out nation-wide surveys and assessment of ground water resources and guiding the states appropriately in scientific and technical matters relating to ground water.
  • Rajiv Gandhi National Training and Research Instituted for Ground Water, being set up at Raipur, Madhya Pradesh will, besides conducting induction level, mid career and management level courses, lay special emphasis on strengthening the infrastructure for training on information systems, sectoral and project planning and formulation, imparting knowledge on the latest scientific and technological advances as well as personnel development towards professional excellence.
  • The total replenishable ground water resources in the country has been estimated at 43.19 million hectare meters (mham) per year. 
  • Of this 7.09 is for drinking, industrial and other uses leaving 36.10 mham for irrigation. The utilisable irrigation potential for development has been estimated as 64.05 mha.
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