ELECTRICAL-ENGINEERING-TECHNOLOGIES Notes | EduRev

: ELECTRICAL-ENGINEERING-TECHNOLOGIES Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
 
EE 306 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES 
 
LECTURE NOTES 
 
PREPARED BY 
Prof. Dr. Bahattin K a r agözo gl u 
 
INTRODUCTION 
FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMPONENTS 
MEASUREMENT AND ERROR 
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES 
OSCILLOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS AND PICTURE DISPLAYS 
SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY 
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT 
MEASUREMENT OF DISPLACEMENT AND MECHANICAL STRAIN 
PRACTICAL AND REPORTING 
 
 
KING ABDULAZIZ UNIVERSITY 
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING 
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING 
JEDDAH – SAUDI ARABIA 
 
Shawwal 1432H – September 2011G
Page 2


 
 
EE 306 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES 
 
LECTURE NOTES 
 
PREPARED BY 
Prof. Dr. Bahattin K a r agözo gl u 
 
INTRODUCTION 
FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMPONENTS 
MEASUREMENT AND ERROR 
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES 
OSCILLOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS AND PICTURE DISPLAYS 
SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY 
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT 
MEASUREMENT OF DISPLACEMENT AND MECHANICAL STRAIN 
PRACTICAL AND REPORTING 
 
 
KING ABDULAZIZ UNIVERSITY 
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING 
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING 
JEDDAH – SAUDI ARABIA 
 
Shawwal 1432H – September 2011G
 
 
 
Table of Contents 
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 19 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................ 20 
ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING SPECIALTIES ........................................................ 21 
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FIELDS OF ACTIVITIES ........................................... 26 
QUANTITIES, UNITS AND STANDARDS ................................................................................... 36 
PROBLEMS ......................................................................................................................... 39 
BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................... 41 
FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMPONENTS ............................................. 42 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................ 43 
ENERGY SOURCES ............................................................................................................... 44 
CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS .......................................................................................... 53 
RESISTORS ......................................................................................................................... 64 
CAPACITORS ....................................................................................................................... 81 
INDUCTORS ........................................................................................................................ 97 
TRANSFORMER .................................................................................................................. 105 
PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................................ 109 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 111 
MEASUREMENT AND ERROR ..................................................................................... 113 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 114 
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 115 
CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ................................................................ 115 
ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENT DATA ..................................................................................... 124 
UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 131 
THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD ............................................................................................. 137 
PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................................ 141 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 149 
Page 3


 
 
EE 306 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES 
 
LECTURE NOTES 
 
PREPARED BY 
Prof. Dr. Bahattin K a r agözo gl u 
 
INTRODUCTION 
FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMPONENTS 
MEASUREMENT AND ERROR 
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES 
OSCILLOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS AND PICTURE DISPLAYS 
SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY 
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT 
MEASUREMENT OF DISPLACEMENT AND MECHANICAL STRAIN 
PRACTICAL AND REPORTING 
 
 
KING ABDULAZIZ UNIVERSITY 
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING 
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING 
JEDDAH – SAUDI ARABIA 
 
Shawwal 1432H – September 2011G
 
 
 
Table of Contents 
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 19 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................ 20 
ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING SPECIALTIES ........................................................ 21 
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FIELDS OF ACTIVITIES ........................................... 26 
QUANTITIES, UNITS AND STANDARDS ................................................................................... 36 
PROBLEMS ......................................................................................................................... 39 
BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................... 41 
FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMPONENTS ............................................. 42 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................ 43 
ENERGY SOURCES ............................................................................................................... 44 
CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS .......................................................................................... 53 
RESISTORS ......................................................................................................................... 64 
CAPACITORS ....................................................................................................................... 81 
INDUCTORS ........................................................................................................................ 97 
TRANSFORMER .................................................................................................................. 105 
PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................................ 109 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 111 
MEASUREMENT AND ERROR ..................................................................................... 113 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 114 
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 115 
CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ................................................................ 115 
ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENT DATA ..................................................................................... 124 
UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 131 
THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD ............................................................................................. 137 
PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................................ 141 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 149 
 
 
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES ............................................................... 151 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 152 
PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENTS ......................................................................................... 153 
MOVING COIL IN MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ....................................................................... 154 
MC BASED MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ................................................................................ 157 
LOADING ERRORS .............................................................................................................. 163 
AC VOLTMETERS ................................................................................................................ 167 
ELECTRONIC COUNTERS ..................................................................................................... 177 
THE DIGITAL VOLTMETER (DVM) ......................................................................................... 188 
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICITY .......................................................................................... 197 
PROBLEMS ON MEASURING INSTRUMENTS .......................................................................... 210 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 219 
OSCILLOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS AND PICTURE DISPLAYS ......................................... 220 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 221 
WAVEFORM DISPLAY DEVICES ............................................................................................. 222 
BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS ...................................................................................... 225 
MULTI-TRACE OSCILLOSCOPES ............................................................................................ 235 
DIGITAL STORAGE OSCILLOSCOPES (DSO) ............................................................................. 236 
VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION .............................................................................................. 239 
PICTURE DISPLAY ............................................................................................................... 244 
PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................................ 253 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 262 
SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY .............................................................................. 263 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 264 
LINEAR REGULATED POWER SUPPLIES .................................................................................. 265 
SWITCH-REGULATED (SWITCHING) POWER SUPPLY ............................................................... 282 
BATTERIES ........................................................................................................................ 292 
ELECTRICAL SAFETY ............................................................................................................ 302 
Page 4


 
 
EE 306 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES 
 
LECTURE NOTES 
 
PREPARED BY 
Prof. Dr. Bahattin K a r agözo gl u 
 
INTRODUCTION 
FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMPONENTS 
MEASUREMENT AND ERROR 
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES 
OSCILLOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS AND PICTURE DISPLAYS 
SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY 
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT 
MEASUREMENT OF DISPLACEMENT AND MECHANICAL STRAIN 
PRACTICAL AND REPORTING 
 
 
KING ABDULAZIZ UNIVERSITY 
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING 
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING 
JEDDAH – SAUDI ARABIA 
 
Shawwal 1432H – September 2011G
 
 
 
Table of Contents 
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 19 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................ 20 
ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING SPECIALTIES ........................................................ 21 
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FIELDS OF ACTIVITIES ........................................... 26 
QUANTITIES, UNITS AND STANDARDS ................................................................................... 36 
PROBLEMS ......................................................................................................................... 39 
BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................... 41 
FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMPONENTS ............................................. 42 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................ 43 
ENERGY SOURCES ............................................................................................................... 44 
CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS .......................................................................................... 53 
RESISTORS ......................................................................................................................... 64 
CAPACITORS ....................................................................................................................... 81 
INDUCTORS ........................................................................................................................ 97 
TRANSFORMER .................................................................................................................. 105 
PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................................ 109 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 111 
MEASUREMENT AND ERROR ..................................................................................... 113 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 114 
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 115 
CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ................................................................ 115 
ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENT DATA ..................................................................................... 124 
UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 131 
THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD ............................................................................................. 137 
PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................................ 141 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 149 
 
 
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES ............................................................... 151 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 152 
PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENTS ......................................................................................... 153 
MOVING COIL IN MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ....................................................................... 154 
MC BASED MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ................................................................................ 157 
LOADING ERRORS .............................................................................................................. 163 
AC VOLTMETERS ................................................................................................................ 167 
ELECTRONIC COUNTERS ..................................................................................................... 177 
THE DIGITAL VOLTMETER (DVM) ......................................................................................... 188 
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICITY .......................................................................................... 197 
PROBLEMS ON MEASURING INSTRUMENTS .......................................................................... 210 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 219 
OSCILLOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS AND PICTURE DISPLAYS ......................................... 220 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 221 
WAVEFORM DISPLAY DEVICES ............................................................................................. 222 
BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS ...................................................................................... 225 
MULTI-TRACE OSCILLOSCOPES ............................................................................................ 235 
DIGITAL STORAGE OSCILLOSCOPES (DSO) ............................................................................. 236 
VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION .............................................................................................. 239 
PICTURE DISPLAY ............................................................................................................... 244 
PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................................ 253 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 262 
SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY .............................................................................. 263 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 264 
LINEAR REGULATED POWER SUPPLIES .................................................................................. 265 
SWITCH-REGULATED (SWITCHING) POWER SUPPLY ............................................................... 282 
BATTERIES ........................................................................................................................ 292 
ELECTRICAL SAFETY ............................................................................................................ 302 
 
 
PROBLEMS ON SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY .................................................................. 313 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 325 
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT ................................................................................. 327 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 328 
BASIC PRINCIPLES .............................................................................................................. 329 
TEMPERATURE MEASURING DEVICES ................................................................................... 330 
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT USING THERMOCOUPLES ..................................................... 337 
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT USING THERMISTORS ........................................................... 350 
PROBLEMS ON TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS ................................................................... 355 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 359 
MEASUREMENT OF DISPLACEMENT AND MECHANICAL STRAIN ..................................... 361 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 362 
DISPLACEMENT SENSORS ................................................................................................... 363 
STRAIN GAGES (GAUGES) .................................................................................................... 369 
THE WHEATSTONE BRIDGE ................................................................................................. 374 
BRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS FOR STRAIN GAGE MEASUREMENTS ............................................. 378 
NOVEL PRESSURE SENSORS ................................................................................................. 383 
PROBLEMS ON MEASUREMENT OF MECHANICAL QUANTITIES ............................................... 385 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 393 
PRACTICAL AND REPORTING ...................................................................................... 394 
LABORATORY NOTES AND SHEETS ....................................................................................... 395 
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR EXPERIMENTS ............................................................................. 399 
MEASUREMENT AND ERROR ............................................................................................... 402 
DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTIC OF AN INCANDESCENT LAMP ......................................... 404 
DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTIC OF A CAPACITOR .......................................................... 406 
REGULATED POWER SUPPLY ............................................................................................... 407 
TERM PROJECT .................................................................................................................. 409 
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ 411 
Page 5


 
 
EE 306 – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES 
 
LECTURE NOTES 
 
PREPARED BY 
Prof. Dr. Bahattin K a r agözo gl u 
 
INTRODUCTION 
FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMPONENTS 
MEASUREMENT AND ERROR 
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES 
OSCILLOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS AND PICTURE DISPLAYS 
SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY 
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT 
MEASUREMENT OF DISPLACEMENT AND MECHANICAL STRAIN 
PRACTICAL AND REPORTING 
 
 
KING ABDULAZIZ UNIVERSITY 
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING 
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING 
JEDDAH – SAUDI ARABIA 
 
Shawwal 1432H – September 2011G
 
 
 
Table of Contents 
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 19 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................ 20 
ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING SPECIALTIES ........................................................ 21 
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FIELDS OF ACTIVITIES ........................................... 26 
QUANTITIES, UNITS AND STANDARDS ................................................................................... 36 
PROBLEMS ......................................................................................................................... 39 
BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................... 41 
FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMPONENTS ............................................. 42 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................ 43 
ENERGY SOURCES ............................................................................................................... 44 
CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS .......................................................................................... 53 
RESISTORS ......................................................................................................................... 64 
CAPACITORS ....................................................................................................................... 81 
INDUCTORS ........................................................................................................................ 97 
TRANSFORMER .................................................................................................................. 105 
PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................................ 109 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 111 
MEASUREMENT AND ERROR ..................................................................................... 113 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 114 
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 115 
CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ................................................................ 115 
ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENT DATA ..................................................................................... 124 
UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 131 
THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD ............................................................................................. 137 
PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................................ 141 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 149 
 
 
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES ............................................................... 151 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 152 
PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENTS ......................................................................................... 153 
MOVING COIL IN MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ....................................................................... 154 
MC BASED MEASURING INSTRUMENTS ................................................................................ 157 
LOADING ERRORS .............................................................................................................. 163 
AC VOLTMETERS ................................................................................................................ 167 
ELECTRONIC COUNTERS ..................................................................................................... 177 
THE DIGITAL VOLTMETER (DVM) ......................................................................................... 188 
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICITY .......................................................................................... 197 
PROBLEMS ON MEASURING INSTRUMENTS .......................................................................... 210 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 219 
OSCILLOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS AND PICTURE DISPLAYS ......................................... 220 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 221 
WAVEFORM DISPLAY DEVICES ............................................................................................. 222 
BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS ...................................................................................... 225 
MULTI-TRACE OSCILLOSCOPES ............................................................................................ 235 
DIGITAL STORAGE OSCILLOSCOPES (DSO) ............................................................................. 236 
VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION .............................................................................................. 239 
PICTURE DISPLAY ............................................................................................................... 244 
PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................................ 253 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 262 
SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY .............................................................................. 263 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 264 
LINEAR REGULATED POWER SUPPLIES .................................................................................. 265 
SWITCH-REGULATED (SWITCHING) POWER SUPPLY ............................................................... 282 
BATTERIES ........................................................................................................................ 292 
ELECTRICAL SAFETY ............................................................................................................ 302 
 
 
PROBLEMS ON SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY .................................................................. 313 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 325 
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT ................................................................................. 327 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 328 
BASIC PRINCIPLES .............................................................................................................. 329 
TEMPERATURE MEASURING DEVICES ................................................................................... 330 
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT USING THERMOCOUPLES ..................................................... 337 
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT USING THERMISTORS ........................................................... 350 
PROBLEMS ON TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS ................................................................... 355 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 359 
MEASUREMENT OF DISPLACEMENT AND MECHANICAL STRAIN ..................................... 361 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 362 
DISPLACEMENT SENSORS ................................................................................................... 363 
STRAIN GAGES (GAUGES) .................................................................................................... 369 
THE WHEATSTONE BRIDGE ................................................................................................. 374 
BRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS FOR STRAIN GAGE MEASUREMENTS ............................................. 378 
NOVEL PRESSURE SENSORS ................................................................................................. 383 
PROBLEMS ON MEASUREMENT OF MECHANICAL QUANTITIES ............................................... 385 
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 393 
PRACTICAL AND REPORTING ...................................................................................... 394 
LABORATORY NOTES AND SHEETS ....................................................................................... 395 
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR EXPERIMENTS ............................................................................. 399 
MEASUREMENT AND ERROR ............................................................................................... 402 
DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTIC OF AN INCANDESCENT LAMP ......................................... 404 
DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTIC OF A CAPACITOR .......................................................... 406 
REGULATED POWER SUPPLY ............................................................................................... 407 
TERM PROJECT .................................................................................................................. 409 
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ 411 
 
 
APPENDICES ............................................................................................................ 412 
A – QUANTITIES, UNITS AND STANDARDS ............................................................................. 412 
B – OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS ............................................................................................ 418 
C – VISUAL DISPLAYS .......................................................................................................... 421 
D – PRETEST ...................................................................................................................... 453 
E – EXIT SURVEY ................................................................................................................ 454 
F – RUBRICS FOR STUDENT OUTCOMES SUPPORTED BY EE 306 ............................................... 456 
INDEX ..................................................................................................................... 461 
 
 
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