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# Electrical Measurements - Experiment, Electrical Engineering Notes | EduRev

## : Electrical Measurements - Experiment, Electrical Engineering Notes | EduRev

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34   MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
EXPERIMENT NO. 5
1.0 TITLE :
To measure active and reactive power in three phase balanced
2.0 PRIOR CONCEPTS:
• Active power, reactive power, power factor in 3 phase circuit.
• 3 phase power system balanced and unbalanced load, phasor diagrams.
• Multiplying factor of wattmeter.
3.0 NEW CONCEPTS
Proposition 1 : Measurement of power in 3 phase circuit
Power in 3 phase system may be measured by using
1 Three single phase wattmeter - This method is used for a star connected, 4 wire system,
2 Two 1 phase wattmeter - This method is suitable for 3 phase, 3 wire system and widely used.
It is applicable to both delta and star system, balanced or unbalanced load.
3 One single phase wattmeter - This method is applicable to balanced load only.
4 One 3 phase wattmeter - 3 phase wattmeter consists of two or three wattmeter elements
mounted together in one case with moving coils mounted on the same spindle
Proposition 2 :
One wattmeter method for measurement of active power is for 3 phase balanced load only.  The
current coil of the wattmeter is connected in one of the lines and one end of pressure coil is connected
to the same line.  The readings are taken by connecting other terminal of pressure coil alternately to
other 2 lines.  The sum of the two readings gives active power.
Page 2

34   MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
EXPERIMENT NO. 5
1.0 TITLE :
To measure active and reactive power in three phase balanced
2.0 PRIOR CONCEPTS:
• Active power, reactive power, power factor in 3 phase circuit.
• 3 phase power system balanced and unbalanced load, phasor diagrams.
• Multiplying factor of wattmeter.
3.0 NEW CONCEPTS
Proposition 1 : Measurement of power in 3 phase circuit
Power in 3 phase system may be measured by using
1 Three single phase wattmeter - This method is used for a star connected, 4 wire system,
2 Two 1 phase wattmeter - This method is suitable for 3 phase, 3 wire system and widely used.
It is applicable to both delta and star system, balanced or unbalanced load.
3 One single phase wattmeter - This method is applicable to balanced load only.
4 One 3 phase wattmeter - 3 phase wattmeter consists of two or three wattmeter elements
mounted together in one case with moving coils mounted on the same spindle
Proposition 2 :
One wattmeter method for measurement of active power is for 3 phase balanced load only.  The
current coil of the wattmeter is connected in one of the lines and one end of pressure coil is connected
to the same line.  The readings are taken by connecting other terminal of pressure coil alternately to
other 2 lines.  The sum of the two readings gives active power.
MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION   35
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
Proposition 3 :
It is often convenient and even essential that reactive power be measured.  For example in load
monitoring, such a measurement gives the operator the information of the nature of load.  Also the
reactive power serves as a check on power factor measurements, since ratio of reactive and active
power is tan f = Q/P  Where Q & P are the reactive and active power respectively.
Proposition 4 :
One wattmeter method for measurement of reactive power is for 3 phase balanced load only.  The
current coil of the wattmeter is connected in one of the lines.  The pressure coil is connected across
two lines.  The reactive power is Ö3 times the wattmeter reading.
4.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Intellectual Skills:
• To understand the significance of reactive power.
• To understand the need of measurement of reactive power.
Motor Skills
• To Handle the wattmeter.
• To interchange wattmeter connections if it reads negative.
5.0 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
Part A
(Students shall draw the circuit diagram in the space provided.  The diagram shall include the
following things)
• Measurement of active power in 3 phase balanced circuit by one wattmeter method.
• Refer to proposition 2 and draw the circuit diagram.
2   Show switch, fuse and meters.
Part B
(Students shall draw the circuit diagram in the space provided. The diagram shall include the following
things.)
• Measurement of reactive power in 3 phase circuit by one wattmeter method.
• Refer to proposition 4 and draw the circuit diagram.
1 Use 3 phase balanced load.
Page 3

34   MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
EXPERIMENT NO. 5
1.0 TITLE :
To measure active and reactive power in three phase balanced
2.0 PRIOR CONCEPTS:
• Active power, reactive power, power factor in 3 phase circuit.
• 3 phase power system balanced and unbalanced load, phasor diagrams.
• Multiplying factor of wattmeter.
3.0 NEW CONCEPTS
Proposition 1 : Measurement of power in 3 phase circuit
Power in 3 phase system may be measured by using
1 Three single phase wattmeter - This method is used for a star connected, 4 wire system,
2 Two 1 phase wattmeter - This method is suitable for 3 phase, 3 wire system and widely used.
It is applicable to both delta and star system, balanced or unbalanced load.
3 One single phase wattmeter - This method is applicable to balanced load only.
4 One 3 phase wattmeter - 3 phase wattmeter consists of two or three wattmeter elements
mounted together in one case with moving coils mounted on the same spindle
Proposition 2 :
One wattmeter method for measurement of active power is for 3 phase balanced load only.  The
current coil of the wattmeter is connected in one of the lines and one end of pressure coil is connected
to the same line.  The readings are taken by connecting other terminal of pressure coil alternately to
other 2 lines.  The sum of the two readings gives active power.
MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION   35
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
Proposition 3 :
It is often convenient and even essential that reactive power be measured.  For example in load
monitoring, such a measurement gives the operator the information of the nature of load.  Also the
reactive power serves as a check on power factor measurements, since ratio of reactive and active
power is tan f = Q/P  Where Q & P are the reactive and active power respectively.
Proposition 4 :
One wattmeter method for measurement of reactive power is for 3 phase balanced load only.  The
current coil of the wattmeter is connected in one of the lines.  The pressure coil is connected across
two lines.  The reactive power is Ö3 times the wattmeter reading.
4.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Intellectual Skills:
• To understand the significance of reactive power.
• To understand the need of measurement of reactive power.
Motor Skills
• To Handle the wattmeter.
• To interchange wattmeter connections if it reads negative.
5.0 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
Part A
(Students shall draw the circuit diagram in the space provided.  The diagram shall include the
following things)
• Measurement of active power in 3 phase balanced circuit by one wattmeter method.
• Refer to proposition 2 and draw the circuit diagram.
2   Show switch, fuse and meters.
Part B
(Students shall draw the circuit diagram in the space provided. The diagram shall include the following
things.)
• Measurement of reactive power in 3 phase circuit by one wattmeter method.
• Refer to proposition 4 and draw the circuit diagram.
1 Use 3 phase balanced load.
36   MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
2 Show switch, fuse and meters.
6.0 APPARATUS :
• 3 phase Variac (0 - 415V)
• A. C. Ammeter (0 - 5A)
• A. C. Voltmeter (0 - 300V)
• Wattmeter  (300V, 5A, 625Watts)
Diagram - 1 (Student shall draw  the circuit diagram by referring to basic diagram under
guidance of teacher.)
Diagram - 2 (Student shall draw  the circuit diagram by referring to basic diagram under
guidance of teacher.)
7.0 STEPWISE PROCEDURE :
Part  A
• Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
• Check and adjust zero indication of wattmeter and note the multiplying factor of wattmeter.
• Switch on the supply.
• Adjust required amount of supply voltage with variac.
Page 4

34   MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
EXPERIMENT NO. 5
1.0 TITLE :
To measure active and reactive power in three phase balanced
2.0 PRIOR CONCEPTS:
• Active power, reactive power, power factor in 3 phase circuit.
• 3 phase power system balanced and unbalanced load, phasor diagrams.
• Multiplying factor of wattmeter.
3.0 NEW CONCEPTS
Proposition 1 : Measurement of power in 3 phase circuit
Power in 3 phase system may be measured by using
1 Three single phase wattmeter - This method is used for a star connected, 4 wire system,
2 Two 1 phase wattmeter - This method is suitable for 3 phase, 3 wire system and widely used.
It is applicable to both delta and star system, balanced or unbalanced load.
3 One single phase wattmeter - This method is applicable to balanced load only.
4 One 3 phase wattmeter - 3 phase wattmeter consists of two or three wattmeter elements
mounted together in one case with moving coils mounted on the same spindle
Proposition 2 :
One wattmeter method for measurement of active power is for 3 phase balanced load only.  The
current coil of the wattmeter is connected in one of the lines and one end of pressure coil is connected
to the same line.  The readings are taken by connecting other terminal of pressure coil alternately to
other 2 lines.  The sum of the two readings gives active power.
MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION   35
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
Proposition 3 :
It is often convenient and even essential that reactive power be measured.  For example in load
monitoring, such a measurement gives the operator the information of the nature of load.  Also the
reactive power serves as a check on power factor measurements, since ratio of reactive and active
power is tan f = Q/P  Where Q & P are the reactive and active power respectively.
Proposition 4 :
One wattmeter method for measurement of reactive power is for 3 phase balanced load only.  The
current coil of the wattmeter is connected in one of the lines.  The pressure coil is connected across
two lines.  The reactive power is Ö3 times the wattmeter reading.
4.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Intellectual Skills:
• To understand the significance of reactive power.
• To understand the need of measurement of reactive power.
Motor Skills
• To Handle the wattmeter.
• To interchange wattmeter connections if it reads negative.
5.0 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
Part A
(Students shall draw the circuit diagram in the space provided.  The diagram shall include the
following things)
• Measurement of active power in 3 phase balanced circuit by one wattmeter method.
• Refer to proposition 2 and draw the circuit diagram.
2   Show switch, fuse and meters.
Part B
(Students shall draw the circuit diagram in the space provided. The diagram shall include the following
things.)
• Measurement of reactive power in 3 phase circuit by one wattmeter method.
• Refer to proposition 4 and draw the circuit diagram.
1 Use 3 phase balanced load.
36   MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
2 Show switch, fuse and meters.
6.0 APPARATUS :
• 3 phase Variac (0 - 415V)
• A. C. Ammeter (0 - 5A)
• A. C. Voltmeter (0 - 300V)
• Wattmeter  (300V, 5A, 625Watts)
Diagram - 1 (Student shall draw  the circuit diagram by referring to basic diagram under
guidance of teacher.)
Diagram - 2 (Student shall draw  the circuit diagram by referring to basic diagram under
guidance of teacher.)
7.0 STEPWISE PROCEDURE :
Part  A
• Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
• Check and adjust zero indication of wattmeter and note the multiplying factor of wattmeter.
• Switch on the supply.
• Adjust required amount of supply voltage with variac.
MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION   37
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
• Note voltmeter, ammeter & wattmeter reading W1 with switch at 'a'.
• Note wattmeter reading W2 with the switch at 'b'.
• Switch off the supply.
• Calculate total active power and power factor.
Part  B
• Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
• Switch on the supply.
• Adjust the same values of current for balanced loads as in part (a).
• Note wattmeter, voltmeter & ammeter reading.
• Switch off the supply.
Observations :
Part A - Measurement of active power
Part B - Measurement of reactive power
Page 5

34   MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
EXPERIMENT NO. 5
1.0 TITLE :
To measure active and reactive power in three phase balanced
2.0 PRIOR CONCEPTS:
• Active power, reactive power, power factor in 3 phase circuit.
• 3 phase power system balanced and unbalanced load, phasor diagrams.
• Multiplying factor of wattmeter.
3.0 NEW CONCEPTS
Proposition 1 : Measurement of power in 3 phase circuit
Power in 3 phase system may be measured by using
1 Three single phase wattmeter - This method is used for a star connected, 4 wire system,
2 Two 1 phase wattmeter - This method is suitable for 3 phase, 3 wire system and widely used.
It is applicable to both delta and star system, balanced or unbalanced load.
3 One single phase wattmeter - This method is applicable to balanced load only.
4 One 3 phase wattmeter - 3 phase wattmeter consists of two or three wattmeter elements
mounted together in one case with moving coils mounted on the same spindle
Proposition 2 :
One wattmeter method for measurement of active power is for 3 phase balanced load only.  The
current coil of the wattmeter is connected in one of the lines and one end of pressure coil is connected
to the same line.  The readings are taken by connecting other terminal of pressure coil alternately to
other 2 lines.  The sum of the two readings gives active power.
MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION   35
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
Proposition 3 :
It is often convenient and even essential that reactive power be measured.  For example in load
monitoring, such a measurement gives the operator the information of the nature of load.  Also the
reactive power serves as a check on power factor measurements, since ratio of reactive and active
power is tan f = Q/P  Where Q & P are the reactive and active power respectively.
Proposition 4 :
One wattmeter method for measurement of reactive power is for 3 phase balanced load only.  The
current coil of the wattmeter is connected in one of the lines.  The pressure coil is connected across
two lines.  The reactive power is Ö3 times the wattmeter reading.
4.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Intellectual Skills:
• To understand the significance of reactive power.
• To understand the need of measurement of reactive power.
Motor Skills
• To Handle the wattmeter.
• To interchange wattmeter connections if it reads negative.
5.0 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
Part A
(Students shall draw the circuit diagram in the space provided.  The diagram shall include the
following things)
• Measurement of active power in 3 phase balanced circuit by one wattmeter method.
• Refer to proposition 2 and draw the circuit diagram.
2   Show switch, fuse and meters.
Part B
(Students shall draw the circuit diagram in the space provided. The diagram shall include the following
things.)
• Measurement of reactive power in 3 phase circuit by one wattmeter method.
• Refer to proposition 4 and draw the circuit diagram.
1 Use 3 phase balanced load.
36   MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
2 Show switch, fuse and meters.
6.0 APPARATUS :
• 3 phase Variac (0 - 415V)
• A. C. Ammeter (0 - 5A)
• A. C. Voltmeter (0 - 300V)
• Wattmeter  (300V, 5A, 625Watts)
Diagram - 1 (Student shall draw  the circuit diagram by referring to basic diagram under
guidance of teacher.)
Diagram - 2 (Student shall draw  the circuit diagram by referring to basic diagram under
guidance of teacher.)
7.0 STEPWISE PROCEDURE :
Part  A
• Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
• Check and adjust zero indication of wattmeter and note the multiplying factor of wattmeter.
• Switch on the supply.
• Adjust required amount of supply voltage with variac.
MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION   37
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
• Note voltmeter, ammeter & wattmeter reading W1 with switch at 'a'.
• Note wattmeter reading W2 with the switch at 'b'.
• Switch off the supply.
• Calculate total active power and power factor.
Part  B
• Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
• Switch on the supply.
• Adjust the same values of current for balanced loads as in part (a).
• Note wattmeter, voltmeter & ammeter reading.
• Switch off the supply.
Observations :
Part A - Measurement of active power
Part B - Measurement of reactive power
38   MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Electrical Measurements (9032) Experiment No. 5
8.0 QUESTIONS :
(Write answers to Q…Q…Q…Q…  question numbers to allotted by the teacher.)
1. In Star connection when is the load said to be balanced?
2. Active power in 3 phase balanced load circuit with one wattmeter method is to be measured.
Draw phasor diagram for the same.
3. Why is it essential to measure reactive power? Give reason.
4. List four electrical equipment's which consume reactive power.
5. A single phase wattmeter is used for measurement of reactive power in 3 phase balanced
load.  If the total reactive power is 173kvar calculate the reading of wattmeter.
6. Reactive power in 3 phase balanced load circuit with one wattmeter method is to be measured.
Draw phasor diagram for the same.
7. Suggest suitable method to measure power consumed by a three phase induction motor
used for pumping the water.
8. A wattmeter has a current coil resistance of 0.05W and a pressure coil resistance of 10K? .
The load current is 10A and load voltage is 230V. The power taken by the load is 130W.
Show two types of wattmeter connections & the reading of wattmeter in each case.
9. Draw a power triangle diagram showing KW, KVA & KVAr.
10. Give the relation between KW,  KVA,  & KVAr.
11. Give the relation between KW , KVA , and CosF.