Electricity in Physics - Physics, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

General Science(Prelims) by IRS Divey Sethi

CLAT : Electricity in Physics - Physics, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

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                                                              Electricity in Physics

Electric current

  • An electric current is a flow of electric charge through an electrical conductor.
  • In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire.
  • It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in a plasma.
  • The SI unit for measuring an electric current is the ampere, which is the flow of electric charges through a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second.
  • Electric current can be measured using an ammeter.

Direct & Alternating current

  • Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
  • Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and dynamo .
  • In alternating current (AC), the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction.

Electromagnetism

  • Electric current produces a magnetic field. The magnetic field can be visualized as a pattern of circular field lines surrounding the wire that persists as long as the current flows.
  • Magnetism can also produce electric currents.
  • When a changing magnetic field is applied to a conductor, an EMF is produced, and when there is a suitable path, this causes current to flow.
  • Electric current can be directly measured with a galvanometer

Electricity in Physics - Physics, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

 Generating Electrical Current

  • Electrical current can be generated by moving a metal wire through a magnetic field.
  • This applies both to alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) electricity.
  • This is a different method than where DC is created by a battery, which uses chemical reactions.

Electricity in Physics - Physics, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

 

  • Electrical generators rotate a coil of wires through a magnetic field.
  • An electric motor is very similar to a generator, except that power is provided to turn the rotors.

Electricity in Physics - Physics, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

 

Electricity in Physics - Physics, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

 Hydel-Power station

Electricity in Physics - Physics, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

 

Electricity in Physics - Physics, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Fuse Wire

  • Fuse Wire is used in a circuit to control the maximum current flowing in a circuit. It is a thin wire having high resistance and is made up of a material with low melting point. 
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