English Grammar, Class 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Class 10 : English Grammar, Class 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 2


 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
   ENGLISH GRAMMAR  
     TERM I & II 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Edition: February 2016
Written as per the syllabus prescribed by the  Central Board of Secondary Education. 
Salient Features 
•  Exhaustive coverage of the Grammar syllabus for Term I and Term II. 
•  Detailed theory with sufficient examples for all the topics prescribed in the syllabus. 
•  Solved Exercises for each topic to provide better understanding of concepts. 
•  Ample Practice Exercises to enable thorough preparation.  
•  Board Exam Questions offer exposure to examination-level questions. 
•  Solutions for all the questions in the Workbook. 
•  Simple and Lucid language. 
10231_10321_JUP  
Printed at: Repro Knowledgecast Ltd., Mumbai 
P.O. No. 10705
No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, C.D. ROM/Audio Video Cassettes or electronic, mechanical 
including photocopying; recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the Publisher. 
CLASS X
CBSE
Page 3


 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
   ENGLISH GRAMMAR  
     TERM I & II 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Edition: February 2016
Written as per the syllabus prescribed by the  Central Board of Secondary Education. 
Salient Features 
•  Exhaustive coverage of the Grammar syllabus for Term I and Term II. 
•  Detailed theory with sufficient examples for all the topics prescribed in the syllabus. 
•  Solved Exercises for each topic to provide better understanding of concepts. 
•  Ample Practice Exercises to enable thorough preparation.  
•  Board Exam Questions offer exposure to examination-level questions. 
•  Solutions for all the questions in the Workbook. 
•  Simple and Lucid language. 
10231_10321_JUP  
Printed at: Repro Knowledgecast Ltd., Mumbai 
P.O. No. 10705
No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, C.D. ROM/Audio Video Cassettes or electronic, mechanical 
including photocopying; recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the Publisher. 
CLASS X
CBSE
 
 
PREFACE 
 
In the case of good books, the point is not how many of them 
you can get through, but rather how many can get through to 
you. 
  “Std. X : English Grammar” is a complete and 
thorough guide, critically analysed and extensively drafted 
to boost the student’s confidence. The book is prepared as 
per the syllabus prescribed by the Central Board of 
Secondary Education for Term I and Term II.  
 The book contains detailed theory along with 
sufficient examples for each topic. Solved Exercises have 
been provided to facilitate better understanding of the 
concepts. Ample Practice Exercises have been included to 
give an insight on the difficulty levels of various questions. 
Additionally, the Board Questions covered for each topic 
will enable thorough preparation of the student and provide 
exposure to examination level questions. The book also 
includes Solutions for all the questions in the Workbook. 
 The journey to create a complete book is strewn with 
triumphs, failures and near misses. If you think we’ve nearly 
missed something or want to applaud us for our triumphs, 
we’d love to hear from you. 
 Please write to us at: mail@targetpublications.org  
A book affects eternity; one can never tell where its 
influence stops. 
 
Best of luck to all the aspirants! 
 
Yours faithfully, 
Publisher 
 
 
Syllabus 
 
WORK BOOK* – Suggested Break-up of Units for the Purpose of Classroom Teaching only – NOT FOR TESTING (see the 
note below). 
 
Sr. No Term I  Term II 
1. Determiners 1. Comparison 
2. Tenses 2. Avoidng Repetition 
3. Subject-Verb Agreement 3. Nominalization 
4. Non-Finites 4. Modals 
5. Relatives 5. Active and Passive 
6. Connectors 6. Reported Speech 
7. Conditionals 7. Prepositions 
Note on Workbook: 
The suggested split up of the units of the Workbook reflects a distribution for the purpose of classroom teaching only. Since grammar 
and usage is not to be tested discreetly, but in an integrated manner, the split up as shown above will not restrict questions in the 
grammar section of SA I and SA II question papers to the specific units shown in the split up of Workbook units. Grammar will be 
tested by recycling grammar items learnt over a period of time in a comprehensive manner. Teachers may adapt this suggested 
distribution for classroom teaching making modifications according to their specific needs. Similarly Formative Assessment of 
grammar items may also be carried out in an integrated manner along with the skills of Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening as 
well as Literature. 
  
Contents 
 
No. Topic Name Page No. 
 Part I : Basic Grammar  
01 Prepositions 1 
02 Determiners 10 
03 Modals 20 
04 Clauses 29 
05 Tenses 37 
06 Subject-Verb Agreement  47 
07 Active and Passive Voice  57 
08 Reported Speech 66 
 Part II : Workbook  
01 Determiners 76 
02 Tenses 81 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-1 89 
03 Subject-Verb Agreement 91 
04 Non-Finites 96 
No. Topic Name Page No. 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-2 104 
05 Relatives 107 
06 Connectors 110 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-3 116 
07 Conditionals 118 
08 Comparison 122 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-4 129 
09 Avoiding Repetition 131 
10 Nominalisation 137 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-5 142 
11 Modals-Expressing Attitudes 145 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-6 150 
12 Active and Passive Voice  152 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-7 159 
13 Reported Speech 161 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-8 168 
14 Prepositions 170 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-9 173 
Page 4


 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
   ENGLISH GRAMMAR  
     TERM I & II 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Edition: February 2016
Written as per the syllabus prescribed by the  Central Board of Secondary Education. 
Salient Features 
•  Exhaustive coverage of the Grammar syllabus for Term I and Term II. 
•  Detailed theory with sufficient examples for all the topics prescribed in the syllabus. 
•  Solved Exercises for each topic to provide better understanding of concepts. 
•  Ample Practice Exercises to enable thorough preparation.  
•  Board Exam Questions offer exposure to examination-level questions. 
•  Solutions for all the questions in the Workbook. 
•  Simple and Lucid language. 
10231_10321_JUP  
Printed at: Repro Knowledgecast Ltd., Mumbai 
P.O. No. 10705
No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, C.D. ROM/Audio Video Cassettes or electronic, mechanical 
including photocopying; recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the Publisher. 
CLASS X
CBSE
 
 
PREFACE 
 
In the case of good books, the point is not how many of them 
you can get through, but rather how many can get through to 
you. 
  “Std. X : English Grammar” is a complete and 
thorough guide, critically analysed and extensively drafted 
to boost the student’s confidence. The book is prepared as 
per the syllabus prescribed by the Central Board of 
Secondary Education for Term I and Term II.  
 The book contains detailed theory along with 
sufficient examples for each topic. Solved Exercises have 
been provided to facilitate better understanding of the 
concepts. Ample Practice Exercises have been included to 
give an insight on the difficulty levels of various questions. 
Additionally, the Board Questions covered for each topic 
will enable thorough preparation of the student and provide 
exposure to examination level questions. The book also 
includes Solutions for all the questions in the Workbook. 
 The journey to create a complete book is strewn with 
triumphs, failures and near misses. If you think we’ve nearly 
missed something or want to applaud us for our triumphs, 
we’d love to hear from you. 
 Please write to us at: mail@targetpublications.org  
A book affects eternity; one can never tell where its 
influence stops. 
 
Best of luck to all the aspirants! 
 
Yours faithfully, 
Publisher 
 
 
Syllabus 
 
WORK BOOK* – Suggested Break-up of Units for the Purpose of Classroom Teaching only – NOT FOR TESTING (see the 
note below). 
 
Sr. No Term I  Term II 
1. Determiners 1. Comparison 
2. Tenses 2. Avoidng Repetition 
3. Subject-Verb Agreement 3. Nominalization 
4. Non-Finites 4. Modals 
5. Relatives 5. Active and Passive 
6. Connectors 6. Reported Speech 
7. Conditionals 7. Prepositions 
Note on Workbook: 
The suggested split up of the units of the Workbook reflects a distribution for the purpose of classroom teaching only. Since grammar 
and usage is not to be tested discreetly, but in an integrated manner, the split up as shown above will not restrict questions in the 
grammar section of SA I and SA II question papers to the specific units shown in the split up of Workbook units. Grammar will be 
tested by recycling grammar items learnt over a period of time in a comprehensive manner. Teachers may adapt this suggested 
distribution for classroom teaching making modifications according to their specific needs. Similarly Formative Assessment of 
grammar items may also be carried out in an integrated manner along with the skills of Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening as 
well as Literature. 
  
Contents 
 
No. Topic Name Page No. 
 Part I : Basic Grammar  
01 Prepositions 1 
02 Determiners 10 
03 Modals 20 
04 Clauses 29 
05 Tenses 37 
06 Subject-Verb Agreement  47 
07 Active and Passive Voice  57 
08 Reported Speech 66 
 Part II : Workbook  
01 Determiners 76 
02 Tenses 81 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-1 89 
03 Subject-Verb Agreement 91 
04 Non-Finites 96 
No. Topic Name Page No. 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-2 104 
05 Relatives 107 
06 Connectors 110 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-3 116 
07 Conditionals 118 
08 Comparison 122 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-4 129 
09 Avoiding Repetition 131 
10 Nominalisation 137 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-5 142 
11 Modals-Expressing Attitudes 145 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-6 150 
12 Active and Passive Voice  152 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-7 159 
13 Reported Speech 161 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-8 168 
14 Prepositions 170 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-9 173 
1
    
  
Basic Grammar 01: Prepositions
  
 
 
 
Introduction 
 
 
 Prepositions are words which show the 
relationship between two words in a sentence. They 
are very important in English grammar. The rules of 
preposition and its uses play a prime role in written 
English.  
 Prepositions are used to connect nouns, 
pronouns and phrasess in any sentence. The 
relationship can include direction, place (or a 
particular point or location), time, manner, cause and 
amount (or degree).  
The preposition is almost always before the noun or 
pronoun and hence it is called a preposition.  
 
Some examples of prepositions are illustrated 
below: 
i. The ball is below your bed. 
 below is a preposition which shows place.  
ii. He came by bus. 
 by is a preposition which shows manner.  
 
 
Forms of Prepositions 
 
 
There are five forms of prepositions: 
i. Simple Prepositions: Simple prepositions are 
used in simple sentences.  
e.g.  In, on, at, to, from, with, by etc. 
? I am not coming with you. 
 
ii. Compound Prepositions: When we join two 
connecting nouns, pronouns and phrases then 
we use compound prepositions.  
e.g.  About, across, among, between, beside, 
before etc. 
? I will reach there before she leaves. 
 
iii. Double Prepositions: A double preposition 
is two (prepositional) words used in a 
sentence to connect nouns, pronouns and 
phrases with other words in a sentence. 
e.g. Outside of, out of, from behind, because of 
etc. 
? It was just because of you that they went to 
school. 
 
iv. Participle Prepositions: When a participle 
(an -ed or –ing verb) is used as a preposition 
it is known as a participle preposition. 
e.g. Concerning, pending, considering assuming, 
barring, during, given, notwithstanding, 
provided, regarding. 
? I think I can do it easily considering my 
knowledge. 
 
v. Phrase Prepositions: A prepositional 
phrase is a group of words containing a 
preposition, a noun or pronoun (object of the 
preposition), and any modifiers of the 
object. 
e.g.  According to, in spite of, on account of, in 
front of, in order to, for the sake of, by 
means of, with reference to, in addition to, 
due to etc. 
? According to me, there are three members of 
this company. 
  
 
 
Types of Prepositions 
 
 
Prepositions are mainly of five types: Place, Time, Direction, Movement and Position.  
i. Preposition of Place: There are three prepositions of Places.  
 
AT - used for a point of place 
? At the end of the page ? At the exit/entrance 
? At the corner                   ? At work 
? At home ? At school 
? At the side 
IN - used for spaces 
? In Maharashtra ? In the hall 
? In the mall ? In my pocket 
? In the building ? In the newspaper 
? In the sky 
ON - used for surface tops 
? On the table ? On the motorcar 
? On the computer ? On the page 
? On the bus ? On the radio 
? On the right/left ? On the way 
 
Note: There are some exceptions which do not follow these rules. 
 
01.  Prepositions 
Page 5


 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
   ENGLISH GRAMMAR  
     TERM I & II 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Edition: February 2016
Written as per the syllabus prescribed by the  Central Board of Secondary Education. 
Salient Features 
•  Exhaustive coverage of the Grammar syllabus for Term I and Term II. 
•  Detailed theory with sufficient examples for all the topics prescribed in the syllabus. 
•  Solved Exercises for each topic to provide better understanding of concepts. 
•  Ample Practice Exercises to enable thorough preparation.  
•  Board Exam Questions offer exposure to examination-level questions. 
•  Solutions for all the questions in the Workbook. 
•  Simple and Lucid language. 
10231_10321_JUP  
Printed at: Repro Knowledgecast Ltd., Mumbai 
P.O. No. 10705
No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, C.D. ROM/Audio Video Cassettes or electronic, mechanical 
including photocopying; recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the Publisher. 
CLASS X
CBSE
 
 
PREFACE 
 
In the case of good books, the point is not how many of them 
you can get through, but rather how many can get through to 
you. 
  “Std. X : English Grammar” is a complete and 
thorough guide, critically analysed and extensively drafted 
to boost the student’s confidence. The book is prepared as 
per the syllabus prescribed by the Central Board of 
Secondary Education for Term I and Term II.  
 The book contains detailed theory along with 
sufficient examples for each topic. Solved Exercises have 
been provided to facilitate better understanding of the 
concepts. Ample Practice Exercises have been included to 
give an insight on the difficulty levels of various questions. 
Additionally, the Board Questions covered for each topic 
will enable thorough preparation of the student and provide 
exposure to examination level questions. The book also 
includes Solutions for all the questions in the Workbook. 
 The journey to create a complete book is strewn with 
triumphs, failures and near misses. If you think we’ve nearly 
missed something or want to applaud us for our triumphs, 
we’d love to hear from you. 
 Please write to us at: mail@targetpublications.org  
A book affects eternity; one can never tell where its 
influence stops. 
 
Best of luck to all the aspirants! 
 
Yours faithfully, 
Publisher 
 
 
Syllabus 
 
WORK BOOK* – Suggested Break-up of Units for the Purpose of Classroom Teaching only – NOT FOR TESTING (see the 
note below). 
 
Sr. No Term I  Term II 
1. Determiners 1. Comparison 
2. Tenses 2. Avoidng Repetition 
3. Subject-Verb Agreement 3. Nominalization 
4. Non-Finites 4. Modals 
5. Relatives 5. Active and Passive 
6. Connectors 6. Reported Speech 
7. Conditionals 7. Prepositions 
Note on Workbook: 
The suggested split up of the units of the Workbook reflects a distribution for the purpose of classroom teaching only. Since grammar 
and usage is not to be tested discreetly, but in an integrated manner, the split up as shown above will not restrict questions in the 
grammar section of SA I and SA II question papers to the specific units shown in the split up of Workbook units. Grammar will be 
tested by recycling grammar items learnt over a period of time in a comprehensive manner. Teachers may adapt this suggested 
distribution for classroom teaching making modifications according to their specific needs. Similarly Formative Assessment of 
grammar items may also be carried out in an integrated manner along with the skills of Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening as 
well as Literature. 
  
Contents 
 
No. Topic Name Page No. 
 Part I : Basic Grammar  
01 Prepositions 1 
02 Determiners 10 
03 Modals 20 
04 Clauses 29 
05 Tenses 37 
06 Subject-Verb Agreement  47 
07 Active and Passive Voice  57 
08 Reported Speech 66 
 Part II : Workbook  
01 Determiners 76 
02 Tenses 81 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-1 89 
03 Subject-Verb Agreement 91 
04 Non-Finites 96 
No. Topic Name Page No. 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-2 104 
05 Relatives 107 
06 Connectors 110 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-3 116 
07 Conditionals 118 
08 Comparison 122 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-4 129 
09 Avoiding Repetition 131 
10 Nominalisation 137 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-5 142 
11 Modals-Expressing Attitudes 145 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-6 150 
12 Active and Passive Voice  152 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-7 159 
13 Reported Speech 161 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-8 168 
14 Prepositions 170 
 Integrated Grammar Practice-9 173 
1
    
  
Basic Grammar 01: Prepositions
  
 
 
 
Introduction 
 
 
 Prepositions are words which show the 
relationship between two words in a sentence. They 
are very important in English grammar. The rules of 
preposition and its uses play a prime role in written 
English.  
 Prepositions are used to connect nouns, 
pronouns and phrasess in any sentence. The 
relationship can include direction, place (or a 
particular point or location), time, manner, cause and 
amount (or degree).  
The preposition is almost always before the noun or 
pronoun and hence it is called a preposition.  
 
Some examples of prepositions are illustrated 
below: 
i. The ball is below your bed. 
 below is a preposition which shows place.  
ii. He came by bus. 
 by is a preposition which shows manner.  
 
 
Forms of Prepositions 
 
 
There are five forms of prepositions: 
i. Simple Prepositions: Simple prepositions are 
used in simple sentences.  
e.g.  In, on, at, to, from, with, by etc. 
? I am not coming with you. 
 
ii. Compound Prepositions: When we join two 
connecting nouns, pronouns and phrases then 
we use compound prepositions.  
e.g.  About, across, among, between, beside, 
before etc. 
? I will reach there before she leaves. 
 
iii. Double Prepositions: A double preposition 
is two (prepositional) words used in a 
sentence to connect nouns, pronouns and 
phrases with other words in a sentence. 
e.g. Outside of, out of, from behind, because of 
etc. 
? It was just because of you that they went to 
school. 
 
iv. Participle Prepositions: When a participle 
(an -ed or –ing verb) is used as a preposition 
it is known as a participle preposition. 
e.g. Concerning, pending, considering assuming, 
barring, during, given, notwithstanding, 
provided, regarding. 
? I think I can do it easily considering my 
knowledge. 
 
v. Phrase Prepositions: A prepositional 
phrase is a group of words containing a 
preposition, a noun or pronoun (object of the 
preposition), and any modifiers of the 
object. 
e.g.  According to, in spite of, on account of, in 
front of, in order to, for the sake of, by 
means of, with reference to, in addition to, 
due to etc. 
? According to me, there are three members of 
this company. 
  
 
 
Types of Prepositions 
 
 
Prepositions are mainly of five types: Place, Time, Direction, Movement and Position.  
i. Preposition of Place: There are three prepositions of Places.  
 
AT - used for a point of place 
? At the end of the page ? At the exit/entrance 
? At the corner                   ? At work 
? At home ? At school 
? At the side 
IN - used for spaces 
? In Maharashtra ? In the hall 
? In the mall ? In my pocket 
? In the building ? In the newspaper 
? In the sky 
ON - used for surface tops 
? On the table ? On the motorcar 
? On the computer ? On the page 
? On the bus ? On the radio 
? On the right/left ? On the way 
 
Note: There are some exceptions which do not follow these rules. 
 
01.  Prepositions 
2 
  
  
Class X: English Grammar 
2
ii. Preposition of Time: There are two prepositions of Time. 
   
AT - used to indicate a precise time 
 
Note: At night is an exception to this 
rule. 
? At ten o’clock ? At 4:30 a.m. 
? At the moment/this time ? At sunrise/noon 
IN - used for indicating a time period  
 
Note: In the morning/afternoon/ 
evening are the exceptions to this rule. 
? In January  ?  In 2015 
? In the 90’s  ?  In this century 
 
iii. Preposition of Position: There are two prepositions of Position. 
 
Under/Underneath and Over -  used 
to indicate position that is vertically 
down or vertically up 
? The ball went under the floor. 
? The file is underneath the packages. 
? The airplane went over the clouds. 
Below/Beneath and Above - used to 
indicate position that is lower or higher 
? I saw him standing below the building. 
? We sat beneath the apple tree. 
? They stay above the shop.     
 
iv. Preposition of Direction: There are seven prepositions of Direction. 
 
To - used to indicate a specific 
destination 
? A place - I am going to the shop. 
? An event - Are you going to the dance party? 
? A person - I am going to your principal to complain 
about you. 
? A position - The kitchen is to your left. 
Towards - used to show the direction of 
the destination. 
? Abdul was running towards the bus stop. 
?  Please turn towards your left to exit. 
From - used to show the point of origin 
(i.e. starting or departure point) 
? She has started from home. 
? They have left from Mumbai already. 
? We are from Chennai. 
Off - used to indicate either ‘being taken 
away from’  or  ‘down from’ 
? The salesman took the bottle off the shelf. 
? The cat fell off the tin roof. 
For - used to indicate direction only 
when the verb indicates the beginning of 
a movement 
? They will leave for home tomorrow. 
? My son has already left for Singapore. 
Against - used to indicate contact or 
pressure 
? Sona leaned against the wall. 
? Father, put the box against the wall. 
Out of - used to indicate departure from ? Alok went out of the classroom. 
?  We need to get out of this place. 
 
v. Preposition of Movement: There are six prepositions of Movement. 
 
Through/Across - used to show the 
movement from one point to the other 
? The hunters went through the forest. 
? We went across the road. 
Into - used to show the movement of 
going inside 
? We got into the cinema hall. 
Onto - used to show the movement on 
an object. 
? The coin rolled onto the pavement. 
Along - used to show the movement that 
is adjacent in line. 
? We were walking along the river. 
In/On/By - used to indicate a means of   ? They travelled in a ship for the first time. 
? He was the only one who was travelling on foot. 
? We came by bus. 
Up/Down - used to show the movement 
across an upper or lower level 
 
? Romy and Suzy climbed up the mountain as a challenge. 
? They came down from Vaishno devi temple as fast as 
they could. 
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