Enzymes - PowerPointPresentation, Biotechnology, Engineering, Semester Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Computer Science Engineering (CSE) : Enzymes - PowerPointPresentation, Biotechnology, Engineering, Semester Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


CHAPTER 6  
Enzymes 
6.1 An Introduction to Enzymes 
• Catalysts, Proteins, Reaction Types 
6.2 How Enzymes Work 
• Rate Enhancement, Activation energy, Catalytic 
Mechanism 
6.3 Enzyme Kinetics 
• Steady-State, Michaelis-Menten Formalism 
• Inhibition 
6.4 Examples of Enzymatic Reactions 
6.5 Regulatory Enzymes 
Page 2


CHAPTER 6  
Enzymes 
6.1 An Introduction to Enzymes 
• Catalysts, Proteins, Reaction Types 
6.2 How Enzymes Work 
• Rate Enhancement, Activation energy, Catalytic 
Mechanism 
6.3 Enzyme Kinetics 
• Steady-State, Michaelis-Menten Formalism 
• Inhibition 
6.4 Examples of Enzymatic Reactions 
6.5 Regulatory Enzymes 
6.1 What are Enzymes? 
• Enzymes are catalytically active biological 
macromolecules 
• Specific, Efficient, Active in Aqueous Solution 
• Most enzymes are globular proteins,  
however some RNA (ribozymes, and ribosomal RNA) also 
catalyze reactions 
Non-peptide Co-Factors (Metals, Vitamins, Coenzymes) 
• Enzymes can be classified functionally 
Page 3


CHAPTER 6  
Enzymes 
6.1 An Introduction to Enzymes 
• Catalysts, Proteins, Reaction Types 
6.2 How Enzymes Work 
• Rate Enhancement, Activation energy, Catalytic 
Mechanism 
6.3 Enzyme Kinetics 
• Steady-State, Michaelis-Menten Formalism 
• Inhibition 
6.4 Examples of Enzymatic Reactions 
6.5 Regulatory Enzymes 
6.1 What are Enzymes? 
• Enzymes are catalytically active biological 
macromolecules 
• Specific, Efficient, Active in Aqueous Solution 
• Most enzymes are globular proteins,  
however some RNA (ribozymes, and ribosomal RNA) also 
catalyze reactions 
Non-peptide Co-Factors (Metals, Vitamins, Coenzymes) 
• Enzymes can be classified functionally 
Carbonic Anhydrase 
Tissues ? 
?Lungs and Kidney 
 
10
7
 rate enhancement 
Page 4


CHAPTER 6  
Enzymes 
6.1 An Introduction to Enzymes 
• Catalysts, Proteins, Reaction Types 
6.2 How Enzymes Work 
• Rate Enhancement, Activation energy, Catalytic 
Mechanism 
6.3 Enzyme Kinetics 
• Steady-State, Michaelis-Menten Formalism 
• Inhibition 
6.4 Examples of Enzymatic Reactions 
6.5 Regulatory Enzymes 
6.1 What are Enzymes? 
• Enzymes are catalytically active biological 
macromolecules 
• Specific, Efficient, Active in Aqueous Solution 
• Most enzymes are globular proteins,  
however some RNA (ribozymes, and ribosomal RNA) also 
catalyze reactions 
Non-peptide Co-Factors (Metals, Vitamins, Coenzymes) 
• Enzymes can be classified functionally 
Carbonic Anhydrase 
Tissues ? 
?Lungs and Kidney 
 
10
7
 rate enhancement 
Mammalian Carbonic anhydrases- 
15 genes, widely distributed 
• Comparison of mammalian carbonic anhydrases 
• Isoform, Gene MW[6] Location (cell)Location (tissue)[6]  Specific activity 
• CA-I CA1 29 kDa cytosol red blood cell and GI tract 2.0 × 10e5  
• CA-II CA2 29 kDa cytosol almost ubiquitous  1.4 × 10e6 
• CA-III CA3 29 kDa cytosol 8% of soluble protein  muscle 1.3 × 10e4  
• CA-IV CA4 35 kDa extr GPI GI tract, kidney, endothelium 1.1 × 10e6 
• CA-VACA5A 35kDa (pr) mitochondria liver   2.9 × 10e5 
• CA-VBCA5B 36 kDa (pr) mitochondria widely distributed  9.5 × 10e5 
• CA-VI CA6 39-42 kDa secretory saliva and milk  3.4 × 10e5  
• CA-VII, CA7 29 kDa cytosol widely distributed  9.5 × 10e5 
• CA-IX CA9 54, 58 kDa mem-assoc normal GI tract, cancers  1.1 × 10e6  
• CA-XII, CA12 44 kDa extra-(active site), kidney, cancers  4.2 × 10e5 
• CA-XIII , CA13 29 kDa cytosol widely distributed  1.5 × 10e5 
• CA-XIV, CA14 54 kDa eextra-(active site), kidney, heart, muscle, brain 3.1 × 10e5 
• CA-XV , CA15 34-36 kDa GPI-linked kidney, not expressed in human tissues4.7 × 10e5 
Page 5


CHAPTER 6  
Enzymes 
6.1 An Introduction to Enzymes 
• Catalysts, Proteins, Reaction Types 
6.2 How Enzymes Work 
• Rate Enhancement, Activation energy, Catalytic 
Mechanism 
6.3 Enzyme Kinetics 
• Steady-State, Michaelis-Menten Formalism 
• Inhibition 
6.4 Examples of Enzymatic Reactions 
6.5 Regulatory Enzymes 
6.1 What are Enzymes? 
• Enzymes are catalytically active biological 
macromolecules 
• Specific, Efficient, Active in Aqueous Solution 
• Most enzymes are globular proteins,  
however some RNA (ribozymes, and ribosomal RNA) also 
catalyze reactions 
Non-peptide Co-Factors (Metals, Vitamins, Coenzymes) 
• Enzymes can be classified functionally 
Carbonic Anhydrase 
Tissues ? 
?Lungs and Kidney 
 
10
7
 rate enhancement 
Mammalian Carbonic anhydrases- 
15 genes, widely distributed 
• Comparison of mammalian carbonic anhydrases 
• Isoform, Gene MW[6] Location (cell)Location (tissue)[6]  Specific activity 
• CA-I CA1 29 kDa cytosol red blood cell and GI tract 2.0 × 10e5  
• CA-II CA2 29 kDa cytosol almost ubiquitous  1.4 × 10e6 
• CA-III CA3 29 kDa cytosol 8% of soluble protein  muscle 1.3 × 10e4  
• CA-IV CA4 35 kDa extr GPI GI tract, kidney, endothelium 1.1 × 10e6 
• CA-VACA5A 35kDa (pr) mitochondria liver   2.9 × 10e5 
• CA-VBCA5B 36 kDa (pr) mitochondria widely distributed  9.5 × 10e5 
• CA-VI CA6 39-42 kDa secretory saliva and milk  3.4 × 10e5  
• CA-VII, CA7 29 kDa cytosol widely distributed  9.5 × 10e5 
• CA-IX CA9 54, 58 kDa mem-assoc normal GI tract, cancers  1.1 × 10e6  
• CA-XII, CA12 44 kDa extra-(active site), kidney, cancers  4.2 × 10e5 
• CA-XIII , CA13 29 kDa cytosol widely distributed  1.5 × 10e5 
• CA-XIV, CA14 54 kDa eextra-(active site), kidney, heart, muscle, brain 3.1 × 10e5 
• CA-XV , CA15 34-36 kDa GPI-linked kidney, not expressed in human tissues4.7 × 10e5 
Why Biocatalysis? 
• Higher reaction rates 
• Greater reaction specificity 
• Milder reaction conditions 
• Capacity for regulation 
COO
OH
O COO
COO
O COO
NH
2
OOC
COO
O
OH
OH
COO
NH
2
COO
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Chorismate 
      mutase
• Metabolites have 
many potential 
pathways of 
decomposition  
 
• Enzymes make the 
desired one most 
favorable 
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